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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1165
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1243
Takaomi Nakayama, Hiroyuki Satoh, Eisaku Okada
The zinc phosphating process has played an important role in improving the corrosion resistance of auto bodies. However, the zinc phosphating bath contains heavy metals ions and it can not avoid the sludge generation. As a result of our extensive research into conversion coatings we have succeeded in developing a completely new conversion coating system. The new conversion coating system uses completely different components to zinc phosphating and by comparison to zinc phosphating, the concentration of heavy metal ions is 70% lower and furthermore, no sludge is generated. The new conversion coating film is highly resistant to acids and alkalis. As a result the new conversion coating system achieves a very high corrosion resistance. In the near future, the new conversion coating system will replace zinc phosphating.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1242
Tadashi Matsushita, Toshiyuki Aishima, Masato Washizu, Yuko Takanashi
Zinc phosphating is used around the world as a pre-treatment on auto bodies. Throughout the 20th century, the required corrosion resistance for auto bodies has been satisfied by the technologies used in body structure, substrate materials, zinc phosphating treatment, paint and subsidiary corrosion resistance materials, which are sealer, adhesive and wax etc. and zinc phosphating technology played the primary role in corrosion prevention. As we enter the 21st century, the social environment surrounding the automobile is undergoing a revolution as society becomes focused on the environmental impact of automobiles. Furthermore, demands for shorter processes and cost reductions continue to increase. In this paper, we introduce new zinc phosphate technology which satisfies the recent demands of auto makers and discuss the anticipated trends in zinc phosphating technology.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1241
Song Linggen, Dai Fang, Tan Xiaotian, Tie Wang, Weiping Zhu
An obliquely incident X-ray radiography was developed to measure the greatest depths, orientations and locations of corrosion pits in automobile metallic plates. This technique can also be used on-site for components in use. The corrosion depth profile and the greatest depth can be calculated with the established relations. A 3-D rotational microscope and surface profiler were utilized to evaluate the sensitivities and accuracies of the technique for aluminum and steel plates, respectively.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1240
Tie Wang, Dan Nymberg, Mats Ström
This paper presents the progress of an ongoing corrosion study of vehicle microenvironments. The study identifies the difference of corrosion microenvironments at various automotive proving grounds, using a sensor-equipped vehicle. A vehicle was instrumented for the proving ground test study. Various types of environmental sensors were installed at more than thirty-five sites on the vehicle. These sensors measured the temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air, and the temperature and time-of-wetness of the sites' surfaces. Cold rolled steel (CRS) and Zinc (Zn) corrosion rate sensors were also used in the experiments. The comparative analysis of vehicle microenvironments and corrosion rates of CRS and Zn, from three corrosion proving ground tests, will be discussed.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1239
Larry D. Owen
Water is one of the primary chemicals used in the laboratory. Test and Corrosion chambers are one of the devices commonly employed in industrial processes. As a solvent, water may carry high purity chemicals into the process and it is imperative to maintain the highest level of water purity that is economically feasible. However, all water (even at the highest level of purity) has a certain level of contaminants. The substances found in nature or added by manufacturing use must be removed from the water, especially in the use of test chambers.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1238
Dennis Davidson, Larry Thompson, Frank Lutze, Butch Tiburcio, Kevin Smith, Cindy Meade, Tom Mackie, Duncan McCune, Herb Townsend, Rebecca Tuszynski
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1237
Robert C. McCune, Mark S. Ricketts, Guilian Gao, Richard A. Neiser, Joseph Puskar, Timothy J. Roemer
General corrosion protection of sheet materials such as steel used in automobile construction has reached a high level of performance, due primarily to the incorporation of mill-applied treatments such as electrogalvanizing, galvannealing and other coil-coating processes developed over the last half century. While such treatments have greatly extended the corrosion resistance of steel and its various body constructs, attention is now focused on aspects of the manufacturing process wherein these intended protections are compromised by such features as weldments, joins, cut edges and extreme metal deformations such as hems. A novel metal deposition process, based on high-velocity impact fusion of solid metal particles, has been used to extend the corrosion resistance of base steel and pre-galvanized sheet, by selectively placing highly controlled depositions of zinc and other sacrificial materials in close proximity to critical manufacturing details.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1236
