Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 4843
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2370
Heather L. Paul, Mallory A. Jennings
Designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is of extreme importance as the United States makes plans to return astronauts to the Moon. The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), which will be located within the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) of the Constellation spacesuit element (CSSE), is responsible for removing contaminants that, at increased levels, can be hazardous to crew member health. These contaminants arise from several sources including metabolic production of the crew member (e.g., breathing, sweating, etc.) and offgassing of the spacesuit material layers. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that investigated TCC technologies that were used in NASA space-suits and vehicles, as well as commercial and academic applications, to identify the best technology options for the CSSE PLSS.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2371
Grant C. Bue, Luis A. Trevino, Anthony J. Hanford, Keith Mitchell
The Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is a baseline heat rejection technology that was selected to develop the Constellation Program lunar suit. The Hollow Fiber (HoFi) SWME is being considered for service in the Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem to provide cooling to the thermal loop via water evaporation to the vacuum of space. Previous work [1] described the test methodology and planning that are entailed in comparing the test performance of three commercially available HoFi materials as alternatives to the sheet membrane prototype for SWME: (1) porous hydrophobic polypropylene, (2) porous hydrophobic polysulfone, and (3) ion exchange through nonporous hydrophilic-modified Nafion®.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2368
Ernesto Appella, Emanuele Flesia, Alessandro Quaglia
In a long term vision of space exploration an orbiting station located at Earth Moon Lagrangian Point 1 (EML1), named ECLIPSE should act as a logistic node supporting traffic between Earth, Moon and the future manned and unmanned missions towards Mars. The paper presents the results of the study performed during the SEEDS III Project Work Phase: focusing on the preliminary concepts of the Habitability and the Environmental Control and Life Support System for the ECLIPSE Medical Center (EMC) and ECLIPSE Quarantine Module (EQM), the Cis Lunar Orbiting Shuttle (CLOS) and the Mobile Pressurized Control Module (MPCM).
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2369
Massimiliano Di Capua, Adam Mirvis, Omar Medina, David L. Akin
This paper summarizes the activities of the University of Maryland Space Systems Laboratory in performing a design study for a minimum functionality lunar habitat element for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. By creating and deploying a survey to personnel experienced in Earth analogues, primarily shipboard and Antarctic habitats, a list of critical habitat functions was established, along with their relative importance and their impact on systems design/implementation. Based on a review of relevant past literature and the survey results, four habitat concepts were developed, focused on interior space layout and preliminary systems sizing. Those concepts were then evaluated for habitability through virtual reality (VR) techniques and merged into a single design. Trade studies were conducted on habitat systems, and the final design was synthesized based on all of the results.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2374
S. G. Price, D. Wild, I. Mir Mohammed, A. R. Jorden
MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) is an instrument in the remote sensing suite of the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), part of the Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury. The optics for the MIXS instrument is funded by the European Space Agency. The development of the MIXS instrument is undertaken by an international consortium, led by the University of Leicester, UK. This is funded by the UK's Science & Technology Facilities Council. The instrument is intended to address scientific issues including: the origin of Mercury, the evolution of Mercury, the nature of surface modifications on Mercury (e.g. cratering, volcanism), There are two adjacent X-ray optics, each with different layouts, for the imaging telescope and an adjacent flux-collector (collimator). Accurate thermal and geometrical mathematical models were needed to model the optics, taking into account the extreme thermal environment around Mercury.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2375
Sylvain Vey, Silvio Dolce, Elena Checa, Giovanni Macelloni
In recent years there is growing interest, on the part of the remote sensing community, in using the Antarctic area, for calibrating and validating data of satellite-borne microwave radiometers. With a view to the launching of the ESA's SMOS satellite, which is a satellite designed to observe soil moisture over the Earth landmasses, salinity over the oceans and to provide observations over regions of ice and snow, an experimental activity called DOMEX was started at Dome-C Antarctica. The main scientific objectives of this activity are to provide microwave data for SMOS satellite calibration and in particular: the continuous acquisition of a calibrated time-series of microwave and thermal Infrared (8-14micron) emission over an entire Austral annual cycle, the acquisition of a long time-series of snow measurements and the acquisition of relevant local atmospheric measurements from the local weather station. This paper is focusing on the thermal design, analysis and testing of Domex-2.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2372
