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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1708
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2897
Bae-Hyeock Chun, Hyeong-Sang Lee, Chang-Soo Nam, Kwang Min Chun, Jae Hong Ryu, Kwan-Young Lee
NOx reduction by a plasma/catalyst system was tested with modeled gas and real exhaust gas. Ag/Al2O3 was used as the catalyst. The oxidation of NO to NO2 by the plasma was increased as HC concentration and input energy density increase. The presence of H2O in the reactant gas led to the production of acid by plasma. The catalytic activity for NOx reduction was enhanced by the assistance of plasma especially in the lower temperature region. This activity was a little suppressed in the presence of H2O, but the acid was not detected in the effluent gas treated by the plasma/catalyst system. The NOx conversion to N2 was evaluated by a gas chromatography in the model gas with helium as the balance gas. The result in helium balance gas showed the selectivity to N2 depended on the catalyst temperature and was also enhanced by the assistance of plasma. The 50% of NOx removal from the diesel exhaust gas was achieved by the plasma /catalyst system.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2899
Darrell Herling, Monty Smith, Mark Hemingway, David Goulette, Tom Silvis
Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2900
Richard R. Steeper, Eric J. Stevens
A transparent direct-injection spark-ignition engine incorporating a rapid-acting, drop-down cylinder has been built. The design enables access in less than a minute for cleaning windows. Combustion performance of the optical engine is characterized in terms of indicated pressure and coefficient of variation of indicated pressure as a function of injection timing. Piston temperatures are measured and a skip-fire routine is developed so that quartz piston top temperatures agree with a matching non-optical engine. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of in-cylinder fuel injections highlights the effects of ambient pressure and fuel temperature on spray morphology. Measurements of gasoline vapor distribution provide statistics on heterogeneity of fuel distribution as a function of injection timing. Flame imaging records details of flame development which depend on the degree of fuel mixing.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2861
Stefano di Stasio, Gerardo Valentino, Felice E. Corcione, Ferdinando L. Bertoni
Non evaporating diesel sprays from an Electronic Common Rail system are investigated by two different laser light techniques at room temperature within vessels at both ambient and high pressures. Injection is performed by using single-hole injectors of mini-sac type with nozzle orifices 0.18 and 0.22 mm, which operate at injection pressures in the range 40 to 120 MPa. The fuel used is the standard ISO 4113. The densities of ambient gas (nitrogen) are varied in the constant volume vessel within the range 1.2 ÷ 58.4 kg/m3. Two different laser diagnostics are used to infer quantitative information on jet properties. The first is the light Extinction Ratio (ER) method, which is applied at wavelengths 632.8 nm and 832 nm in correspondence of the early instants (∼200÷800 μs) after the end of the liquid injection to infer the average droplet diameter and the number concentration along the line-of-sight. The second experimental technique is the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA).
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2860
C. Fettes, S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, A. Leipertz
Improved understanding of the active combustion chain “injection - vaporisation - mixture formation - ignition - combustion - exhaust gas emissions” is important for the further development of IC engines with respect to fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. By means of multidimensional optical, mostly laser-based measurement techniques, a modern passenger car common rail system, applied to an optically accessible engine, was investigated. The utilisation of a new optical detection system allowed a simultaneous detection of the liquid phase by Mie scattering, the flame propagation from flame luminosity and the soot formation by laser-induced incandescence inside the combustion bowl of the engine. By such simultaneous measurements, direct dependencies of single combustion phenomena on fuel injection parameters can be resolved, and in particular soot formation and oxidation can be correlated to the actual combustion situation.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2863
J. Egermann, A. Leipertz
The linear Raman scattering has been applied for the investigation of the influence of fuel properties on the mixture formation of high pressure swirl injectors. The measurements have been performed in an optically accessible high pressure high temperature chamber with a multi-component fuel consisting of benzene and n-decane. The local air/fuel-ratio and the composition of the fuel vapor phase were detected simultaneously with high spatial and local resolution along a line inside the spray region of the injector. In addition to the measurements performed with this two-component fuel mixture formation of the injector has also been studied by the separate use of the fuel components alone. Furthermore the influence of injector cooling on mixture formation has been investigated.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2862
Magnus Sjöberg
