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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1489
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1157
Yu-Yin Peng, Tien-Ho Gau, C. -P. Chien, H. -P. Cheng
Two micro injection pumps technology were introduced to a new fuel injection concept called micro-pulsation fuel injection system. A micro thermal bubble injection pump made by MEMS fabrication process had 100 micropumps with nozzle of 80μm diameter to be built in a chip. The flow rate achieves about 4.9cc/min with less than 90μm droplet size and 1.5×109 cycle time at 2 kHz. The piezoelectric plate pump included a small bimoph piezoelectric plate and 3mm × 7mm ×100μm array nozzle plate ejects about 2.4cc/min flow rate with about 49μm SMD droplet size at 17kHz frequency.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1156
Takashi Matsutani, Takanori Nakada, Yoshikazu Shinpo, Makoto Hatano
For reduction of fuel consumption, a new device “Water Jacket Spacer” which improves temperature distribution of a cylinder block bore wall was developed. In the case of a conventional cylinder block, coolant flow concentrates at the bottom and middle region of the water jacket. While temperature of the upper bore wall is high (due to high-temperature combustion gas) the temperature of the lower bore wall is low, since its only function is to support the piston. When the developed spacer is inserted into a water jacket, the coolant flow concentrates at the upper part of the jacket. As a result, cooling ability to the upper bore wall was improved and temperature of lower bore wall was increased, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1150
Christel Elmqvist Möller, Pontus Johansson, Börje Grandin, Fredrik Lindström
The necessity to limit the boost pressure in turbocharged gasoline engines results in higher exhaust pressure than inlet pressure at engine speeds when the wastegate is opened. This imbalance has a negative influence on the exhaust scavenging of the engine and results in high levels of residual gas and consequently the engine is more prone to knock. This paper presents a study of a gas-exchange system for turbocharged SI engines. The concept aims at improving the performance and emissions of a turbocharged SI engine by dividing the exhaust flow from the two exhaust valves into two different exhaust manifolds, one connected to the turbocharger and one connected to a close coupled catalyst. By separating the valve opening period of the two valves and keeping the duration of both valve opening events shorter than 180 crank angle degrees, the disturbance of the exhaust blowdown pressure pulse during valve overlap in a four cylinder engine can be completely eliminated.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1152
Shinji Sadakane, Masanori Sugiyama, Hirohisa Kishi, Shizuo Abe, Jun Harada, Yukihiro Sonoda
A new V-6 stoichiometric gasoline direct injection engine was developed for high performance FR (Front Engine Rear Drive) vehicles. High power performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions were achieved by employing a stoichiometric direct injection system that uses Toyota's unique slit nozzle injector that generates a fan-shaped fuel spray and variable intake and exhaust valve timing systems. Focusing on the power performance, maximum power of 183kW (61kW/L) is achieved at 6200rpm and maximum torque is 312Nm at 3600rpm. This power performance is among the top production 3.0 L gasoline engines in the world. This paper outlines the features of this engine and some special technologies contributing to the achievement of the above-mentioned high performance. Optimizing the intake-port design was done to improve power performance.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1151
Takeshi Matsunaga, Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Takashi Yamada, Isao Doi, Junichi Yajima
This paper describes a new 4.0-liter DOHC V6 engine (VQ40DE), which was developed for use on a new compact sport utility vehicle and a compact pickup truck. To meet drivers' demands for acceleration performance when merging into freeway traffic, passing or re-acceleration performance at low speeds in urban areas and hill-climbing or passing performance while towing, the VQ40DE engine produces high output power at its top speed and also generates ample torque at low and middle engine speeds. (More than 90% of its maximum torque is available at engine speeds as low as 2000 rpm.) As the latest addition to the VQ engine series, the VQ40DE engine has the largest displacement in this series. The VQ engine has been named to Ward's Ten Best Engines list for ten straight years, through the continued evolution of its intrinsic technologies to meet market needs.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1167
Matthew Brusstar, Charles Gray, Kasser Jaffri, Patrick McCarthy, Marc Pomerleau
