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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4843
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2343
Ric Alba, J. Fisher, J. Hogan, T. Liggett, R. Devaney, T. Fox, J. Rask, N. Hall, E. Anderson, D. Althausen, U. Hegde, J. Mackey. R. May, Z. Yuan
The Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) is an alternative waste management system designed to address the severe mass restrictions on the Orion vehicle. The concept includes a deployable seat and single use, three layer bags that employ air flow to draw solids away from the body and safely contain them in disposable bags.1 Simulated microgravity testing of the system was performed during two separate parabolic flight campaigns in July and August of 2008. Experimental objectives included verifying the waste fill procedures in reduced gravity, characterizing waste behavior during the filling process, and comparison of the results with model predictions. In addition the operational procedure for bag installation, removal, and sealing were assessed. 2 A difficult operational requirement concerns the delivery of the fecal waste simulant into the upper area of the bag in a manner that faithfully simulates human defecation.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2342
John W. Fisher, John A. Hogan, Lance Delzeit, Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Ric Alba, Gregory Pace, Thomas G Fox
Water is of critical importance to space missions due to crew needs and the cost of supply. To control mission costs, it is essential to recycle water from all available wastes - both solids and liquids. Water recovery from liquid water wastes has already been accomplished on space missions. For instance, a Water Recycling System (WRS) is currently operational on the International Space Station (ISS). It recovers water from urine and humidity condensate and processes it to potable water specifications. However, there is more recoverable water in solid wastes such as uneaten food, wet trash, feces, paper and packaging material, and brine. Previous studies have established the feasibility of obtaining a considerable amount of water and oxygen from these wastes (Pisharody et al, 2002; Fisher et al, 2008; Wignarajah et al, 2008).
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2341
Kanapathipillai Wignarajah, Ric Alba, John W. Fisher, John A. Hogan, Tom Fox
A microwave powered solid waste stabilization and water recovery prototype was delivered to Ames Research Center through an SBIR Phase II contract awarded to Umpqua Research Company. The system uses a container capable of holding 5.7 dm3 volume of waste. The microwave power can be varied to operate either at full power (130 W) or in a variable mode from 0% and 100%. Experiments were conducted with different types of wastes (wet cloth, simulated feces/diarrheal wastes, wet trash and brine) at different levels of moisture content and dried under varying microwave power supply. This paper presents the experimental data. The results provide valuable insight into the different operation modes under which the prototype can be used to recover water from the wastes in a space environment. Further investigations and testing of the prototype are recommended.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2337
James R. Gaier
Activation of the surfaces of lunar regolith particles can occur through interactions with solar electromagnetic radiation, solar and galactic particle radiation and micrometeoroid bombardment. An attempt has been made to quantify the relative importance of each of those effects. The effects of these activated surfaces may be to enhance the adhesion and toxicity of the particles. Also key to the importance of activation is the lifetimes of activated states in various environments which is controlled by their passivation rate as well as their activation rate. Although techniques exist to characterize the extent of activation of particles in biological system, it is important to be able to quantify the activation state on the lunar surface, in ground-test vacuum systems, and in habitat atmospheres as well.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2336
Robert J. Gustafson, Brant C. White
ORBITEC is currently developing simulant materials that mimic many of the unique properties of lunar dust. First, a proprietary process creates simulated agglutinates and glass spherules that contain metallic iron globules (including nanophase Fe0). The processed material is then ground down to create the lunar dust simulant. This paper will discuss the characteristics of lunar dust, provide an overview of the process used to create several prototype lunar dust simulants, and summarize the NASA characterization of the prototype lunar dust simulants.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2335
Rajiv Kohli
Lunar dust consists of particles ranging from sub-micrometer to millimeter-size particles. Characterization of these particles is essential to understanding their interactions and to developing technologies for mitigating the adverse effects of the dust on the performance of systems and hardware for extended duration manned missions on the moon. Many advances and new developments have been made in established characterization techniques for particles in this size range. It is now possible to thoroughly characterize particles from 0.1 nm to 1 mm size. Some of these recent developments in particle characterization techniques are described.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2389