D.L. Dietrich, H.L. Paul, B.C. Conger
This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that non-dispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2373
Thomas J. Cognata, Bruce Conger, Heather L. Paul
As the United States makes plans to return astronauts to the moon and eventually send them on to Mars, designing the most effective, efficient, and robust spacesuit life support system that will operate successfully in dusty environments is vital. Some knowledge has been acquired regarding the contaminants and level of infiltration that can be expected from lunar and Mars dust, however, risk mitigation strategies and filtration designs that will prevent contamination within a spacesuit life support system are yet undefined. A trade study was therefore initiated to identify and address these concerns, and to develop new requirements for the Constellation spacesuit element Portable Life Support System. This trade study investigated historical methods of controlling particulate contamination in spacesuits and space vehicles, and evaluated the possibility of using commercial technologies for this application. The trade study also examined potential filtration designs.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2361
Scott B. Jones, Bruce Bugbee, Robert Heinse, Dani Or, Gail E. Bingham
Lunar-and Martian-based plant growth facilities pose novel challenges to design and management of porous medium-based root-zone environments. For example, to achieve similar equilibrium water content distribution using potting soil, a 10 cm tall root zone on earth needs to be 60 cm tall on the moon. We used analytical models to parameterize porous plant growth media for reduced gravity conditions. This approach is straight-forward because the equilibrium capillary potential scales linearly with gravity force. However, the highly non-linear water retention character is tied to particle size through the resulting pore-size distribution. Therefore interpreting the corresponding particle size and generating and evaluating the porous medium hydraulic properties remains a challenge. Soil physical principles can be applied to address the ultimate concern of controlling fluids (O2, H2O) within the plant root-zone in reduced gravity.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2363
Gregory S. Pace, Lance Delzeit, John Fisher
Significant progress has been made at NASA Ames Research Center in the development of a heat melt compaction device called the Plastic Melt Waste Compactor (PMWC). The PMWC was designed to process wet and dry wastes generated on human space exploration missions. The wastes have a plastic content typically greater than twenty percent. The PMWC removes the water from the waste, reduces the volume, and encapsulates it by melting the plastic constituent of the waste. The PMWC is capable of large volume reductions. The final product is compacted waste disk that is easy to manage and requires minimal crew handling. This paper describes the results of tests conducted using the PMWC with a wet and dry waste composite that was representative of the waste types expected to be encountered on long duration human space exploration missions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2359
Jared Leidich, Evan A. Thomas, David M. Klaus
A terrestrial analog device was developed to test the performance of a proposed lunar regolith-based water filtration design. To support this study, the flow behavior of tracer particles passing through a glass bead media filter was evaluated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in simulated microgravity and lunar gravity environments. The flight results were then compared to tests conducted using a novel application of a clinostat tilted ∼10 degrees from horizontal to simulate a lunar gravity vector fraction (1/6 of Earth's gravity, or 0.17g) acting axially on the fluid system. Phase I was designed to examine large particle fluidization and sedimentation characteristics, and showed that with relatively large particles, a sedimentation layer formed in the inclined clinostat similar to the true reduced gravity environment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2360
Robert Heinse, Scott B. Jones, Markus Tuller, Gail E. Bingham, Igor Podolskiy, Dani Or
Management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates relies not only on the relative amounts of fluids but also on their distribution within porous media. Integration of plants in future life support systems for space exploration raises the question of how fluid distributions in porous plant-growth substrates are altered under reduced gravitational conditions. Central to addressing this issue is the behavior of the water retention characteristic (WRC). WRC encapsulates fluid-porous medium interactions and is key for control of water supply to plants. The hysteretic nature of WRC implies non-homogenous water distributions between its primary draining and wetting curves. During dynamic drainage and wetting cycles, considerable water content gradients develop at separations of only a few pore lengths.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2366