A hydraulic free-piston engine (FPE), which converts combustion energy directly to hydraulic energy, is being developed by the U. S. EPA due to its potential as a lower-cost and higher-efficiency prime mover for hydraulic series hybrid vehicles. Two prototype engines were designed, fabricated and tested: a two-cylinder engine operating primarily with a two-stroke compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) cycle and a six-cylinder engine operating with a four-stroke CIDI cycle. These engines successfully achieved up to 39% peak hydraulic efficiency under continuously fired operation, while demonstrating exceptional repeatability and control of the cylinder compression ratio. A basic description of the engine design, along with the initial test results from these two prototypes, is presented below.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1164
S. R. Anderson, D. M. Lamberson, T. J. Blohm, W. Turner
This paper describes the application of a systematic methodology to the exploratory investigation of fuel economy for a heavy-duty route vehicle with a hybrid powertrain. The analytical study considered parallel hydraulic hybrid, parallel electric and series electric hybrid architectures in addition to the baseline conventional powertrain. The real world driving mission for the target vehicle, a domestic refuse collection truck, was clarified by making vehicle measurements. System simulation was then used as a key tool to support the fuel economy predictions and trade studies.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1166
Kenji Kataoka, Kimitoshi Tsuji
Toyota has been continuing to study economy and general-purpose starting technologies for smaller displacement engines, since market introduction of the 42-14V MHV in 2001. This study shows one of the strategies for nearly silent and fast starting for economy size cars, which have smaller displacement engines by utilizing a small MG (motor generator) at 12 Volts. The most significant issue for realizing advanced starting features (silent, fast and smooth) is the cost. Power electric components, especially, have a large cost disadvantage, which is generally proposed to the controlling power. So efforts were made to reduce the electrical power requirements. Also methods for minimizing additional components and utilizing conventionally existing components (e.g. sensors) are discussed in this paper. Another characteristic is that smaller displacement engines (e.g. I4, I3) have larger cranking torque difference characteristics than larger engines (e.g. I6, I8).
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1161
Craig L. Goodfellow, Pascal S. Revéreault, Lutz P. Gaedt, Daniel Kok, Thomas Hochkirchen, Michael Neu, Christophe Picod
The HyTrans project is a collaborative development of a micro hybrid demonstrator vehicle based on an urban delivery van. The project partners consist of Ricardo, Ford, Gates and Valeo and the project is co-funded by the UK Energy Savings Trust under the New Vehicle Technology Fund. A concept study analysis has been performed for an urban delivery van in order to identify the impact of different cost efficient belt driven micro hybrid concepts on fuel consumption performance over representative real world delivery driving conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1158
Hiroya Ishiguro, Keiji Kanao, Shinichi Okabe, Katsushi Hashizume
A recent trend in the making of automotive engines, where high efficiency and low emissions need to be considered, is to mount multiple parts around the motor in order to improve overall engine efficiency. As a result of modern technology, the engine head and surrounding space have an excessive amount of parts. To accommodate the congested engine compartment, it is desirable to reduce the size of the spark plug. Small size spark plugs have the problem of poor resistance to carbon fouling and are subject to side sparks if carbon fouling occurs. This results from a reduced insulating gap between the center electrode and the housing achieved by reducing the size of the spark plug. By using visualization of flame growth and electric field strength analysis, we have conducted studies on insulator temperatures and spark behaviors in search of the optimal specifications.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1163
Michele Anatone, Roberto Cipollone, Andrea Donati, Antonio Sciarretta
The paper describes the derivation of a real-time controller for the energy management of a series hybrid city bus. The controller is based on Optimal Control theory and on a control-oriented model of the propulsion system. The model is of the quasi-stationary, backward type, and it is derived from tabulated data of the single components provided by the manufacturers and basic, first-principle equations. The fuel consumption obtained with the optimal controller is compared with that yielded by a conventional controller tracking the battery state-of-charge.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1162
Brendan Conlon
Electrically variable transmissions divide power between the electrical and mechanical paths using input, output, or compound split schemes. When combined with an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, these systems allow numerous fuel saving and performance benefits. This paper examines the design tradeoffs in each of the three topologies in order to balance fuel economy, system performance against requirements, and electrical component size. A general EVT analysis method is presented and used to study the fuel economy and performance sensitivity of the three configurations to motor, inverter, and battery constraints, and planetary gear ratios. To evaluate fuel economy, the three systems are assessed for each of the primary fuel economy mechanisms enabled by hybridization. To evaluate performance tradeoffs, system performance against typical vehicle performance design points is compared.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1129