Matthew Garrison, Robert Rashford, Timothy Switzer, David Shaw, Bryant White, Michael Lynch, Frank Huber, Neal Bachtell
The thermal performance of NASA's planned James Webb Space Telescope is highly reliant on a collection of directional baffles that are part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module Electronics Compartment. In order to verify the performance of the baffle concept, two test assemblies were recently fabricated and tested at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The centerpiece of the testing was a fixture that used bolometers to measure the emission field through the baffles while the radiator panels and baffles ran a flight-like temperature. Although not all test goals were able to be met due to facility malfunctions, the test was able to prove the design viability enough to gain approval to begin manufacturing the flight article.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2388
Christine S. Iacomini, Aaron Powers, Heather L. Paul
Metabolic heat regenerated temperature swing adsorption (MTSA) that is incorporated into a Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is being explored as a viable means of removing and rejecting carbon dioxide (CO2) from an astronaut's ventilation loop. Sorbent pellets, which were used in previous work, are inherently difficult to heat and cool quickly. Further, their use in packed beds creates a large, undesirable pressure drop. Work has thus been done to assess the application and performance of aluminum foam that has been washcoated with a layer of sorbent. A to-scale sorbent bed, which is envisioned for use by a Martian PLSS, was designed, built, and tested. Performance of the assembly in regards to CO2 adsorption and pressure drop was assessed, and the results are presented here.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2386
Robert Sompayrac, Bruce Conger, Mateo Chamberlain, Heather L. Paul
As development of the Constellation spacesuit element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges that are associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control; to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream; and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study, and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2387
Sebastian Padilla, Aaron Powers, Tyler Ball, Christine S. Iacomini, Heather L. Paul
Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. CO2 removal and rejection is accomplished by driving a sorbent through a temperature swing starting at below freezing temperatures. The swing is completed by warming the sorbent with a separate condensing ice heat exchanger (CIHX) using metabolic heat from moist ventilation gas. The condensed humidity in the ventilation gas is recycled at the habitat. Designing a heat exchanger to efficiently transfer this energy to the sorbent bed and allow the collection of the water is a challenge since the CIHX will operate in a temperature range from 210 K to 280 K. The ventilation gas moisture will first freeze and then thaw, sometimes existing in three phases simultaneously.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2380
Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget
The High Efficiency Solid State Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system was developed to independently detect the presence of green plant tissue and to direct light only to those locations. During testing of the HELIAC system, a major factor interfering with effective tissue detection was reflectance of sensed wavebands from the walls and ceiling causing false positives. Since it is desirable to have reflective surfaces to maintain higher light levels with less power, selective reflection systems that absorb some wavebands but reflected others were tested. A test device was fabricated to measure the reflection of red, green, and blue light from a variety of colored mirrors. It was observed that both pink and purple tinted mirrors reduced the reflection of green wavebands more than red and blue wavebands. This effect could also be obtained by using colored films attached to a silvered mirrored surface.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2378
Todd H. Treichel, Robert J. Gustafson
Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) utilizes a variety of in-house testing capabilities (vibration, shock, acoustic loads, space vacuum, temperature cycling, humidity, burn-in, etc.) for qualification and screening of flight components. A lunar dust chamber was designed and constructed to include exposure to lunar regolith and dust simulants. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate the failure modes of electric fans when exposed to airborne JSC-1AF lunar regolith simulant. This type of testing provides valuable insight into reliability predictions, planned maintenance of a system, and component design improvements to mitigate the effects of lunar dust. Incorporating lunar dust exposure testing at an early stage in the design process will help ensure proper system performance and reliability.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2379
John T. James, Chiu-wing Lam, Chunli Quan, William T. Wallace, Lawrence Taylor
Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was in the lunar module on the moon's surface and especially when micro-gravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes, and in some cases, respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA's current vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust in the habitat need to be assessed. NASA is performing this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests with authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to “calibrate” the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a relatively low toxicity dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intrapharyngeal instillation of the dusts to mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2384
Michael A. Serio, Marek A. Wójtowicz
Pyrolysis is a very versatile waste processing technology which can be tailored to produce a variety of solid, liquid and/or gaseous products. The pyrolysis processing of pure and mixed solid waste streams has been under investigation for several decades for terrestrial use and a few commercial units have been built for niche applications. The use of pyrolysis as a key step in solid waste processing in space has been under consideration by NASA for several years. A large component of the solid waste is from biomass sources (e.g., paper, food waste, human waste). A methodology has been developed to characterize a large number of biomass materials using a standard pyrolysis experiment in combination with a neural network model in order to classify the data. Such a methodology can be helpful in the design and operation of pyrolysis reactors for spacecraft applications.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2385
Ondřej Doule
Mars Base 10 was developed at the International Space University during an internship at NASA Ames Research Center. The underlying proposal was to develop innovative concepts for deployable and inflatable structures enabling permanent habitation on Mars for ten astronauts. The project was primarily conducted as an investigation for an analogue Mars base test bed for the Atacama Desert in Chile and for online virtual environment experiments (Spaceward Bound 2.0). The design presented in this paper takes into account all components of a mission to Mars with a focus on the surface habitat architecture.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2382
Robert C. Morrow, Ross W. Remiker
The Deployable Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE) was originally developed as a way to produce fresh vegetables on the ISS with minimal resources. We are reassessing this system for use in lunar habitats to produce palatable, nutritious, and safe fresh food, provide a recreational tool, and provide a platform to support biological life support development by allowing in situ study of crop productivity and air and water revitalization. The VEGGIE system consists of plant growth chambers that can be stowed in a volume less than 10% of their deployed volume, while still providing the light output and root zone capabilities necessary to support high plant productivity rates. The system has significantly reduced logistical and operational requirements compared to other plant growth systems, and is of a modular design to allow logistical flexibility in terms of transport options and placement in a habitat structure.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2403
Marinella Ferrino, Enrico Villata, Valter Basso, Mario Cardano
It is widely recognized that Virtual Reality (VR) environment fosters team performance and design quality in addition to provide time and cost savings in the frame of verification processes. The selected case studies described in this paper are based on the experience matured in the frame of the interaction between TAS-I HFE and other expert groups for MSP/PEI stage analysis performance in support of the COLUMBUS internal and external payloads overall operability. The selected case studies will be used for demonstrating and evaluating results, guiding the new emerging engineering system architecture, by integrating tools, methods and processes in the frame of the TAS-I Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) implementation for Aerospace applications.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2397
M. Saccoccio, A. Gaboriaud, R. Pérez, B. Faure, K. Gasc, Y. Michel, F. Marlats, E. Courau, S. Mary, V. Cipolla, L. Picot, D. Faye, J.M. Desmarres, F. Bourcier, G. Pérez, D. Buso, O. Gilard, G. Quadri, H. Combes, V. Costes, T. Jamin, T. Battault, JL. Lortal, D. Gervaud, S. Maurice, A. Cros, J. Thocaven, H. Seran, Y. Parot, G. Orttner, L. Parés, H. Valentin, P. Couderc, J. Platzer, M. Dupieux, T. Gharsa, D. Kouach, B. Dubois, N. Striebig, M. Bouyé, P. Ca ïs, B. Quertier, M. Berthé, R. Wiens, B. Barraclough, J. Bernardin, S. Bender, S. Clegg, R. Stiglich, D. Landis, T. Hale, D. Blaney, C. Hayes, C. Lindensmith, T. Elliott, E. Millar, E. Kan, E. Morse
ChemCam is one of the 10 instrument suites on the Mars Science Laboratory, a martian rover being built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for the next NASA mission to Mars (MSL 2009). ChemCam is an instrument package consisting of two remote sensing instruments: a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) and a Remote Micro-Imager (RMI). LIBS provides elemental compositions of rocks and soils, while the RMI places the LIBS analyses in their geomorphologic context. Both instruments rely on an autofocus capability to precisely focus on the chosen target, located at distances from the rover comprised between 1 and 9 m for LIBS, and 2 m and infinity for RMI. ChemCam will help determine which samples, within the vicinity of the MSL rover, are of sufficient interest to use the contact and in-situ instruments for further characterization.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2395