Marc M. Cohen
This paper presents an overview of the progression of the contemplated candidate volumes for the Lunar Lander since the beginning of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004. These sets of data encompass the 2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), the 2006 Request for Information on the Constellation Lunar Lander, the 2007 Lander Design Analysis Cycle −1 (LDAC-1) and the 2008 Lunar Lander Development Study (LLDS). This data derives from Northrop Grumman Corporation analyses and design research. A key focus of this investigation is how well the lunar lander supports crew productivity.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2367
James Lee Broyan, Melissa Ann Borrego, Juergen F. Bahr
The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) received the first two permanent ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) on Utility Logistics Flight Two (ULF2) in November 2008. As many as four CQs can be installed in the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crew member size to six. The CQs provide crew members with private space that has enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation-reduction material, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack-sized CQ system has multiple crew member restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crew member to personalize his or her CQ workspace. The deployment and initial operational checkout during integration of the ISS CQ to Node 2 is described in this paper.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2364
N. V. Coppa, K. V. Chandler
Spray drying is a continuous physical separation process where a solution is sprayed into a hot drying medium. The resulting products are dry solute particles and the drying medium bearing the solvent vapor. Using one of several methods the solvent is recovered from the drying medium. The exact nature of the dried solid and recovered solvent depends on the physical and chemical properties of the feed and the design and operation of the dryer. In this paper we discuss progress made on the development of a prototype for advanced life support applications, and provide data on its purification abilities. A system processing 1 kg hr−1 of aqueous brine solution consumes on the order of 1000 W, but this value was strongly tied to other processing parameters such as dryer inlet and exit temperatures and the heating mode. Analysis of recovered water having an initial concentration of 48000 ppm TDS had between 12 and 134 ppm TDS and strongly depended on the processing conditions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2365
James A. Nabity, Erik W. Andersen, Jeffrey R. Engel, David T. Wickham, John W. Fisher
In February 2004 NASA released “The Vision for Space Exploration.” The goals outlined in this document include extending the human presence in the solar system, culminating in the exploration of Mars. A key requirement for this effort is to identify a safe and effective method to process waste. Methods currently under consideration include incineration, microbial oxidation, pyrolysis, drying, and compaction. Although each has advantages, no single method has yet been developed that is safe, recovers valuable resources including oxygen and water, and has low energy and space requirements. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a low temperature oxidation process to convert waste cleanly and rapidly to carbon dioxide and water. TDA and NASA Ames Research Center have developed a pilot scale low temperature ozone oxidation system to convert organic waste to CO2 and H2O.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2384
Michael A. Serio, Marek A. Wójtowicz
Pyrolysis is a very versatile waste processing technology which can be tailored to produce a variety of solid, liquid and/or gaseous products. The pyrolysis processing of pure and mixed solid waste streams has been under investigation for several decades for terrestrial use and a few commercial units have been built for niche applications. The use of pyrolysis as a key step in solid waste processing in space has been under consideration by NASA for several years. A large component of the solid waste is from biomass sources (e.g., paper, food waste, human waste). A methodology has been developed to characterize a large number of biomass materials using a standard pyrolysis experiment in combination with a neural network model in order to classify the data. Such a methodology can be helpful in the design and operation of pyrolysis reactors for spacecraft applications.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2378
Todd H. Treichel, Robert J. Gustafson
Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) utilizes a variety of in-house testing capabilities (vibration, shock, acoustic loads, space vacuum, temperature cycling, humidity, burn-in, etc.) for qualification and screening of flight components. A lunar dust chamber was designed and constructed to include exposure to lunar regolith and dust simulants. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the failure modes of electric fans when exposed to airborne JSC-1AF lunar regolith simulant. This type of testing provides valuable insight into reliability predictions, planned maintenance of a system, and component design improvements to mitigate the effects of lunar dust. Incorporating lunar dust exposure testing at an early stage in the design process will help ensure proper system performance and reliability.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2379