Terrence R. Giles, Michelle Lerminez, Sabrinia Smith
Two widely accepted accelerated testing specifications, ASTM B117-97 Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus (ASTM B117), and General Motors GM 9540P Accelerated Corrosion Test (GM 9540 P); both refer to paint performance testing on panels and parts. The definition of sample spacing during testing is not well defined in these specifications. The interpretation is subjective and the purpose of this paper is to investigate its importance in sample spacing and testing practices. These two acc65lerated tests cross-reference other methods and each other with no clear cut definition to product test piece spacing. Since these types of tests have been the staple for determining paint performance and product selection, this paper attempts to clarify some of the confusion when it comes to the actual spacing of test panels within a testing chamber.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1390
Ganapathi Subbu, Nick Collings
A novel technique for measuring the axial distribution of wall flow in diesel particle filters is described. It is based on measuring the dilution of a tracer gas (introduced at the upstream end of an outlet channel) as it passes along a filter channel, due to the wall flow. A relation is derived between the change in concentration and the flow per unit length of air entering the outlet channel from adjacent inlet channels. Typical data showing the axial variation in the wall flow for clean and loaded filters are presented and discussed. We find qualitatively plausible flow distributions, but note that independent verification of the method is required before the data can confidently be interpreted quantitatively. Some of the potential applications of the technique may include studying the regeneration process and measurement of ash deposition.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1391
Allan Hung, Matthew Tsang, Kong Ha, Chun-shun Cheung, Wing-tat Hung
To abate the diesel vehicle emissions, Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (HKEPD) has implemented comprehensive control measures including retrofitting programs for the pre-1995 light and heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Local franchised bus companies also carried out their own catalyst-retrofitting program in recent years as part of their emission control measures. Before launching the retrofitting programs, we carried out trials to investigate the application issues of exhaust after treatment technology under local operation conditions. Parameters such as diesel catalyst cell density, engine exhaust temperature, backpressure, diesel fuel sulphur content and in-use catalyst durability performance that form the key elements for retrofitting are studied. Also, the in-use catalyst monitoring performance by the use of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) measurement at high idle and dynamometer testing is investigated.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1388
Nam Youl Kim, Jong Won Lee, Dan Woodman
An Instrument Panel (IP) cockpit is one of the most complex vehicle systems, not only because of the large number of components, but also because of the numerous design variations available. The OEM can realize maximum benefit when the IP cockpit is assembled as a module. This requires increased performance attributes including safety, durability, and thermal performance, while meeting styling and packaging constraints, and optimizing the program imperatives of mass and cost. The design concept discussed in this paper consists of two main injection molded parts that are vibration welded to form a stiff structure. The steering column is attached to the cowl and plastic structure by a separate steel column support. The plastic IP structure with integrated ducts is designed and developed to enable the IP cockpit to be a modular system while realizing the benefits of mass and cost reduction.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1389
Todd Dvorak, Robert Hoekstra, Julia Pet-Armacost
The purpose of this study was to increase IC engine performance by “tuning” the exhaust system to different induction system pressures using an empirical based modeling approach. The two distinct induction pressures are atmospheric and 13-15 mmHg above atmospheric. The above atmospheric induction pressure occurs when the race car is in the lead; the atmospheric pressure occurs with the race car is following the lead or “in the draft.” Since it is ideal to achieve optimum performance for both induction pressures, the problem was formulated and optimized using an empirical Multiple Response Surface Method (MRSM) approach. MRSM is a process that “extracts” multiple objective performance information through carefully controlled experiments and data modeling techniques. An analysis of the experimental data will identify the ideal header length configuration that maximizes performance for both induction pressure extremes.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1386
A. Deb, C. C. Chou
