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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1255
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0322
Keith Goossen, Adrian Wetzel
Radiant “barriers” are well known in building insulation applications, where foils or metallic paints have two functions, one to reflect infrared radiation and heat back into a building in the winter, and more relevant here, to present a low-emissivity surface so that less infrared radiation is emitted into the building in the summer. While the latter function can potential greatly reduce heat loss of process equipment, it has not seemingly been widely applied for that application. There are many potential applications where process equipment having surface temperatures above 100 F can benefit from having a low emissivity, “shiny” surface, and yet this surface condition is not attended to. Here, the heat loss formulas vs. emissivity and surface temperature are presented, a simple experiment using hot water heaters shown that verifies these experiments, and several potential applications shown.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0321
Tejal Kanitkar, Dragoljub Kosanovic
This paper presents a method for reliability assessment of the electric grid with distributed generation providing support to the system. Evaluation of customer controlled distributed generation contribution is done for two cases; the first case analyses distributed generation wherein generation units export power to the grid. The second case analyses onsite generation wherein units handle loads at individual customer sites, thus relieving grid congestion. Reliability parameters for the distributed generation systems were obtained from data collected from existing systems that have been in operation for an extended period of time. Calculations are performed on the IEEE-Reliability Test System. The state duration sampling approach using Monte Carlo simulations is employed to evaluate the ability of the system to meet demand requirements. The impact of distributed generation on the utility controlled grid as well as on individual customer reliability is evaluated.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0246
Patrick Granowicz, Gian Luigi Molteni, Toshikazu Kobayashi PhD
The multitude of megatrends influencing today's auto industry has clearly defined the need for new high performance thermal plastic composite materials that will extend product life under harsh conditions. In response a new family of nylons from DuPont which combines the ease of processing of conventional nylon resins with groundbreaking levels of resistance to chemicals, hot air, oil and coolant were developed. Comprehensive research shows that, in comparison to traditionally stabilized nylons, the lifetime of components can be significantly extended. This, along with other benefits, such as low warpage and an excellent surface appearance, make the new polyamides ideal for a range of applications, which to date have been reserved for metals or considerably more expensive high-performance thermoplastics.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0324
Subodh Chaudhari, Deepak Gupta, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
This research attempts to investigate the effect of change in system curve on the energy intensity method of measurement and verification of energy savings. With recent push from US government on energy efficiency through EPACT 2007 and upturn in performance contracted energy efficiency project implementations the effective and accurate evaluation of energy savings as compared to the baseline is of paramount importance. The authors have studied different methods of Measurement and Verification (M&V) of energy savings from literature to compare and contrast and clearly bring out merits and de-merits of each. Finally, the role of production level variable plays in establishing the baseline energy usage is discussed. Though modern models proposed in the literature of determining baseline energy usage consider production level, this variable is compounded from two variables viz., time of usage of a system and fraction of total capacity usage.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0245
Zhenfei Zhan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0244
Mark A. Smith, David Okonski
Current manufacture of alternative energy sources for automobiles, such as fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries, uses repeating energy modules to achieve targeted balances of power and weight for varying types of vehicles. Specifically for lithium-ion batteries, tens to hundreds of identical plastic parts are assembled in a repeating fashion; this assembly of parts requires complex dimensional planning and high degrees of quality control. This paper will address the aspects of dimensional quality for repeated, injection molded thermoplastic battery components and will include the following: First, dimensional variation associated with thermoplastic components is considered. Sources of variation include the injection molding process, tooling or mold, lot-to-lot material differences, and varying types of environmental exposure. Second, mold tuning and cavity matching between molds for multi-cavity production will be analyzed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0323
Brian James Abels, Kelly Kissock
Compressed air storage is an important, but often misunderstood, component of compressed air systems. This paper discusses methods to properly size compressed air storage in load-unload systems to avoid short cycling and reduce system energy use. First, key equations relating storage, pressure, and compressed air flow are derived using fundamental thermodynamic relations. Next, these relations are used to calculate the relation between volume of storage and cycle time in load-unload compressors. It is shown that cycle time is minimized when compressed air demand is 50% of compressor capacity. The effect of pressure drop between compressor system and storage on cycle time is discussed. These relations are used to develop guidelines for compressed air storage that minimize energy consumption. These methods are demonstrated in two case study examples.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0271
Rami Mansour, Douglas Romilly