A diesel fuel injector has been modified to allow rotation around its axis, driven by an electric motor. The injector was operated up to 6,000 rpm in the current study with a naturally aspirated, optically accessible AVL research engine. The effects of injector rotation on the liquid penetration and dispersion of the spray have been investigated by imaging of Mie-scattered light and flame luminosity. Ambient gas conditions are indirectly controlled by choosing start of injection. Injection timing was set to -45° (premixed-mode), -13° and 4° ATDC. The images show that the spray development is profoundly affected when going from a normal static position of the injector to a rotating movement. Unique liquid cascading phenomena were observed. Injection during the compression stroke into air of low temperature and density shows that the liquid spray tip penetration is unaffected within the field of view (35 mm radius). Enhanced dispersion is obtained however.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2865
Matthew J. Hall, Patrick Zuzek
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor has been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of exhaust gas recirculated (EGR) into the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. The sensor detects the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The EGR mass fraction in the intake manifold is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located 10 cm upstream of the intake valve. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 700 μs (equivalent to 2.5 crank angle degrees) allowing the local EGR concentration throughout the cycle to be measured. Measurements were made with both real and simulated EGR. The EGR flows were introduced at various locations upstream of the probe.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2864
S. Schraml, C. Heimgärtner, S. Will, A. Leipertz, A. Hemm
The development of new generations of internal combustion engines requires appropriate measurement techniques for all relevant limited exhaust gas species and particulates. However, because of stricter future emission limits, there is a severe lack especially with respect to soot particles. Conventional methods, like gravimetric sampling, have substantial deficiencies in sensitivity and temporal resolution, which is strongly required for transient tests. Furthermore, artifacts arise from other exhaust components, like sulfuric acid, water vapor and volatile hydrocarbons. In contrast to the state-of-the-art techniques, laser induced incandescence (LII) has been proved to be a favorable technique, which overcomes these deficiencies and offers additional information, which allows new insight into combustion phenomena. Besides soot mass concentration, also the soot primary particle size is accessible by this technique.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2867
Jan-Ola Olsson, Olof Erlandsson, Bengt Johansson
A 6-cylinder truck engine was modified to run in HCCI-mode. The aim was to show whether or not it is possible having HCCI run a multi-cylinder engine, to provide brake values of emissions and efficiency and to verify models for engine system simulation. The work proved that it is feasible to use HCCI in multi-cylinder engines with high brake efficiency. Emissions' strong dependence on inlet temperature and octane number was demonstrated. The numerical models simulated the mean effective pressure with high precision, while inlet and exhaust pressures were less accurate, mainly due to the limitations of the turbo maps used.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2866
Robert M. Green
In this work, we describe an optical diagnostic based on infrared-absorption spectroscopy that can be applied to production-like engines to evaluate the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution. We have applied this diagnostic to a small-bore Diesel engine and performed measurements under both steady-state and transient conditions. The IR absorption diagnostic is shown to have a very low detection limit along with high precision, and produces highly credible results. Both crankangle-and cycle-resolved data were acquired in order to demonstrate the temporal measurement of the EGR concentration during the intake stroke, and during a sequence of cycles that define an engine transient. The results confirm the capabilities of the diagnostic, and in addition, illustrate interesting insight regarding the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR distribution.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2869
Joel Martinez-Frias, Salvador M. Aceves, Daniel Flowers, J. Ray Smith, Robert Dibble
This work investigates a control system for HCCI engines, where thermal energy from exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and compression work in the supercharger are either recycled or rejected as needed. HCCI engine operation is analyzed with a detailed chemical kinetics code, HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport), that has been extensively modified for application to engines. HCT is linked to an optimizer that determines the operating conditions that result in maximum brake thermal efficiency, while meeting the restrictions of low NOx and peak cylinder pressure. The results show the values of the operating conditions that yield optimum efficiency as a function of torque and RPM. For zero torque (idle), the optimizer determines operating conditions that result in minimum fuel consumption. The optimizer is also used for determining the maximum torque that can be obtained within the operating restrictions of NOx and peak cylinder pressure.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2868
M. RICHTER, J. ENGSTRÖM, A. FRANKE, M. ALDÉN, A. HULTQVIST, B. JOHANSSON
In-cylinder crank-angle resolved imaging of fuel and OH was obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Investigations were carried out to ascertain the extent to which the combustion process in an HCCI engine is affected by the charge homogeneity. In the experiments, the heterogeneity of the charge was varied and the effect on the combustion process was monitored. The result shows a heterogeneous combustion with large spatial and temporal variations, even with a homogeneously premixed charge. It is therefore concluded that the charge inhomogeneity has a modest effect on the combustion process.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2876