E. Millour, F. Forget, F. González-Galindo, A. Spiga, S. Lebonnois, S. R. Lewis, L. Montabone, P. L. Read, M. A. López-Valverde, G. Gilli, F. Lefèvre, F. Montmessin, M.-C. Desjean, J.-P. Huot
The Mars Climate Database (MCD) is a database of meteorological fields derived from General Circulation Model (GCM) numerical simulations of the Martian atmosphere and validated using available observational data. The MCD is freely distributed and intended to be useful and used in the framework of engineering applications as well as in the context of scientific studies which require accurate knowledge of the state of the Martian atmosphere. Current applications include entry descent and landing (EDL) studies for future missions (ExoMars, MSL), investigations of some specific Martian issues (via coupling of the MCD with homemade codes), analysis of observations (Earth-based as well as with various instruments onboard Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), …
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2394
V. Guarnieri, C. Lobascio, A. Saverino, M. Giuliani, E. Amerio
ExoMars is the first mission in ESA's Aurora Exploration Programme. ExoMars will pursue important science and technology objectives aimed at extending Europe's capabilities in planetary exploration. ExoMars will deploy a Rover carrying a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geology research. The Rover will travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life, collecting and analysing samples from within surface rocks and from the subsurface, down to a depth of 2 metres. The planetary protection policy of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the particular sensitivity of the life detection investigations establish stringent contamination control constraints for the ExoMars mission. Particulate, molecular and bioburden contamination control beyond the level of standard spacecraft is required for the flight system as well as for the assembly, test, and launch environment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2401
M. R. Callahan, A. Lubman, K. D. Pickering
Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential to the success of long-duration human missions to the moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, which is referred to as the cascade distillation subsystem (CDS), uses an efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. A CDS unit employing a five-stage distiller engine was designed, built, and delivered to the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing; an initial round of testing was completed in fiscal year 2008 (FY08). Based, in part, on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support Project distillation comparison test that is expected to begin in 2009.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2398
JMR Apollo Arquiza, Jean B. Hunter
Brine dewatering by evaporation on porous media, and collection of wastewater evaporation condensates rich in organic carbon, both provide favorable environments for microbial growth, such as mold overgrowth of rayon wicks in the AES brine evaporation system, and bacterial biofilms on condensate-wetted surfaces. The mold growth reported on AES wicks by Campbell et al. (2003) has been identified by microscopic and molecular techniques as chiefly Chaetomium spp, most likely C. globosum, with minor occurrence of Penicillium, and other fungal species. Bacteria from the genus Bacillus was also isolated. A stable bacterial consortium dominated by three species was recovered from initially-sterile glass surfaces wetted with sterile Biological Water Processor Effluent Ersatz (Verostko et al., 2004) and exposed to humidified air over a period of one week. The species were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium foliorum and Pseudomonas putida by 16S rDNA sequencing.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2354
David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 ECLS ACS subsystem design and a detailed discussion of the ISS ECLS Acceptance Testing methodology utilized for that subsystem.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2355
Greg Diderich, Chris Matty
During International Space Station (ISS) campout protocol extravehicular activity preparations, the crew is isolated overnight in a small airlock volume in a reduced-pressure, oxygen-enriched atmosphere. Special software considerations must therefore be taken into account in terms of air composition, pressure control, and emergency responses. First, the ISS software must monitor and manage two distinct atmospheres. The small airlock volume is also especially sensitive to small environmental changes, so what would be a minor emergency in the larger vehicle volume can have catastrophic results in the isolated airlock. Finally, in cases of emergency, the crew would need to rapidly egress the airlock, which would require an aggressive automatic repressurization to equalize pressure on the hatch. This paper describes the software that is modified for the airlock campout protocol.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2356
Tatiana Aguilera, Jay L. Perry