Rear end collisions account for approximately $9 billion annually in the United States alone. These types of collisions account for nearly 30% of all vehicle impacts making them the most common type. Soft tissue injury to the neck (i.e. “whiplash”) is typically associated with this type of collision due to the occupant dynamics of the passengers in the struck vehicle. At low relative impact velocities, whiplash-type injuries are known to occur but are typically attributed to: 1) improper seat adjustment, 2) an “out-of-position” event, or 3) a low injury threshold due to age, gender, etc. In high impact collisions, both whiplash and occupant ejection can take place, the latter placing far greater risk of injury not only to the front seat occupant, but also to any rear seat passengers as well. The automobile seating system is the predominant safety device employed to protect the occupant during these types of collisions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0341
Iltesham Zameer Syed, Abhijit Mukherjee, Jeffrey Naber
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0269
Adam Bryant, Joseph Beno, Damon Weeks
Battlefield reconnaissance is an integral part of today's integrated battlefield management system. Current reconnaissance technology typically requires land based vehicle systems to observe while stationary or, at best, significantly limits travel speeds while collecting data. By combining current Canadian Light Armored Vehicle based reconnaissance systems with the Center for Electromechanics (CEM) electronically controlled active Electromechanical Suspension System (EMS), opportunities exist to substantially increase cross-country speeds at which useful reconnaissance data may be collected. This report documents a study performed by The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics with funding from L3-ES to use existing modeling and simulation tools to explore potential benefits provided by EMS for reconnaissance on the move.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0343
Patrick Haenel, Philipp Seyfried, Henning Kleeberg, Dean Tomazic
Downsized direct-injected boosted gasoline engines with high specific power and torque output are leading the way to reduce fuel consumption in passenger car vehicles while maintaining the same performance when compared to applications with larger naturally aspirated engines. These downsized engines reach brake mean effective pressure levels which are in excess of 20 bar. When targeting high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events called pre-ignition can occur. These pre-ignition events are typically accompanied by very high cylinder peak pressures which can lead to severe damage if the engine is not designed to withstand these high cylinder pressures. Although these pre-ignition events have been reported by numerous other authors, it seems that their occurrence is rather erratic which makes it difficult to investigate or reliably exclude them.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0270
Leigh Berger, Lisa Fallon, Michael G. Carpenter
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0344
Gilsu Choi, Zhuxian Xu, Ming Li, Shiv Gupta, Thomas Jahns, Fred Wang, Neil A. Duffie, Laura Marlino
This paper introduces a promising approach for developing an integrated traction motor drive based on the Integrated Modular Motor Drive (IMMD) concept. The IMMD concept strives to meet aggressive power density and performance targets by modularizing both the machine and power electronics and then integrating them into a single combined machine-plus-drive structure. Physical integration of the power electronics inside the machine makes it highly desirable to increase the power electronics operating temperature including higher power semiconductor junction temperatures and improved device packaging. Recent progress towards implementing the IMMD concept in an integrated traction motor drive is summarized in this paper. Several candidate permanent magnet (PM) machine configurations with different numbers of phases between 3 and 6 are analyzed to compare their performance characteristics and key application features.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0275
Christopher Furbish, Matthew Ivory, Michelle Hoffman, Robert Anderson, Russell Anderson
The forces applied through the steering column were measured during low speed rear-end crash tests with human subjects where the delta V ranged from 8.5 to 11.6 km/h. Control tests measured the steering column forces without occupant contact. Each occupant was subjected to at least one test where they were unaware at the time of impact, and one test where they were braced and aware of the impending collision. Test results showed that, in the unaware tests, none of the subjects maintained a controlled grip on the steering wheel. All subjects reestablished a controlled grip on the steering wheel between approximately 0.5 and 2 seconds following impact. Results of the control test allowed for discrimination between the inertial loading from the steering wheel and the loading applied to the steering wheel by the upper extremities for unaware subjects during the initial tensile phase of the steering column loading.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0345
Suresh Gopalakrishnan, Chandra Namuduri, Michael Reynolds
In this paper, a low-cost means to improve fuel economy in conventional vehicles by employing ultracapacitor based Active Energy Recovery Buffer (AERB) scheme will be presented. The kinetic energy of the vehicle during the coast down events is utilized to charge the ultracapacitor either directly or through a dc-dc converter, allowing the voltage to increase up to the maximum permissible level. When the vehicle starts after a Stop event, the energy stored in the capacitor is discharged to power the accessory loads until the capacitor voltage falls below a minimum threshold. The use of stored capacitor energy to power the accessory loads relieves the generator torque load on the engine resulting in reduced fuel consumption. Two different topologies are considered for implementing the AERB system. The first topology, which is a simple add-on to the conventional vehicle electrical system, comprises of the ultracapacitor bank and the dc-dc converter connected across the dc bus.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0276
Si-Woo Kim, So-Jung shim, Myung-Won Suh