Crash safety is a changing area in which safety requirements are updated or added from time to time. A relatively recent federal safety requirement is the amended FMVSS 201 rule for upper interior head impact. The automotive crash safety engineer faces many challenges in designing for this safety criterion. In the current study, it is shown how finite element-based simulation can be used as an effective tool in the design of lightweight headform impact protection countermeasures, supplemented with selective laboratory testing. Additionally, judicious employment of component finite element models and laboratory tests before a new countermeasure concept is deployed in a full vehicle environment leads to robustness and efficiency in product development.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1387
Hao Xu, Omar Mian, Derrick Parker
As engine bearings are subjected to higher loading, the oil film thickness in the loading carrying region becomes thinner and thinner. Under the regime of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), the differences in the elastic deflection of the bearing/journal along axial direction are shown to have significant influence on the bearing performance. The work reported in this paper made use of SABRE-EHL, a predictive tool developed for the study of automotive engine bearings. The influence of axial profile was firstly investigated by the examination of the operating conditions of both the big-end and main bearings of an modern petrol engine. The investigation was then extended to include a sensitivity study, where different types of axial profile were investigated. The impact of these axial profiles on engine bearing performance was then assessed.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1378
P. L. Sathyanarayanan, R. Ramprabhu
Battle tanks are vehicles with a specific type of construction to meet demanding requirements of the military and operate in off - road and severe cross - country terrains. The operation of the prime mover (Diesel Engines of 400 to 700 Kw output) of the tank becomes difficult due to peculiarities of installation, such as cramped space, restricted opening for cooling airflow (8 to 15 Kg/s) and need for sustained operation on maximum torque and power conditions. The effect of high-pressure drop (300 to 500 mm of Water Gauge) due to such restriction on airflow is discussed in this paper with a specific example, and the remedial measures taken to modify the restriction along with the improvements (30% increase in airflow) achieved are elaborated.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1377
Adam Alaweih, Peter G. DiSante
Partnerships through Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA) have resulted in transferring technologies from industry to military and vice versa. The Army promotes the transfer of technology and expertise to the private sector, allowing this technology to be exploited for improving U.S. competitiveness and accelerating the Army's transformation. One mechanism for transfer is the CRADA. Since their creation in 1986, CRADAs have resulted in cost savings and development of key technologies for government and industry. Savings realized through technology transfer over the last ten years have been over $13,000,000; CRADAs have played a significant role in these savings.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1381
Terry L. Ullman, Lawrence R. Smith, Joseph W. Anthony, Warren J. Slodowske, Bill Trestrail, Angelita L. Cook, William B. Bunn, Charles A. Lapin, Kenneth J. Wright, Charles R. Clark
In the United States, most school buses are powered by diesel engines. Some have advocated replacing diesel school buses with natural gas school buses, but little research has been conducted to understand the emissions from school bus engines. This work provides a detailed characterization of exhaust emissions from school buses using a diesel engine meeting 1998 emission standards, a low emitting diesel engine with an advanced engine calibration and a catalyzed particulate filter, and a natural gas engine without catalyst. All three bus configurations were tested over the same cycle, test weight, and road load settings. Twenty-one of the 41 “toxic air contaminants” (TACs) listed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as being present in diesel exhaust were not found in the exhaust of any of the three bus configurations, even though special sampling provisions were utilized to detect low levels of TACs.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1382
Dennis Simanaitis
This survey of automotive aerodynamics at Le Mans, 1956-1969, continues an earlier paper, SAE Paper No. 2000-01-3556, presented at the 2000 SAE Motorsports Engineering Conference & Exposition. Like the earlier work, our perspective here is expository as opposed to analytical. We make use of narrative and photographic archives of Road & Track magazine. Of particular interest is the interplay of regulation and (occasionally highly bizarre) response.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1384
D. R. Coldren, S. R. Schuricht, R. A. Smith
Caterpillar® Fuel Systems has developed a next generation hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector with a direct operated nozzle for providing independent control of injection pressure and rate shape as well as multiple injections per cycle. These advanced features are considered important building blocks for future DI diesel engine emission regulations and performance improvements. Initial injector performance testing of the concept hardware identified several areas of concern, prompting root cause analysis and redesign work to derive solutions. The resulting improvements have been incorporated into the production injector design, and subsequent bench and engine tests have demonstrated the capabilities of this advanced fuel system. This paper documents the design, testing and analysis that led to the development of the new Caterpillar HEUI™ B fuel system for diesel engines.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1367