Numerous technical challenges exist to successfully extend lunar surface exploration beyond the tantalizing first steps of Apollo. Among these is the challenge of lunar dust intrusion into the cabin environment. Addressing this challenge includes the design of barriers to intrusion as well as techniques for removing the dust from the cabin atmosphere. Opportunities exist for adapting approaches employed in dusty industrial operations and pristine manufacturing environments to cabin environmental quality maintenance applications. A survey of process technologies employed by the semiconductor, pharmaceutical, food processing, and mining industries offers insight into basic approaches that may be suitable for adaptation to lunar surface exploration applications.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2357
Jeffrey R. Mackey, Juan H. Agui
In order to study dust propagation and mitigation techniques, an inertial separation and gravitational settling experiment rig was constructed and used for experimental work in reduced gravity aircraft flights. The first experimental objective was to test dust filtration by a cyclone separator in lunar gravity. The second objective was to characterize dust flow and settling in lunar gravity in order to devise more comprehensive dust mitigation strategies. A settling channel provided a flow length over which particles settled out of the air flow stream. The experimental data provides particle quantity and size distribution, and a means of verifying numerical predictions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2358
Juan H. Agui, Jeffrey R. Mackey
A new Lunar Dust Filtration Testing Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center will be used to assess the performance of filter media and filter technologies to support future manned lunar surface missions. The facility will serve as an evaluation tool in developing these next generation space particulate matter filters. One of the major aims is to determine the feasibility and efficiency of filtering lunar dust under the constraints of exploration vehicle and habitat cabin design. The facility employs a closed-loop design which facilities a reduced pressure operation, and features several supporting adaptations for working under this environment. The results of initial functional testing, and the challenges of the reduced pressure operation and practicality of using lunar simulant dust will be addressed.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2359
Jared Leidich, Evan A. Thomas, David M. Klaus
A terrestrial analog device was developed to test the performance of a proposed lunar regolith-based water filtration design. To support this study, the flow behavior of tracer particles passing through a glass bead media filter was evaluated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in simulated microgravity and lunar gravity environments. The flight results were then compared to tests conducted using a novel application of a clinostat tilted ∼10 degrees from horizontal to simulate a lunar gravity vector fraction (1/6 of Earth's gravity, or 0.17g) acting axially on the fluid system. Phase I was designed to examine large particle fluidization and sedimentation characteristics, and showed that with relatively large particles, a sedimentation layer formed in the inclined clinostat similar to the true reduced gravity environment.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2360
Robert Heinse, Scott B. Jones, Markus Tuller, Gail E. Bingham, Igor Podolskiy, Dani Or
Management of water, air and nutrients in coarse-textured porous plant-growth substrates relies not only on the relative amounts of fluids but also on their distribution within porous media. Integration of plants in future life support systems for space exploration raises the question of how fluid distributions in porous plant-growth substrates are altered under reduced gravitational conditions. Central to addressing this issue is the behavior of the water retention characteristic (WRC). WRC encapsulates fluid-porous medium interactions and is key for control of water supply to plants. The hysteretic nature of WRC implies non-homogenous water distributions between its primary draining and wetting curves. During dynamic drainage and wetting cycles, considerable water content gradients develop at separations of only a few pore lengths.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2344
Z.-G. Yuan, U. Hegde, D. Althausen, J. Mackey, N. Hall, W. Duval, R. Alba, E. Litwiller, J. Hogan, T. Liggett, R. Devaney, T. Fox, J. Rask, K. Wignarajah, J. Fisher
Two separate experimental rigs used in tests on NASA and Zero-G Corporation aircrafts flying low-gravity trajectories, and in the NASA 2.2 Second Drop Tower have been developed to test the functioning of the Flexible Membrane Commode (FMC) concept under reduced gravity conditions. The first rig incorporates the flexible, optically opaque membrane bag and the second rig incorporates a transparent chamber with a funnel assembly for evacuation that approximates the size of the membrane bag. Different waste dispensers have been used including a caulking gun and flexible hose assembly, and an injection syringe. Waste separation mechanisms include a pair of wire cutters, an iris mechanism, as well as discrete slug injection. The experimental work is described in a companion paper. This paper focuses on the obtained results and analysis of the data.
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