A large study of rear-end collisions was conducted for the neck injury indicators and test procedures. Neck injury in low-speed rear-end collisions is a big issue because there are a lot of patients despite low-speed rear-end collisions. Europe, Korea and Japan introduced the specific part in the New Car Assessment Program to reduce whiplash injury in low-speed rear-end collisions. From the legal point of view, to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries caused by rearward displacement of the head in rear-end collision, USA, EC, Korea, Japan and others internationally cooperated to make the global technical regulation (GTR) in UNECE/WP29. In 2008, after much meandering, GTR No. 7 head restraints were established. However the GTR No.7 is not a unique regulation because many countries had their own opinions and domestic regulations, and many questions related to injury criteria and biomechanical issues of dummy remain unresolved.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0346
Gui-Jia Su, Lixin Tang
The voltage source inverter (VSI) possesses several drawbacks that make it difficult to meet the requirements of automotive applications for inverter volume, lifetime, and cost. The VSI requires a very high performance dc bus capacitor that is costly and bulky. Other characteristics of the VSI not only negatively impact its own reliability but also that of the motor as well as motor efficiency. These problems could be eliminated or significantly mitigated by the use of the current source inverter (CSI). The CSI doesn't require any dc bus capacitors but uses three small ac filter capacitors and an inductor as the energy storage component, thus avoiding many of the drawbacks of the VSI. The CSI offers several inherent advantages that could translate into a substantial reduction in inverter cost and volume, increased reliability, a much higher constant-power speed range, and improved motor efficiency and lifetime.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0273
Jeffrey Braganza, Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
The rear seat occupant has been the subject of an increasing number of research efforts in recent years. However, the majority of the research has focused on frontal impact, while there are also a number of studies concerned with low to moderate delta-V rear impact. Very limited work exists regarding the fate of the rear seat occupant involved in high-severity rear impact, especially when utilizing the BioRID anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Furthermore, it is evident that the out of position rear occupant, as defined by leaning forward prior to rear impact, is also of relevance to this line of research. The objective of this study is to explore and compare the response of BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III in conjunction with the effects of head restraint geometry and the occupant seating configuration (normal seating versus forward leaning) in high-severity rear impact tests.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0347
Abdenour Abdelli, Fabrice Le Berr
This paper presents an analytical approach to model an interior permanent magnet motor for a hybrid electric vehicle. Therefore, an analytical model for the calculation of parameters of an interior permanent magnet motor is presented. Furthermore, these parameter values are compared with good agreement to those from finite-element analysis and experimental data. An analytical model to simulate the behaviour of the motor and its control are developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. The thermal analysis of the motor prototype is also done. At the end, the presented model is embedded in the hybrid vehicle simulator and improvements are proposed, such as an analytical approach based on the finite element results to include the core saturation effect.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0348
Shin Aoki, Tadanobu Takahashi
Size reduction is a significant requirement for hybrid vehicle motors. To meet this requirement, a small new-structure transverse flux (T.F.) motor has been developed, with efforts focused on coil end elimination and a higher motor torque density. The new structure is characterized by a stator core with a three-dimensional flux path configuration. A prototype motor was also designed and produced using ring coils and stator cores made of soft magnetic composites (SMC). The prototype performance was tested to verify the validity of the new magnetic circuit configuration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0274
David C. Viano
Purpose: This study presents cases of fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine in extension during severe rear impacts. The mechanism of injury was investigated. Methods: Four crashes were investigated where a lap-shoulder-belted, front-seat occupant experienced fracture-dislocation of the thoracic spine and paraplegia in a severe rear impact. Police, investigator and medical records were reviewed, the vehicle was inspected and the seat detrimmed. Vehicle dynamics, occupant kinematics and injury mechanisms were determined in this case study. Results: Each case involved a lap-shoulder-belted occupant in a high retention seat with ≻1,700 Nm moment or ≻5.5 kN strength for rearward loading. The crashes were offset rear impacts with 40-56 km/h delta V involving under-ride or override by the impacting vehicle and yaw of the struck vehicle. In each case, the occupant's pelvis was restrained on the seat by the open perimeter frame of the seatback and lap belt.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0261
Nathan T. Dorris, Kelly A. Burke
In a previous SAE paper (2001-01-0046), the authors reviewed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) activities in the development of mandatory air bag warnings and analyzed those activities against the framework of the available human factors engineering (HFE) and warning literature. That analysis concluded that in both rulemaking procedures, NHTSA developed labeling requirements that appropriately addressed the respective injury prevention policies and strategies of those respective timeframes. In most regards, the agency properly identified and responded to HFE criteria although some methodological improvement could be obtained. Since the previous paper, the rulemaking process has continued and there have been significant changes to the mandatory air bag warnings. Some of these changes reflect the improvements in advanced air bag technologies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0333