Eric Ollivier, Jérôme Bellettre, Mohand Tazerout
This paper focuses on the modelling of the exhaust gas temperature of a spark ignition engine in order to propose a new and non-intrusive method of knock detection. A zero-dimensional model is developed and accounts for the heat transfer amplification due to knock. The heat transfer coefficient is a function of the mass burnt rate because knock intensity is linked to the autoignited mass of fuel. The decrease of exhaust gas enthalpy due to knock is pointed out and analysed for a large tunings and fuel composition range. The numerical results show that a knock indicator based on the calculated maximal temperature and the measured average exhaust gas temperature as well as engine tunings can be developed.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1127
John J. Batteh, Eric W. Curtis
As regulations become more stringent, transient fuel control becomes extremely important for meeting emissions requirements in a cost-effective manner. Significant modeling work has been performed for a variety of conventional gasolines in port fuel injected (PFI) engines. This paper describes an extension of previous modeling work for alternative fuels. The paper first details the application of a distillation model to create the multi-component fuel models used in the simulations. The fuel models are then used in the transient Four Puddle Model to simulate the coupled liquid fuel and thermal/thermodynamic processes in the engine. Simulation results from the model are compared with dynamometer data over a transient, warm-up test.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1130
Jerald A. Caton
An investigation on the effects of oxygen enriched combustion air on engine performance was extended to include the implications from the second law of thermodynamics. A unique feature of this investigation is the examination of equal power engines. As the oxygen content of the combustion air increases, the engine size (displacement) can decrease to achieve the same brake power. The use of oxygen enriched combustion air will have a direct affect on the combustion process and on the overall engine thermodynamics. For example, for cases with higher inlet oxygen concentration (and hence less nitrogen dilution), for the same operating conditions, the combustion gas temperatures and engine cylinder heat losses will be higher. In addition, for increasing oxygen content, the second law losses associated with mixing could be reduced. The major objective of this study was to quantify these expectations for a range of operating conditions.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1128
S. Brusca, R. Lanzafame, M. Messina
In this paper, the authors have investigated a new neural network application for the determination of thermodynamic properties for various gases for internal combustion engines applications. The Neural Network has been trained using experimental data available in literature (specific heat at constant pressure, enthalpy, entropy and equilibrium constants for thirteen gases of practical interest inside ICE applications). In the present study a two-layer Elman network feedback from the first-layer output to the first layer input as well as “tansig” neurons in its hidden and out layers has been implemented. After the training, neural network has been tested through a comparison with the NASA equations and JANAF equations, showing the capability to cover with a single model wide range of temperature with an accuracy equal or greater than others mathematical function. Thermodynamic properties of gases have been calculated depending on temperature.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1133
Y. G. Lee, J. T. Boehler
Two constant-volume combustion chambers and a 2.3L SI engine were used to investigate the effects of spark plug electrode configurations on flame kernel formation and development, and on engine performance. The results showed performance differences between the spark plug types tested in terms of lean ignitability limit and 0-2% MFB time. Overall, the spark plugs with 0.6 mm diameter center electrode, referred to as Finewire spark plugs, were able to ignite the leanest mixtures and were the only spark plug type to demonstrate the lowest predicted 0-2% MFB times for both 0% and 20% EGR. The Schlieren images support the results of better ignitability confirming the fastest flame kernel development with Finewire spark plugs and demonstrating the benefits of J-gap design and fine center electrode. The results explain significant advantages in engine performance in terms of engine stability and fuel consumption rate.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1134
Naoki Takahashi, Shunichi Aoyama, Katsuya Moteki, Ryousuke Hiyoshi