K. Froelund
Real-time engine oil consumption has been measured at 21 steady-state conditions for a fully broken-in 2-valve Ford 4.6L SI-engine. The sampling location was at the engine stack and the measurement technique was the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed SO2-analyzer for real-time oil consumption measurement, referred to as SwRI RTOC-II. PCV contribution to oil consumption was determined by measuring the oil consumption with and without the inclusion of positive crank case ventilation (PCV) flow, which is a differental approach. This method has not been correlated to real world vehicle usage but is valuable for making A-to-B comparisons. The paper is important since it presents novel data for real-time steady-state PCV-contribution to oil consumption.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2870
George Kontarakis, Nick Collings, Tom Ma
A standard port fuel injected, unthrottled single cylinder four-stroke SI engine, with a compression ratio of 10.3:1, and using standard gasoline fuel, has been adapted to operate in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode, by modifying the valve timing. It has been found that over a speed range of between 1300 and 2000 rpm, and lambda values of between 0.95 and 1.1, stable operation is achieved without spark ignition. The internal EGR rate was estimated to be about 60%, and emissions of NOX were typically 0.25 g/kWh. Practical implementation of this HCCI concept will require variable valve timing, which will also enable reversion to standard SI operation for maximum power.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2878
Mauro K. Tagomori, Sivanandi Rajadurai
A stochastic simulation based on the Monte-Carlo method was developed to study the effect of substrate, mounting mat and converter shell dimensional tolerances on the converter manufacturing process. Results for a stuffed converter with nominal gap bulk density (GBD) 1.00 g/cm3 show an asymmetric probability density function ranging from 0.90 to 1.13 g/cm3. Destructive and non-destructive GBD measurements on oval and round production converters show close correlation with the Monte-Carlo model. Several manufacturing options offering tighter GBD control based on component sorting and matching are described. Improvements ranging from 28% and 64% in GBD control are possible.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2877
Masatoshi Basaki, Kimitaka Saito, Tatsushi Nakashima, Takao Suzuki
In internal combustion engine, it is well-known that oil infiltrates the combustion chamber through the clearance between the piston ring and the cylinder bore with vertical reciprocating motion of the piston, leading to an increase in oil consumption. The deformation of the cylinder bore is inevitable to some extent in the actual engine because of the tightening of cylinder head bolt and heat load._As to the function of the piston ring, it is desirable that it conforms to such bore deformation. The author et al. made a glass cylinder engine in which closed piston ring gap could be visualized, based on the idea that piston ring conformability to the sliding surface of bore could be evaluated from minute changes of the piston ring gap. This newly-devised visualized engine was an in-line 4-cylinder engine, capable of running up to 6,000 rpm, in which the closed gap of piston ring could be observed minutely during engine operation.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2882
Tadao Ogawa, Masae Inoue, Keiko Fukumoto, Yoshio Fujimoto, Masanori Okada
Precise analytical methods for characterizing diesel fuel yielding the lowest particulate emissions were developed. The methods consist of preparative-scale high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS), analytical-scale HPLC, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (13C-NMR). A diesel fuel was first separated into an aliphatic fraction and an aromatic fraction by semipreparative-scale HPLC. Then, the aliphatic fraction was analyzed by FIMS and the spectrum was compared with that of the whole fuel. The aromatic fraction was analyzed by analytical-scale HPLC to obtain the chromatogram of the aromatic hydrocarbons with a high S/N. In addition to these analyses, the fuel was analyzed by 13C-NMR to obtain the concentration of the carbon atoms of the straight chain, branched chain and aromatic-ring in hydrocarbons.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2881
Charles W. Kirby, Douglas Ball, Glenn Tripp, Russell P. Richmond, Burton Williamson
FTP emissions from a 2.2L four cylinder vehicle are measured from six different converters. These converters have been designed to have both similar flow restriction and to have similar platinum group metals. The durability of these six converters is evaluated after dynamometer aging of both 125 and 250 hours of RATsm aging. These catalytic converters use various combinations of 400/3.5 (400 cells/in2/3.5mil wall), 400/4.5, 400/6.5, 600/3.5, 600/4.5, and 900/2.5 ceramic substrates in order to meet a restriction target and to maximize converter geometric surface area. Total catalyst volume of the converters varies from 1.9 to 0.82 liters. Catalyst frontal area varies from 68 cm2 to 88 cm2. Five of the six converters use two catalyst bricks. The front catalyst brick uses either a three-way Pd washcoat technology containing ceria or a non-ceria Pd washcoat technology. To minimize dependence on palladium the rear brick uses a Pt/Rh washcoat at a loading of 0.06 Toz and a ratio of 5/0/1.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2929
Sam Tauster, Harold Rabinowitz, Ron Heck