Yousef Jeihouni, Stefan Pischinger, Ludger Ruhkamp, Thomas Koerfer
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0334
Jim Cowart, Matthew Carr, Pat Caton, Lars Stoulig, Dianne Luning-Prak, Andrew Moore, Leonard Hamilton
Synthetic diesel fuels from Fischer-Tropsch or hydrotreating processes have high cetane numbers with respect to conventional diesel fuel. This study investigates diesel combustion characteristics with these high cetane fuels. A military jet fuel (JP-5 specification), a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic diesel, and normal hexadecane (C16), a pure component fuel with defined cetane number of 100, are compared with operation of conventional military diesel fuel (F-76 specification). The fuels are tested in a AM General GEP HMMWV engine, an indirect-injection, largely mechanically-controlled diesel engine. Hundreds of thousands of these are in current use and are projected to be in service for many years to come. Experimental testing showed that satisfactory operation could be achieved across the speed-load operating map even for the highest cetane fuel (normal hexadecane). The JP-5, FT, and C16 fuels all showed later injection timing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0258
Yang Yang, William Liou, James Sheng, David Gorsich, Sudhakar Arepally
Ground vehicle subjecting to a blast can sustain vehicle damages and occupant injuries. Direct blast thermal and force loadings compromise vehicle structural integrity and cause damages. Computer simulations of vehicle blast wave damages can be obtained by solving the gas dynamics of the blast wave and the structural dynamics of the vehicle, through a projection of the wave's impact on the vehicle structure. There are various possible ways that the blast can cause injuries to the vehicle occupants, such as direct collision with objects instantly accelerated by the blast pressure and impact by the secondary shock waves transmitted through the platform structure. This paper describes a parallel computer simulation methodology that can potentially be applied to predict the structure damage and the associated occupant kinematics during a blast event by solving the multi-physics problem of fluid dynamics, solid dynamics, and multi-body dynamics.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0335
Lucas Murphy, David Rothamer
The effects of jet fuel properties on compression ignition engine operation were investigated under high-load conditions for jet fuels with varying cetane number. A single-cylinder oil-test engine (SCOTE) with 2.44 L displacement was used to test a baseline #2 diesel fuel with a cetane number of 43, a Jet-A fuel with a cetane number of 47, and two mixtures of Jet-A and a Fishcer-Tropsch JP-8 with cetane numbers of 36 and 42, respectively. The engine was operated under high-load conditions corresponding to traditional diesel combustion, using a single injection of fuel near TDC. The fuels were tested using two different intake camshafts with closing times of -143 and -85 CAD BTDC. Injection timing sweeps were performed over a range of injection timings near TDC for each camshaft. The apparent net heat release rate (AHRR) data showed an increase in the premixed burn magnitude as cetane number decreased in agreement with previous work.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0260
Rachel Strauss, Megan Bland, Adam Biddle, Matthew P. Reed
As passenger car use becomes more common in developing countries, the number of child passengers killed and injuries also increases. Rates of child restraint use appear to be much lower in developing countries than in the U.S. or Europe. One barrier to increased restraint use is the relatively high cost of child restraints in low- and middle-income countries, where the cost of child restraints can be similar to the U.S. but incomes and typical vehicle prices are much lower. As part of a broader effort to improve child passenger safety worldwide, a team at the University of Michigan has begun development of a child restraint that is intended to be fabricated using low-cost technology in developing countries with minimal capital investment. Providing a design that has been tested successfully to regulatory standards may reduce barriers to entry and allow the restraints to be marketed at low prices.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0336
Ryo Michikawauchi, Shiro Tanno, Yasushi Ito, Mutsumi Kanda
Alcohol fuels that can be produced from cellulose continue to become more widely used in gasoline engines. This research investigated the application of alcohol to diesel engines with the aims of improving the combustion of diesel engines and of utilizing alternative fuels. Two methods were compared, a method in which alcohol is injected into the air intake system and a method in which alcohol is blended in advance into the diesel fuel. Alcohol is an oxygenated fuel and so the amount of soot that is emitted is small. Furthermore, blended fuels have characteristics that help promote mixture formation, which can be expected to reduce the amount of soot even more, such as a low cetane number, low viscosity, low surface tension, and a low boiling point. Ethanol has a strong moisture-absorption attribute and separates easily when mixed with diesel fuel. Therefore, 1-butanol was used since it possesses a strong hydrophobic attribute and does not separate easily.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0267
William W. Van Arsdell, Paul Weber, Charles Stankewich, Daniel Davee, Marie Moralde
This study investigates the technique used and forces applied on the latch plate and buckle during typical seat belt operation and driving conditions. These techniques and forces are relevant to whether the latch plate can be partially engaged with the buckle during typical operation and whether the latch plate will dislodge during vehicle operation. In addition to studying the insertion of the latch plate, we examined the tensile forces that are applied to the latch plate and buckle during typical, non-crash driving conditions, and how these forces compare to the performance requirements established by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) as part of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 209. These tensile forces are important in understanding whether the latch plate is likely to dislodge from the buckle if it is in a position of partial engagement.
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