Wensi Jin, Paul Baracos
Over the last several years, the use of hardware in-the-loop (HIL) simulation for testing and design studies has expanded dramatically with OEMs and suppliers. It provides a means to experiment with new designs without having to depend prototype vehicles and a means to repeat test conditions that are either difficult or unsafe to achieve. This paper describes the development of a scalable hardware in-the-loop system that takes advantage of fast evolving hardware and software technologies in the consumer electronics industry, in particular those from the PC platform. Compared to the traditional simulator designs, this new approach results in a significantly improved system in terms of processing power, scalability, as well as maintenance cost. In addition, it incorporates solver algorithms based on this system architecture to convert offline analysis models for real-time simulation.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1366
Marco Castaldi, Maxim Lyubovsky, Rene LaPierre, William C. Pfefferle, Subir Roychoudhury
Use of catalytically coated short contact time (SCT) design approaches for application in mass transfer controlled reactors such as Auto Thermal Reformers (ATR's) is an area of much recent interest. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) has developed an efficient and compact ATR using ultra-short channel length, high cell density SCT substrates (Microlith®). PCI has also extended this Microlith technology to other fuel processor reactors that operate at lower temperatures and are not mass transfer limited. Namely, reactors for the Water Gas Shift (WGS) and Preferential Oxidation (PROX) of CO have been developed. Due to the higher surface area per unit volume of the Microlith substrate compared to conventional monoliths, size advantages have been observed for these reactions, which are more kinetically controlled.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1371
S. Hunter, W. Brooks, Claudia M. Duranceau, William W. Gallmeyer, Ronald L. Williams, Gerald R. Winslow
A research project to determine the feasibility of utilizing polyethylene post-consumer automotive fuel tanks as a source of raw material was funded by Visteon, ExxonMobil, and was conducted by Brooks Associates. Brooks Associates launched this project in the last quarter of 2000 to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) post-consumer automotive fuel tanks in combination with wood fiber to create a new material suitable as an automotive substrate. The concept for the project was based on proven technology that processes wood into fiber utilizing steam explosion. The steam explosion process was commercialized to form wood fiber as a raw material for ‘Masonite’. The product of the explosion process has also been made into a mat for further processing. This mat process is generally referred to as the ‘air-lay’ process.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1370
Scott E. Hodges, Donald T. Ostberg
The Army has been developing lightweight composite materials for a variety of uses for the last 25 years. This paper will discuss the history of the Army's development efforts on the use of composite materials for ground vehicles, and where it is headed in the future. With the upcoming modernization of the Army's ground forces for the 21st Century, it is expected that composite materials will may play a significantly more crucial and prolific role. The Army's new Future Combat System (FCS) has very demanding criteria and composite materials may help to meet these requirements in the area of weight, deployability, mobility, signature management, and ballistic protection. Additionally discussed will be the multi-functional capabilities that can be readily added to composite materials to give the US Army increased superiority.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1372
Shawn You, Eric Young
Laboratory simulation methods have been used for many years in the automotive industry to accelerate durability testing of vehicle components. As a result, component simulation testing has become well established. The tests use a simplified mechanical system, consisting of a physical prototype of the component under investigation and some fixturing that allows appropriate restraint and loading. Due to the remaining complexity and cost of prototype build and physical test, companies increasingly use computer simulation to provide initial design guidance. A common difficulty for this approach is that the load and boundary conditions are hard to determine. This is especially due to the situation that only some components, rather than the whole vehicle, are of interest and the external loads are not applied directly to these components. Therefore, analysts rely on simplified estimates and experience to determine the load and boundary conditions.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1373
Shigeki Okura, Takio Oya