As the automobiles move closer to the ULEV, ULEV-2 and SULEV requirements, OBD (on board diagnostic) will become a design challenge. The present OBD II designs involve the use of dual oxygen sensors to monitor the hydrocarbon performance of the catalytic converter. The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the interaction of fuel sulfur and ceria in the catalyst formulation on the performance of a Pd/Rh TWC (three-way catalyst) to elucidate the sulfur and ceria interaction on the ability of the Pd/Rh catalyst to monitor the state of the catalyst relative to hydrocarbon activity and therefore it's utility in the OBD system. Catalyst samples were aged on a spark ignited engine using a “fuel cut” engine aging cycle operated for 50 hours. Maximum catalyst temperatures during this aging cycle were 850-870°C. The effect of sulfur was determined by measuring aged catalyst performance using both indolene (∼100 ppm sulfur) and premium unleaded gasoline (∼350 ppm sulfur).
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2930
Toshio Inoue, Masaki Kusada, Hiroshi Kanai, Seiji Hino, Yoshihiko Hyodo
A new hybrid system has been developed which features a highly efficient, clean gasoline engine, and a high performance exhaust catalyst system. The new system meets the strictest low emission standards in the world, while realizing a major reduction in CO2 emissions. The Toyota Hybrid System (THS) has improved engine performance, transaxle transmission efficiency, and various vehicle improvements for improving fuel consumption. It also employs a high performance catalyst, a rapid catalyst warm-up strategy, Toyota HC Adsorber and Catalyst System (Toyota-HCAC-System) and a Vapor Reducing Fuel Tank System. These combined technologies allow for the achievement of U.S. California SULEV, European Step 4 and Japanese J-ULEV emission requirements. It has also lowered the CO2 level to less than 120g/km in EC European mode.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2928
Bengt Andersson, Neil Cruise, Martin Lunden, Maria Hansson
Methane and nitric oxide conversion was studied over a Pd-based catalyst at steady state conditions. The gas mixture contained methane (0.125 %), Nitric oxide (0.125 %), carbon monoxide (0.7 %), oxygen and argon as carrier gas. The experiments were performed in a well-stirred reactor (Berty reactor) which provided constant gas composition over the catalyst. Lambda scans from λ=1.01 to 0.99 and back performed by varying the oxygen content, revealed a hysteresis in both the methane conversion and the nitric oxide conversion. The temperature and presence of nitric oxide affected the hysteresis. Complementary experiments in a synthetic exhaust gas rig revealed a more pronounced hysteresis in the presence of carbon dioxide and water. An attempt to model the hysteresis effect as a function of the palladium and palladium-oxide transformations was made.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2933
Christian Barba, Christine Burkhardt, Konstantinos Boulouchos, Michael Bargende
This paper presents a phenomenological single-zone combustion model which meets the particular requirements of high speed DI diesel engines with common rail injection. Therefore the model takes into account the freely selectable pilot and main injection and is strongly focusing on result parameters like combustion noise or NO-emission which are affected by this split injection. The premixed combustion, the mixing-controlled combustion and the ignition delay are key parts of the model. The model was developed and tested on more than 200 samples from three different engine types of DaimlerChrysler passenger car engines equipped with common rail injection. A user-friendly parameterization and a short computing time was achieved thanks to the simple structure of the model.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2934
C. Hasse, G. Bikas, N. Peters
Abstract Combustion and pollutant formation in a DI-Diesel engine are numerically investigated using the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model (EPFM). A baseline case for part load operating conditions is considered as well as an EGR variation. The surrogate fuel consisting of n-decane (70% liquid volume fraction) and α-methylnaphthalene (30% liquid volume fraction) is used in the simulation. Results are compared to experimental data that has been obtained using real diesel fuel. The effect of multiple flamelets on the simulation of the auto-ignition process and the pollutant formation is discussed and a converging behavior of the model with respect to the number of flamelets is found. The effect of homogenization of the three-dimensional mixture field is investigated and it has been included in the formulation of the scalar dissipation rate.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2931
Feng Tao, Valeri I. Golovitchev, Jerzy Chomiak
This paper reports the numerical studies of self-ignition and early combustion process of n-heptane sprays under various diluted air conditions. The numerical simulations employ a detailed chemistry approach, coupled directly with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A “subgrid” Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model has been developed to account for the turbulence-chemistry-interaction. This model has been implemented into the KIVA3V CFD code. A detailed chemical mechanism of reduced size (65 species and 273 elementary reactions) for the n-heptane fuel has been derived and applied to the simulations of spray combustion. The studies focus on sprays injected into a high-pressure constant-volume chamber. Firstly, the validation of the current numerical model has been carried out for the case in which the injection and initial conditions are similar to those used in the “classical” Aachen experiments (50bar and 800K).