The authors have previously proposed an engine system that uses a new piston-crank system incorporating a mulitiple-link mechanism to vary the piston's position at top dead center and thereby obtain the optimum compression ratio matching the operating conditions. This multiple-link variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism can be installed without increasing the engine size or weight substantially by selecting a suitable type of link mechanism and optimizing the detailed dimentions. We have previously reported that this system provides additional benefits by reducing second-order inertial forces and the friction losses caused by piston side thrust in the combustion and expansion processes. This paper first describes the further improvements made to the link dimensions since our previous report. An improved link geometry is presented in which the centerline of the cylinder bore is offset in the opposite direction from that of existing internal combustion engines.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1132
M. H. Saidi, K. Eisazadeh Far, V. Pirouzpanah
In order to study the combustion process in a dual fuel direct injection compression ignition engine, a two-zone model has been developed. Two distinct zones of interest are gaseous fuel-air mixture zone and liquid pilot fuel zone. The present model uses methane as the main gaseous fuel. One of the problems which mostly occur in both part load and full load operating conditions of dual fuel engines is the onset of knock. The main target of this paper is the investigation of knock formation resources and effective parameters such as air-fuel equivalence ratio, initial temperature and injection timing. The numerical results have been compared with the experimental data of OM-355 direct injection dual fuel diesel engine and the work of other researchers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1137
R. J. Osborne, J. Stokes, T. H. Lake, P. J. Carden, J. D. Mullineux, R. Helle-Lorentzen, J. C. Evans, M. R. Heikal, Y. Zhu, Hua Zhao, T. Ma
The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1139
Neville J. Bugli, Gregory S. Green
Engine air filtration technologies currently used in air induction systems typically utilize pleated paper or felt type air filters. These air filter designs have been used for many years in panels, cylindrical or round (pancake type) type air cleaners. Pleated air filters are specifically designed to be serviceable and hence their performance is inherently limited by vehicle under-hood packaging and manufacturing constraints. Due to these constraints, majority of air cleaner designs are not optimized for engine filtration and air flow management under the hood. Studies show that use of low performing serviceable aftermarket air filters significantly affect the performance and durability of engine air cleaners [9]. High mileage studies confirm that engine durability, service issues, warranty field returns and customer satisfaction was affected by use of aftermarket filter brands.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1135
Terry Alger, Stephen Hanhe, Charles E. Roberts, Thomas W. Ryan
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1136
Pierre Fontana, Bernhard Huurdeman
At the runner outlets of an air intake manifold for an internal combustion engine, the firing order of the engine and the valve timing are leading to a transient pressure excitation. The resulting pressure waves in the air intake system (inlet manifold and upstream line including air cleaner) have a significant effect on volumetric efficiency. A natural air overcharge - called ram effect - is caused at specific engine rpm that corresponds to a perfect timing between the intake valve closing and the maximum pressure at the intake valve. This paper presents a new measuring method, used to characterize the dynamic behavior of the air intake system, and to forecast the impact of some of their parameters on volumetric efficiency. A mathematical model of the air intake system was built which is based on the electrical analogy and which uses the well-known results of the resonance RLC circuits.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1143
Yolanda Bravo, José L. Lázaro, José L. García-Bernad
An investigation was performed to characterize impact of soot deposition in the performance of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooling devices used in the EGR systems for diesel engines. The objective was to find an experimental test able to represent durability of the function in a real vehicle application. In order to apply the test as a validation tool in the EGR cooler design chain, this experimental test must be feasible in terms of time and test facilities. Thus, the definition of a test facility and of a cycle containing representative operation points of the engine has been made. The number of cycles has been adjusted to reproduce effect of vehicle exposure. The comparison of experimental test characterization with parts recovered from field and engine bench tests shows a good agreement, proving therefore the representativeness of the experimental test.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1144
Oliver Lang, José Geiger, Knut Habermann, Michael Wittler
To further reduce the Corporate Average Fuel Economy in order to meet the ACEA target values agreed upon, more intense efforts are required in the areas of engine and drive train development by 2008 or 2012. Boosted gasoline engines with a high specific output or torque have to be considered the tools that lead to this goal, while combining driving pleasure and consumption reduction in an ideal way. FEV has thoroughly analyzed this kind of concept and analyzed the fundamental synergy effects resulting from the additional combination of supercharging with direct injection in close detail.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1141
Ken-jen Lang, Lela Liu, Alec L. Lang, Louis Yizhang Liu
In this paper a novel multi-purpose flywheel (MPF) is introduced. This MPF has all the functions as a conventional flywheel, but it can function as a crankshaft wheel to detect crankshaft angular position, speed, and acceleration. Therefore, this MPF can eliminate the conventional crankshaft wheel. Since the flywheel is normally installed in the rear of an engine, the MPF provides more reliable engine acceleration information than a damper-based crankshaft wheel that is normally located at the front of an engine. Thus the new MPF reduces part counts, saves space, reduces cost, and especially benefits misfire detection and other applications in engine control and diagnoses. The principle, function, design, and manufacture of the MPF are presented in this paper. Bench test and vehicle test results are also presented.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1140
Marios Sideris, Michael Boye, Marcus Döring, Jeannot Paquay, Frank van der Staay
This paper offers a thorough statistical analysis of the innovation trends in Europe, USA and Japan in the field of internal combustion engines during the last 10 years, as seen by the European Patent Office (EPO) through the patent applications in the major Patent Offices. It demonstrates which technical fields (e.g. electronic management, emissions control etc) are the most active, who are the most important patent applicants and which country attracts the highest number of patent applications. Subfields of certain technical fields are also analyzed. The technical fields discussed are chosen according to the International Patent Classification (IPC) scheme, which is used to classify patent documents in Patent Offices all around the world. These technical fields include exhaust apparatus, turbochargers, electronic management of engines, valve control, fuel injection systems, EGR, engine construction etc.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1114
Justin A. Ura, Christian T. Goralski, George W. Graham, Robert W. McCabe, Joseph R. Theis
Desulfation characteristics of several model and fully-formulated monolithic lean NOx trap materials were studied in a laboratory flow reactor employing a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. For all samples, desulfation at elevated temperatures under reducing conditions resulted in appearance of sulfur dioxide (SO2) followed by carbonyl sulfide (COS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The data appear consistent with a desulfation mechanism involving elimination of SO2 from stored sulfates under reducing conditions, followed by reaction of the SO2 with CO and H2 to produce COS and H2S, respectively. Based on these observations, several cyclic and multistage desulfation strategies were devised which greatly decreased H2S emissions while achieving relatively rapid and complete sulfur removal.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1113
F. Rohr, S. D. Peter, E. Lox, M. Kögel, W. Müller, A. Sassi, C. Rigaudeau, L. Juste, G. Belot, P. Gélin, M. Primet
A commercial NOx-storage catalyst for gasoline applications containing Ba/CeO2/Al2O3, platinum, palladium and rhodium has been sulfated on the engine bench at 390 and 510°C with a nominal exposure of 1.3 g sulfur/liter catalyst. Lower exposures proved too low to have a notable impact on the catalytic performance. At 390°C the sulfur is completely adsorbed while at 510°C only partial adsorption is being observed. Sulfur is mainly deposited at the catalyst inlet thereby shielding the downstream region. Desulfation on synthetic gas bench at 700°C leads to a partial removal of the sulfur. The residual sulfur is more evenly distributed along the length of the catalyst compared to the sulfur profile in the sulfated catalyst. This causes an improvement of the NOx-activity at the inlet side while the NOx-performance at the outlet side decreases after desulfation.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1112
Takafumi Yamauchi, Shuichi Kubo, Satoshi Yamazaki
In this research we developed surface kinetic model with detailed reaction mechanisms for simulating reaction dynamics of NOx Storage& Reduction (NSR) Catalyst and three-way catalyst (TWC). Simulation results showed that surface site coverage strongly dominates catalytic reaction characteristics especially in transient state. So we confirmed that the surface kinetic model could play important roles in a useful tool for understanding detail reaction dynamics and searching the optimized operating conditions in the development of automotive catalysts which was always exposed to transient conditions. And the detailed reaction mechanisms in TWC and NSR catalyst were discussed on the basis of the calculated surface site coverage.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1489

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