John T. James, Chiu-wing Lam, Chunli Quan, William T. Wallace, Lawrence Taylor
Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was in the lunar module on the moon's surface and especially when micro-gravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes, and in some cases, respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA's current vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust in the habitat need to be assessed. NASA is performing this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests with authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to “calibrate” the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a relatively low toxicity dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intrapharyngeal instillation of the dusts to mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2377
Ryan L. Kobrick, David M. Klaus, Kenneth W. Street
Operational issues encountered by Apollo astronauts relating to lunar dust were catalogued, including material abrasion that resulted in scratches and wear on spacesuit components, ultimately impacting visibility, joint mobility and pressure retention. Standard methods are being developed to measure abrasive wear on candidate construction materials to be used for spacesuits, spacecraft, and robotics. Calibration tests were conducted using a standard diamond stylus scratch tip on the common spacecraft structure aluminum, Al 6061-T6. Custom tips were fabricated from terrestrial counterparts of lunar minerals for scratching Al 6061-T6 and comparing to standard diamond scratches. Considerations are offered for how to apply standards when selecting materials and developing dust mitigation strategies for lunar architecture elements.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2376
Nedim Sozbir, Murat Bulut
The aim of the thermal design of a satellite is to keep all its components within their specified temperature range. The common design approach is to use a combination of MLI blankets, OSR, CCHPs, heaters, surfaces finishes, paints, and thermistors. Turkish satellite thermal control uses the North and South panels to reject the internal heat dissipation and to limit the diurnal variation because of the minimal solar illumination on these faces. The radiative areas are covered with optical solar reflector (OSR). Sizing of the radiative areas is performed taking account the worst conditions that are maximum heat dissipation, maximum solar illumination (solstices), end-of-life thermo-optical properties.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2383
Yonghui Ma, Nick Schmitt, Ross Remiker
Humidity control within confined spaces is of great importance for current NASA environmental control systems and future exploration applications. The engineered multifunction surfaces (MFS) developed by ORBITEC is a technology that produces hydrophilic and antimicrobial surface properties on a variety of substrate materials. These properties combined with capillary geometry create the basis for a passive condensing heat exchanger (CHX) for applications in reduced gravity environments, eliminating the need for mechanical separators and particulate-based coatings. The technology may also be used to produce hydrophilic and biocidal surface properties on a range of materials for a variety of applications where bacteria and biofilms proliferate, and surface wetting is beneficial.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2382
Robert C. Morrow, Ross W. Remiker
The Deployable Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE) was originally developed as a way to produce fresh vegetables on the ISS with minimal resources. We are reassessing this system for use in lunar habitats to produce palatable, nutritious, and safe fresh food, provide a recreational tool, and provide a platform to support biological life support development by allowing in situ study of crop productivity and air and water revitalization. The VEGGIE system consists of plant growth chambers that can be stowed in a volume less than 10% of their deployed volume, while still providing the light output and root zone capabilities necessary to support high plant productivity rates. The system has significantly reduced logistical and operational requirements compared to other plant growth systems, and is of a modular design to allow logistical flexibility in terms of transport options and placement in a habitat structure.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2381
Gary W. Stutte, Oscar Monje, Neil C. Yorio, Sharon L. Edney, Gerard Newsham, Lisa Connole, Raymond M. Wheeler
A long-duration lunar outpost will rely entirely upon imported or preserved foods to sustain the crew during early Lunar missions. Fresh, perishable foods (e.g. salad crops) would be consumed by the crew soon after delivery by the re-supply missions, and can provide a supplement to the diet rich in antioxidants (bioprotectants) that would serve as a countermeasure to radiation exposure. Although controlled environment research has been carried out on the growth of salad crops under a range of environmental conditions, there has been no demonstration of sustainable production in a flight-like system under conditions that might be encountered in space. Several fundamental challenges that must be overcome in order to achieve sustained salad crop production under the power, volume and mass constraints of early Lunar outposts include; growing multiple species, sustaining productivity through multiple plantings, and minimizing time for crew operations.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2380
Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget
The High Efficiency Solid State Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system was developed to independently detect the presence of green plant tissue and to direct light only to those locations. During testing of the HELIAC system, a major factor interfering with effective tissue detection was reflectance of sensed wavebands from the walls and ceiling causing false positives. Since it is desirable to have reflective surfaces to maintain higher light levels with less power, selective reflection systems that absorb some wavebands but reflected others were tested. A test device was fabricated to measure the reflection of red, green, and blue light from a variety of colored mirrors. It was observed that both pink and purple tinted mirrors reduced the reflection of green wavebands more than red and blue wavebands. This effect could also be obtained by using colored films attached to a silvered mirrored surface.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2336
Robert J. Gustafson, Brant C. White
ORBITEC is currently developing simulant materials that mimic many of the unique properties of lunar dust. First, a proprietary process creates simulated agglutinates and glass spherules that contain metallic iron globules (including nanophase Fe0). The processed material is then ground down to create the lunar dust simulant. This paper will discuss the characteristics of lunar dust, provide an overview of the process used to create several prototype lunar dust simulants, and summarize the NASA characterization of the prototype lunar dust simulants.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2335
Rajiv Kohli
Lunar dust consists of particles ranging from sub-micrometer to millimeter-size particles. Characterization of these particles is essential to understanding their interactions and to developing technologies for mitigating the adverse effects of the dust on the performance of systems and hardware for extended duration manned missions on the moon. Many advances and new developments have been made in established characterization techniques for particles in this size range. It is now possible to thoroughly characterize particles from 0.1 nm to 1 mm size. Some of these recent developments in particle characterization techniques are described.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2338
William Atwell, Paul Boeder, Richard Wilkins, Brad Gersey, Kristina Rojdev
Long-term exposure to the space radiation environment poses deleterious effects to both humans and space systems. The major sources of the radiation effects come from high energy galactic cosmic radiation and solar proton events. In this paper we investigate the radiation-mitigation properties of several shielding materials for possible use in spacecraft design, surface habitats, surface rovers, spacesuits, and temporary shelters. A discussion of the space radiation environment is presented in detail. Parametric radiation shielding analyses are presented using the NASA HZETRN 2005 code and are compared with ground-based experimental test results using the Loma Linda University Proton Therapy facility.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2337
James R. Gaier
Activation of the surfaces of lunar regolith particles can occur through interactions with solar electromagnetic radiation, solar and galactic particle radiation and micrometeoroid bombardment. An attempt has been made to quantify the relative importance of each of those effects. The effects of these activated surfaces may be to enhance the adhesion and toxicity of the particles. Also key to the importance of activation is the lifetimes of activated states in various environments which is controlled by their passivation rate as well as their activation rate. Although techniques exist to characterize the extent of activation of particles in biological system, it is important to be able to quantify the activation state on the lunar surface, in ground-test vacuum systems, and in habitat atmospheres as well.
2009-07-12
Journal Article
2009-01-2339
Courtney Matzkind, William A. Seidler, William J. Atkinson
Electrical disturbances caused by charging of cables in spacecraft can impair electrical systems for long periods of time. The charging originates primarily from electrons trapped in the radiation belts of the earth. The model Space Electrons Electromagnetic Effects (SEEE) is applied in computing the transient charge and electric fields in cables on spacecraft at low to middle earth altitudes. The analysis indicated that fields exceeding dielectric breakdown strengths of common dielectric materials are possible in intense magnetic storms for systems with inadequate shielding. SEEE also computes the minimal shielding needed to keep the electric fields below that for dielectric breakdown.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 4843

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: