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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1165
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0002
M. Auriemma, G. Caputo, F. E. Corcione, G. Valentino, G. Riganti
The paper illustrates an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow generated by an intake port model for a heavy duty direct injection (HDDI) Diesel engine. Tests were carried out on a steady state air flow test rig to evaluate the global fluid-dynamic efficiency of the intake system, made by a swirled and a directed port, in terms of mass flow rate, flow coefficients and swirl number. In addition, because the global coefficients are not able to give flow details, the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique was applied to obtain the local distribution of the air velocity within a test cylinder. The steady state air flow rig, made by a blower and the intake port model mounted on a plexiglas cylinder with optical accesses, was assembled to supply the actual intake flow rate of the engine, setting the pressure drop across the intake ports atûP=300 and 500 mm of H2O.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0001
S. Scott Goldsborough, Peter Van Blarigan
A free piston internal combustion (IC) engine operating on high compression ratio (CR) homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories to significantly improve the thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions relative to conventional crankshaft-driven SI and Diesel engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is key to realizing the efficiency and emissions potential of the device. To ensure that the engine's performance goals can be achieved the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), zero- and one-dimensional modeling, and single step parametric variations. A wide range of design options was investigated including the use of loop, hybrid-loop and uniflow scavenging methods, different charge delivery options, and various operating schemes. Parameters such as the intake/exhaust port arrangement, valve lift/timing, charging pressure and piston frequency were varied.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0011
Peter Eckert, Song-Charng Kong, Rolf D. Reitz
A computer model that is able to predict the occurrence of knock in spark ignition engines has been developed and implemented into the KIVA-3V code. Three major sub-models were used to simulate the overall process, namely the spark ignition model, combustion model, and end-gas auto-ignition models. The spark ignition and early flame development is modeled by a particle marker technique to locate the flame kernel. The characteristic-time combustion model is applied to simulate the propagation of the regular flame. The autoignition chemistry in the end-gas was modeled by a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism that is based on the Shell model. The present model was validated by simulating the experimental data in three different engines. The spark ignition and the combustion models were first validated by simulating a premixed Caterpillar engine that was converted to run on propane. Computed cylinder pressure agrees well with the experimental data.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0009
L. Thobois, R. Lauvergne, D. Gimbres, Y. Lendresse
In this paper, the specificities of Natural Gas combustion in IC spark-ignition engines are investigated through CFD calculations. Three reference natural gases are chosen, representative of real compositions distributed in Europe. They consist in different ratios of propane, methane and inert gases. Their combustion behavior is subsequently compared with the combustion characteristics of isooctane. In the first part of the study, a database for the laminar burning velocities for the three natural gases mixtures is built, using the 1-D laminar flame software PREMIX, and based on a complex chemistry scheme for propane and methane. An analysis of the laminar flame behavior for such mixtures is proposed, and a correlation for the laminar burning velocities is built. In the second part of the study, 2D axisymetrical calculations, representative of engine combustion in a simplified geometry, are performed using KIVA II-GSM, in which the flame speed correlation is introduced.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0010
R. Lauvergne, J. Hallot
In this study, the ability of 3D engine computation to take into account the effects of double spark ignition in a small size 2-valves gasoline engine has been investigated. The KIVA-II GSM code has been used, in combination with the AKTIM spark ignition model and the ECFM premixed combustion model. Comparisons of the combustion processes using one or two spark plugs have been made at partial load, using different EGR concentrations and spark timings. A careful post-processing of the flame surface fields leads to a complete understanding of the balance between gain and losses relative to the double ignition strategy. For a low EGR concentration, IMEP gains expected for the double ignition appear to be rather weak, partly due to an early merging of the two flame fronts. Thus, despite radically different instantaneous combustion scenarios, the resulting motoring work remains close to the single spark case.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0007
Christos A. Chryssakis, Dennis N. Assanis, Jee-Kuen Lee, Keiya Nishida
A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high-pressure swirl injectors in DISI engines has been developed accounting for both primary and secondary atomization. The model considers the transient behavior of the pre-spray and the steady-state behavior of the main spray. The pre-spray modeling is based on an empirical solid cone approach with varying cone angle. The main spray modeling is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, which is extended here to include the effects of swirl. Mie Scattering, LIF, PIV and Laser Droplet Size Analyzer techniques have been used to produce a set of experimental data for model validation. Both qualitative comparisons of the evolution of the spray structure, as well as quantitative comparisons of spray tip penetration and droplet sizes have been made. It is concluded that the model compares favorably with data under atmospheric conditions.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0008
P. Béard, O. Colin, M. Miche
Three dimensional CFD tools are commonly used to simulate spray injection and combustion in DI Diesel engines. However typical computations are strongly mesh dependent. By now it is not possible to enhance grid resolution since it would violate the underlying assumptions for the Lagrangian liquid phase description. Besides, a full Eulerian approach with an adapted mesh is not practical at the moment mainly because of prohibitive computer requirements. Based on the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach, new approaches have been developed: the Coupled Lagrangian-Eulerian (CLE) model for the two-way coupling between the spray and the air flow and a new combustion model (CFM3Z) which allows a description of the fuel-oxidizer sub-grid mixing. The previously introduced CLE model consists in retaining vapor and momentum along parcel trajectories as long as the mesh is insufficient to resolve the steep gradients created by the spray.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0005
G. Blokkeel, B. Barbeau, R. Borghi
A 3D Eulerian model has been developed to improve the primary break-up of an atomizing jet. The model is divided in three parts and is implemented in a modified version of KIVA II. The first part focuses mainly on the liquid dispersion, the second on the atomizing process itself, and the third on the adaptation of the model's mathematical formulation to the physics of the flow. Since the spray close to the injector is dense, an Eulerian formulation is thus chosen. However, when the spray is diluted, a Lagrangian formulation should then be applied. Different computations have been carried out using this new model and will be thoroughly discussed in this paper. The first calculation serves as a validation of the model. Those which follow demonstrate the importance of the internal liquid flow inside the injector on the spray development. They also manifest an influence of the air-co-flow, which assists the atomization of the spray.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0006
G. M. Bianchi, S. Falfari, M. Parotto, G. Osbat
The aim of this work is to set up a methodology for simulating Common Rail high-pressure injectors based on coupling a lump-model with CFD two-phase multi-dimensional computations. The unit simulated is the Bosch injector. The injector lump-model resulted in the definition of the three sub-models for hydraulics, mechanics and electro-magnetics. The second-order differential governing equations have been solved in Matlab/Simulink environment and are properly coupled together with the one-dimensional partial differential equations that describe the unsteady pipe flow. A detailed library of thermo-mechanical properties for ISO-4113 oil and diesel fuel is included. Cavitation effects on discharge coefficient in the main orifices were accounted for by using results from CFD steady two-phase flow simulations. The evaluation of the model capability was assessed by using detailed experiments carried out at different practical injector operating conditions.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0003
G. M. Bianchi, S. Fontanesi
The evaluation of the steady-flow discharge coefficient of ICE port assemble is known to be very sensitive to the capability of the turbulence sub-models in capturing the boundary layer dynamics. Despite the fact that the intrinsically unsteady phenomena related to flow separation claim for LES approach, the present paper aims to demonstrate that RANS simulation can provide reliable design-oriented results by using low-Reynolds cubic k-ε turbulence models. Different engine intake port assemblies and pressure drops have been simulated by using the CFD STAR-CD code and numerical results have been compared versus experiments in terms of both global parameters, i.e. the discharge coefficient, and local parameters, by means of static pressure measurements along the intake port just upstream of the valve seat. Computations have been performed by comparing two turbulence models: Low-Reynolds cubic k-ε and High-Reynolds cubic k-ε.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0004
A. De Vita, L. Allocca
Numerical and experimental analyses of hollow cone sprays generated by pressure-swirl injectors for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines have been performed. Spray characteristics have been measured by a gathering and processing system for spray images, including a CCD camera, a frame grabber and a pulsed sheet obtained by the second harmonic of Nd-YAG laser (wavelength 532 nm, width 12 ns, thickness 100 μm). A detailed spatial and temporal characterization of the emerging spray has been carried out showing interesting peculiarities of the jet for different operative conditions. Some results of a work in progress, aiming to select and to validate proper models for the spray development simulation are, also, discussed. Numerical calculations are based on the KIVA 3V code modified in basic spray sub models. Some important physical phenomena are captured in the computations at the backpressure of 0.1 MPa.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0749
Tomonori Urushihara, Koji Hiraya, Akihiko Kakuhou, Teruyuki Itoh
A gasoline-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with both direct fuel injection and negative valve overlap for exhaust gas retention was examined. The fuel was injected directly into the residual in-cylinder gas during the negative valve overlap interval for the purpose of reforming it by using the high temperature resulting from exhaust gas recompression. With this injection strategy, the HCCI combustion region was expanded dramatically without any increase in NOx emissions which were seen in the case of compression stroke injection. Injection timing during the negative valve overlap was found to be an important parameter that affects the HCCI region width. The injection timing also had the most suitable value in each engine load for the best fuel consumption.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0746
Hideyuki Ogawa, Noboru Miyamoto, Naoya Kaneko, Hirokazu Ando
Direct injection of various ignition suppressors, including water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, hydrogen, and methane, was implemented to control ignition timing and expand the operating range in an HCCI engine with induced DME as the main fuel. Ultra-low NOx and smoke-less combustion was realized over a wide operating range. The reaction suppressors reduced the rate of low-temperature oxidation and consequently delayed the onset of high-temperature oxidation. Analysis of the chemical kinetics showed a reduction of OH radical in the premixed charge with the suppressors. Among the ignition suppressors, alcohols had a greater impact on OH radical reduction resulting in stronger ignition suppression. Although water injection caused a greater lowering of the temperature, which also suppressed ignition, the strong chemical effect of radical reduction with methanol injection resulted in the larger impact on suppression of oxidation reaction rates.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0747
Zhijun Peng, Hua Zhao, Nicos Ladommatos
The effects of Air/Fuel (A/F) ratios and Exhaust Gas Re-Circulation (EGR) rates on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane have been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, 4-stroke and variable compression-ratio engine equipped with a port fuel injector. Investigations concentrate on the HCCI combustion of n-heptane at different A/F ratios, EGR rates and their effects on knock limit, engine load, combustion variability, and engine-out emissions such as NOx, CO, and unburned HC. Variations of auto-ignition timings and combustion durations in the two-stage combustion process are analyzed in detail. Results show that HCCI combustion with a diesel type fuel can be implemented at room temperature with a conventional diesel engine compression-ratio. However, its knock limit occurs at very high A/F ratios, although high EGR rates can be tolerated.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0753
Lucien Koopmans, Hans Ström, Staffan Lundgren, Ove Backlund, Ingemar Denbratt
Operating an engine in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode requires the air fuel mixture to be very lean or highly diluted with residuals. This is in order to slow the kinetics down and to avoid too rapid heat release. Consequently, the operational window for the engine in HCCI mode is not the same as for the engine operating in spark ignited (SI) mode. Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine mode, in this study, is accomplished by trapping residual mass using variable valve timing. With the residual trapping method, the engine cannot be started in HCCI mode and due to the dilution, the engine in HCCI mode can only be operated in the part - load regime. Hence, a mode change between spark ignited and HCCI modes, and vice versa is required. This study reports the development of a mode change strategy for a single cylinder camless engine, and its successful implementation in a camless multi cylinder engine.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0752
John E. Dec, Magnus Sjöberg
A combined experimental and modeling study has been conducted to investigate the sources of CO and HC emissions (and the associated combustion inefficiencies) at low-loads. Engine performance and emissions were evaluated as fueling was reduced from knocking conditions to very low loads (ϕ = 0.28 - 0.04) for a variety of operating conditions, including: various intake temperatures, engine speeds, compression ratios, and a comparison of fully premixed and GDI (gasoline-type direct injection) fueling. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder engine (0.98 liters) using iso-octane as the fuel. Comparative computations were made using a single-zone model with the full chemistry mechanisms for iso-octane, to determine the expected behavior of the bulk-gases for the limiting case of no heat transfer, crevices, or charge inhomogeneities.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0750
R. J. Osborne, G. Li, S. M. Sapsford, J. Stokes, T. H. Lake, M. R. Heikal
This paper describes a two-year programme of research conducted by the authors investigating HCCI in direct injection gasoline engines. Poppet-valved two-stroke cycle operation has been investigated experimentally, using conventional gasoline compression ratios and fuel, and ambient temperature intake air. Extensive combustion and emissions data was gathered from the experimental engine. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to model HCCI combustion, and the CFD tool validated using experimental data. Based on experience with the two-stroke engine and modelling techniques, a four-stroke engine has been designed and tested. Using this range of tools, practical options for gasoline HCCI engines are evaluated, and a scenario for the market introduction of HCCI is presented.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0751
Rui Chen, Nebojsa Milovanovic, Jamie Turner, Dave Blundell
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) uses compression heat to auto ignite a homogeneous air/fuel mixture. Using internal exhaust gas recirculation (IEGR) as an indirect control method, CAI offers superior fuel economy and pollutant emission reductions. Practically, this can readily be achieved by a method of early exhaust valve closure and late inlet valve opening to trap exhaust gas residuals within the cylinder from one cycle to the next. In order to understand the combustion mechanism, we did a comprehensive investigation on CAI fuelled with iso-octane. Test data was gathered from a single cylinder research engine equipped with Lotus' Research Active Valve Train (AVT) System, and the modelling study was based on detailed chemical kinetics. It was found that CAI can only occur when the thermal energy of the engine charge, which is a mixture of air / fuel and IEGR, reaches a certain level.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0756
Jennifer Eirich, Elana Chapman, Howard Glunt, David Klinikowski, André L. Boehman, James G. Hansel, Edward C. Heydorn
Dimethyl Ether (DME) is a potential ultra-clean diesel fuel. Its unique characteristics require special handling and accommodation of its low viscosity and low lubricity. In this project, DME was blended with diesel fuel to provide sufficient viscosity and lubricity to permit operation of a 7.3 liter turbodiesel engine in a campus shuttle bus with minimal modification of the fuel injection system. A pressurized fuel delivery system was added to the existing common rail injection system on the engine, allowing the DME-diesel fuel blend to be circulated through the rail at pressures above 200 psig keeping the DME in the liquid state. Fuel exiting the rail is cooled by finned tubed heat exchangers and recirculated to the rail using a gear pump. A modified LPG tank (for use on recreational vehicles) stores the DME- diesel fuel blend onboard the shuttle bus.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0757
Montajir M. Rahman, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Matsuo Odaka
The effect of boiling point difference as well as the flash boiling of two-component normal paraffin fuels on combustion and exhaust emission has been examined under different test conditions. To obtain a wide variation in boiling point between components different high boiling point fuels (n-undecane, n-tridecane and n-hexadecane) were blended with a low boiling point fuel (n-pentane) and different low boiling point fuels (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) were blended with a high boiling point fuel (n-hexadecane). In addition the volume fraction of n-pentane was varied to have the best mixture ratio with n-tridecane. These fuel combinations exhibit different potential for flash boiling based on a certain ambient condition. The results indicate that though the potential for flash boiling is the highest for a mixture of n-pentane and n-hexadecane it emits about 20% higher PM than a mixture of n-pentane and n-tridecane.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0754
A. Fuerhapter, W. F. Piock, G. K. Fraidl
In recent years several new gasoline engine technologies were introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Controlled autoignition seems to be an alternative to stratified part load operation, which is handicapped due to it's lean aftertreatment system for world wide application. The principal advantages of controlled auto ignition combustion under steady state operation - combining fuel economy benefits similar to stratified charge systems with nearly negligible NOx and soot emissions - are already well known. With the newly developed AVL- CSI system (Compression and Spark Ignition), a precise combustion control is achieved even under transient operation. For compensation of production and operation tolerances a cost optimized cylinder individual control was developed. Completely new functionalities of the engine management system are applied. This lean GDI concept complies with future emission standards without DeNOx catalyst and can be applied worldwide.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0755
Youtong Zhang, Song-Charng Kong, Rolf D. Reitz
A dual fuel engine simulation model was formulated and the combustion process of a diesel/natural gas dual fuel engine was studied using an updated KIVA-3V Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code. The dual fuel engine ignition and combustion process is complicated since it includes diesel injection, atomization and ignition, superimposed with premixed natural gas combustion. However, understanding of the combustion process is critical for engine performance optimization. Starting from a previously validated Characteristic-Timescale diesel combustion model, a natural gas combustion model was implemented and added to simulate the ignition and combustion process in a dual fuel bus engine. Available engine test data were used for validation of both the diesel-only and the premixed spark-ignition operation regimes. A new formulation of the Characteristic-Timescale combustion model was then introduced to allow smooth transition between the combustion regimes.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0760
P. Mohanan, N. Kapilan, R. P. Reddy
Dimethyl Ether (DME), the methanol analog to Diethyl Ether (DEE), was recently reported as a low emission, high quality diesel fuel replacement. Literature review indicates that significant work is not carried out with respect to its performance analysis and in regard to pollution levels. In the present work, the effect of DEE on the performance and emissions of a four-stroke direct injection diesel engine have been studied. Tests were conducted on the diesel engine with different blends of DEE and diesel as fuel. Test results show that 5 % DEE blend gives better performance and low emissions compared to other blends of DEE and diesel fuel. Hence, 5 % DEE can be blended with diesel fuel to improve the performance and to reduce emissions of the diesel engine.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0761
Taku Tsujimura, Shohei Mikami, Norihisa Achiha, Yoshiroh Tokunaga, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, characteristics of the development and auto-ignition/combustion of hydrogen jets were investigated in a constant-volume vessel. The authors focused on the effects of the jet developing process and thermodynamic states of the ambient gas on auto-ignition delays of hydrogen jets. The results show that the ambient gas temperature and nozzle-hole diameter are significantly effective parameters. By contrast, it is clarified that the ambient gas oxygen concentration has a weak effect on the auto-ignition/combustion of hydrogen jets. Consequently, it is supposed that the mixture formation process is capable of improving the auto-ignition/combustion of hydrogen jets.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0758
Koichi Kinoshita, Mitsuharu Oguma, Shinichi Goto, Kouseki Sugiyama, Masataka Kajiwara, Makihiko Mori, Tomoko Watanabe
In order to reduce environmental disruption due to exhaust PM and NOx emissions from diesel engines of dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed the use for the next generation vehicles, because the discharge of the atmospheric pollutants is less. In this study, DME is used to fuel a retrofit type diesel engine, and operational tests were carried out using a rotary distributor fuel injection pump. In this experiment, comparison and examination of the effects of fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, and injection timing. When using DME as an alternative fuel, the fuel temperature affects engine operation. And diameter of the injector nozzle hole and larger injection quantity is regarded as factors affecting the improvement in engine performance. In addition, for understanding the DME spray in the cylinder, DME was sprayed in a constant volume chamber where atmospheric temperature and pressure increased simultaneously, and the result is compared and examined with diesel fuel.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0759
Ho Teng, James C. McCandless, Jeffrey B. Schneyer
Compression ignition delay of DME is studied theoretically. Physical phenomena that would influence the ignition delay, characteristics of the DME spray and evaporation of DME droplets in the spray, are analyzed. It is found that the short ignition delay of DME revealed in engine tests is due largely to the short physical delay of DME: The evaporation rate of DME droplets is about twice that of diesel-fuel droplets at the same cylinder condition and, the stoichiometric mixture in a DME spray can be established immediately - in comparison, the stoichiometric mixture in a diesel-fuel spray cannot be established before temperatures of diesel-fuel droplets become higher than 225 °C. The high droplet evaporation rate of DME is also responsible for the irregular boundary and tip of the DME spray as observed by many investigators. On the basis of experimental data reported in the literature, cetane number of DME is estimated to be 68.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0765
Zhiqiang Lin, Wanhua Su
A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/Diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimization of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and pre-mixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NOx, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the pre-mixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NOx and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NOx emissions, because the pre-mixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0764
Mitsuharu Oguma, Shinichi Goto, Kouseki Sugiyama, Masataka Kajiwara, Makihiko Mori, Mitsuru Konno, Tomohisa Yano
In this study, spray images of LPG Blended Fuels (LBF) for DI diesel engines were observed using a constant volume chamber at high ambient temperature and pressure, and the spray characteristics of the fuel were investigated. The LBF spray started to vaporize at the injector tip and the outer downstream regions of the spray, like diesel fuel, because of the high temperature at these areas. There were more vaporized areas compared to diesel fuel. Sufficient fuel injection volume and volatility of LBF resulted in good fuel-air mixture, then, THC emissions decreased compared to diesel fuel at high load engine test conditions. Butane spray image could not be observed at the injector tip. It seems that the high temperature of the injector tip caused the butane spray to vaporize rapidly. Spray tip penetration with LBF and butane were equal or greater than with diesel fuel. The high volatility of LBF and butane had no noticeable effect on spray penetration.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0763
Teresa L. Alleman, Robert L. McCormick
Natural gas, coal, and biomass can be converted to diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes. Variations of the F-T process and/or product work-up can be used to tailor the fuel properties to meet end-users needs. Regardless of feedstock or process, F-T diesel fuels typically have a number of very desirable properties. This review describes typical F-T diesel fuel properties, discusses how these fuel properties impact pollutant emissions, and draws together data from known engine and chassis dynamometer studies of emissions. The comparison of fuel properties reveals that F-T diesel fuel is typically one of two types - a very high cetane number (>74), zero aromatic product or a moderate cetane (∼60), low aromatic (≤15%) product. The very high cetane fuels typically have less desirable low temperature properties while the moderate cetane fuels have cold flow properties more typical of conventional diesel fuels.
2003-03-03
Technical Paper
2003-01-0762
Bang-Quan He, Jian-Xin Wang, Xiao-Guang Yan, Xin Tian, Hu Chen
The effect of ethanol blended diesel fuels on brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC), smoke and NOx emissions has been investigated in a direct-injection diesel engine. Unregulated emissions including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and unburned ethanol emissions are also analyzed. The results indicate that with the increase of ethanol in the blends, smoke reduces significantly, BSEC improves slightly and combustion duration decreases. However, the rate of heat release increases. Ignition delays. BSFC, NOx, acetaldehyde and unburned ethanol emissions increase. The maximum acetaldehyde emissions reached up to 100 ppm at low load. Compared to a gasoline engine using ethanol blended gasoline fuels, unburned ethanol emissions of the diesel engine are higher than those of the gasoline engine at the same ethanol concentrations and similar loads.
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