This paper details an analysis theory to simulate various dynamic characteristics of a windshield wiper system on a vehicle for the purposes of computer-aided virtual prototyping. The analytical model consists of three-dimensional (3D) mechanical models of the complete wiper system and arm & blade subsystem which carries out complex reversal behavior. The equations of motion are solved considering the vehicle's 3D windshield surface data. Thus, the dynamic reaction forces in the vertical and frictional directions can be calculated at any point within the wiping pattern.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1375
Sandra Hines, Kay Schumacher, Timothy M. Becker, Darlene Van Tiem
There is great value in applying lean philosophies and methods to the product creation process, especially in today's competitive environment. Customers now demand better quality (especially a better fit with the product's intended use) and new products with even greater frequency than in the past. The integration of lean methodology throughout product creation is an obvious choice as a systematic way of meeting customer demands. Lean methods result in shorter time to market because understanding and meeting customer wants and needs is an integral starting point in the process. A more in-depth use of lean methods results in better quality and a reduced cost of product creation. Because of more frequent product changes, the cost of the product determined during product creation becomes even more critical. Further, if product creation costs are not reduced, the cost to the customer will increase, putting the product and the company in a less competitive position.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1374
Diomidis (Dean) H. Stamatis
This article is attempting to address the issues of reliability and design for six sigma. Specifically, it starts out with an overview of the DMAIC model, summarizes the DCOV model which is the prevention model of the six sigma approach and then progressively addresses the issues of reliability. The issues addressed here are: 1) concepts and time categories 2) specific issues of DFSS and reliability 3) characteristics of reliability and DFSS 4) approaches of using reliability 5) concerns about six sigma and 7) consequences and closing remarks.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1357
Harold Schock, Yuan Shen, Edward Timm, Tom Stuecken, Andrew Fedewa, Philip Keller
The existence of the cyclic variation of the flow inside an cylinder affects the performance of the engine. Developing methods to understand and control in-cylinder flow has been a goal of engine designers for nearly 100 years. In this paper, passive control of the intake flow of a 3.5-liter DaimlerChrysler engine was examined using a unique optical diagnostic technique: Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV), which has been developed at Michigan State University. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the normalized circulation are calculated from instantaneous planar velocity measurements to quantify gas motion within a cylinder. Emphasis of this work is examination of methods that quantify the cyclic variability of the flow. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of the flow on the tumble and swirl plane is calculated and compared to the PDF circulation results.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1358
M. Blessing, G. König, C. Krüger, U. Michels, V. Schwarz
In modern DI Diesel engines the raw emissions of NOx and soot are affected, apart from the fuel injection rate, by atomization of the liquid jet and mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. Thereby details of the fuel flow inside the injection nozzle play an essential role. In order to determine the general mechanisms and the effect of individual nozzle configuration parameters on the fuel atomization and the fuel spray propagation, methods for optical diagnostics and CFD have been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Research. These methods are combined with an analysis of the injection system hydraulics and linked to a detailed analysis of mixture formation and combustion inside an optically accessible engine. The first part of the paper methods for the experimental investigation with transparent 1- and 6- hole nozzles in real size geometries under high pressure conditions are described. Special emphasis is put on CFD methods for modeling the cavitating two phase nozzle flow.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-1360
Donald Lonser, Arnold Nielsen, Karl Habenicht
A major part of product development is to validate robustness to the environment (e.g. temperature, vibration, EMC). Although much time and expense is spent doing so, using traditional approaches often leads to “feel good” results since the product “passes”. Such a false sense of security is misleading since such validation methods can have serious deficiencies. Presented is a Design Assurance process (Accelerated Stress Assurance Plan - ASAP) to validate modules that addresses these deficiencies. It places major emphasis on the analysis and development stages. It does not require large sample sizes, and overall test time and facilities is reduced (30-50% possible).. Just as for electronic modules, new and major changes to IC's need a shorter validation process. As an example, a relatively fast procedure for the production and application release of improved molding compounds for IC's is presented.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1165

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