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2932
R. Marcer, P. Le Cottier, H. Chaves, B. Argueyrolles, C. Habchi, B. Barbeau
Progress in Diesel spray modelling highly depends on a better knowledge of the instantaneous injection velocity and of the hydraulic section at the exit of each injection hole. Additionally a better identification of the mechanisms which cause fragmentation is needed. This necessitates to begin with a precise computation of the two-phase flow which arises due to the presence of cavitation within the injectors. For that aim, a VOF type interface tracking method has been developed and improved (Segment Lagrangian VOF method) which allows to describe numerically the onset and development of cavitation within Diesel injectors. Furthermore, experiments have been performed for validation purpose, on transparent one-hole injectors for high pressure injection conditions. Two different entrance geometries (straight and rounded) and various upstream and downstream pressure levels have been considered.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2808
Ronny Lindgren, Ingemar Denbratt
A literature survey was carried out to examine the advances in knowledge regarding spray impingement on surfaces over the last five years. Published experiments indicate that spray impingement is controlled by various spray parameters, surface conditions, and liquid properties. One disadvantage of the published results is that the experiments have mainly been conducted with water droplets or diesel fuel, often at atmospheric conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed for one common impingement model. The purpose was to investigate how the model described different phenomena when different parameters were changed, including wall temperature, wall roughness and injection velocity of the spray. The model tested showed sensitivity to surface roughness, whereas changes in wall temperature only resulted in increased evaporation from the surface. The increase of injection velocity resulted in a decrease of fuel on the wall by 70%.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2807
C. Hasse, N. Peters
Abstract Quenching of premixed flames at cold walls is investigated to study the importance of the model fuel choice for combustion modeling. Detailed chemical mechanisms for two different fuels, namely the low-molecular-weight fuel methane, and the more complex fuel iso-octane are employed. For both fuels the response of the flame to the very rapid heat loss at the cold wall is studied. The most important and significant difference between methane and iso-octane for this problem is the postquench oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons. Methane shows fast oxidation of unburned fuel and intermediate hydrocarbons whereas postquench oxidation for iso-octane is slow especially for the intermediate hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the Soret effect which is usually considered to be of minor importance appears to be important in modeling the rate limiting diffusion process. This is caused by different directions of the thermal diffusive transport for certain species.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2806
Yoshishige Ohyama
The combination of physical models of an advanced engine control system was proposed to obtain sophisticated combustion control in ultra-lean combustion engines, including homogeneous compression-ignition and activated radical combustion. Physical models of intake, combustion (including engine thermodynamics), and inertia were incorporated, in which the effects of residual gas from prior cycles on intake air mass and combustion were taken into consideration. Control of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio, exhaust temperature and engine speed during start and post-start phases was investigated using simulations.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2805
Gisoo Hyun, Daeyup Lee, Shinichi Goto
This is a preliminary work for the development of a stratified combustion engine using liquefied petroleum gas(LPG) as an alternative fuel. The main objective of this research is to find out the optimizing engine parameters from the viewpoint of mixture formation with the aid of simulation, where the KIVA_ code was used. The combustion characteristics of LPG and gasoline are different because of their different physical properties. Therefore, the numerical simulation was performed for optimizing engine parameters by changing the piston and cylinder geometry, as well as injection conditions. Result showed that geometry of combustion chamber has a great influence on mixture stratification. Also, weaker swirl seems to be better for mixture formation in the vicinity of the spark plug.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1708

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