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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1170
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0021
Joonchul Park
The automotive weather strip performs functions of isolating water, dust, noise and vibration from the outside. To achieve good sealing performance, weather strip should be designed to have the high contact force and wide contact area. The compression load of weather strip is important for closing force in initial quality, but the permanent deformation is used to predict influx of wind noise over long periods of time. To check these accurately and easily, a new test method is demanded. So this paper introduces a new test method to predict the compression load and permanent deformation of 3D full vehicle by using ABAQUS. Uniaxial tension and creep tests were conducted to obtain the material data. The lab test for the permanent deformation was accelerated at high temperature during shorter time of 300 hours. Herein Proposed test method can provide accurate prediction under the different loading conditions and section shapes, and will also save time and cost.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0022
Eduard Lyubimov, Sergey P. Gladyshev, Dmitriy Istselemov, Nikolay Belyaev
Heavy-duty trucks and self-propelled platforms are widely spread for the purpose of transportation of heavy and bulky loads. Power units of these vehicles consist of synchronous electric generators (alternators) driven by diesel engines. The generator supplies electricity to each motor-wheel of the vehicle and to all its systems. Alternators are also used in cars' and trucks' electric systems to supply their electric and electronic devices (e.g., headlights, safety systems, etc.). Substantial reserves of production and quality improvement of such alternators are hidden in their tests technique improvement. In this paper, the software is designed for mobile and stationary test stands of the alternators. The software was created using "LabVIEW" development system. It is designed to be used with "National Instruments®" hardware.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0023
Sivakumar Balakrishnan, Anoop PP, Ravindra V Kharul, Sasun C
Accurate durability prediction is an important requirement in today's automobile industry. To achieve the same, it is imperative to have a good estimation of time histories of strains, accelerations etc. at various locations on the vehicle structure. This is usually difficult to obtain as a typical data acquisition exercise takes lots of time, cost and effort. This paper aims to address this problem by predicting the strain time histories accurately at various locations on the vehicle chassis from a few channels of measured data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The predicted strain histories were found to be quite accurate as the error in fatigue lives between the measured and the thus predicted time histories at various strain locations were found to be less than 15%. This approach was found to be very useful in collecting huge amounts of customer usage data with minimum instrumentation and small sized data loggers.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0017
Thomas Oetjens, Boris Shulkin
Two types of approaches for material definitions and methods for worst case scenarios are explored. The first is from the material specification supplied by the OEM or the alloy producer for the material, which has basic material properties and no specific FLC. The potential exists that any material within the specification can be delivered to the stamping plants. The second is if the material is to be supplied within a narrowed band of material specification with a known FLC. For both cases, there is considerable pressure from product design to use the most formable material possible. However, if a material is delivered outside the FEA testing limits, the results can be catastrophic. A specification is proposed to take advantage of the formability capability to enhance product performance while minimizing stamping plant risk.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0018
Ramin Hashemi, Amir Ghazanfari, Karen Abrinia, Ahmad Assempour
The influence of sheet thickness on sheet metal forming limits is a controversial issue; while some investigations indicate the considerable influence of thickness on forming limit diagrams (FLDs), others suggest that it is of negligible importance. In the present work, it has been demonstrated that if the thickness-reduction process is chosen so as not to alter the micro structure of the material, the forming limits do not change with variations of thickness. A material which has extensive usage in sheet metal forming processes of automotive industry (St14) has been provided. The initial thickness of the sheet is 1.5mm and using grinding process (which does not alter the microstructure) the initial thickness is reduced to different thicknesses, namely 1 and 0.5mm. Afterwards, the FLDs for all three thicknesses were determined using standard test methods. The FLDs for specimens which were ground to various thicknesses differ slightly.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0020
Amir Ghazanfari, Ahmad Assempour
Major forming limit prediction models and calibration methods are reviewed briefly and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Two modified Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) models and one modified NADDRG (Keeler-Brazier) model are also presented which have some advantages over conventional models. In the first modified M-K model, material non-homogeneity has been substituted for geometrical non-homogeneity to reduce the sensitivity of the traditional model to variations of the initial non-homogeneity. Using this important advantage, a semi-empirical relation is proposed to predict the value of the initial material non-homogeneity. In the second modified M-K model, the conventional calibration method (which requires an experimental point, corresponding to plain strain condition, to find the initial non-homogeneity and calibrate the model) is revised and the uniaxial tensile point, which is easily obtained, is proposed to be used in the calibration process.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0019
Muhammad Farahani, Ahmad Assempour
A nonlinear inverse finite element method is developed for estimation of initial blank shape and strain distribution in final shape. This method often based on implicit static algorithms, causes sometimes convergence problems because of strong nonlinearities. In order to avoid the converging problems, especially in the quasi vertical walls, an appropriate initial guess is introduced. By using this initial guess, the number of iterations in the nonlinear numerical solution is decreased, solution speed is significantly increased and complicated geometries can be analyzed by this method with good accuracy. Application to a Srail part shows good agreement between commercially available finite element software and IFEM results.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0016
ZiQiang Sheng
Sheet metal forming at elevated temperatures, or so-called sheet metal warm/hot forming, is a relatively new forming process to make sheet metal parts with low mass. An accurate and convenient description of forming limit is critical for the success of forming process design and improvement. Strain-based Forming Limit Diagram has long been used to describe forming limit in cold sheet metal forming. However, at elevated temperatures, the formability of those sheet metals is strongly governed by both temperatures and strain rates. In order to extend the Forming Limit Diagram method into elevated temperature domain, a large number of forming limit curves are intuitively required to cover different temperatures and strain rates. It is not only costly to obtain but also inconvenient to apply those forming limit curves in industrial practice.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0037
Joe Tillo, Steve Tressler, Jonathan Hanson
New vehicle systems that stop and restart the engine to avoid prolonged idling place new requirements on audio systems. In particular, there is a need for the audio system to continue to operate during the engine start sequence. In the past this was not an issue, as audio systems could be turned off during the engine start sequence. Among the ramifications for this “operate while starting” requirement is that the audio system must operate at a lower voltage, say 6 volts, instead of 10 volts. Audio system operation in this context means continuing to play music without interruption or spurious noises. The main focus of this presentation is on audio circuits, both line-level and speaker level. In the past, line level outputs could be fed by linear regulated power supplies that developed 8 to 10 volts. The signal levels sent from one module to another could thus be in the 3 volt RMS range.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0038
Sung Hyun Kang, Young Wook Song, Sa Rah Kim
This ‘Motion-Sensor Moustick’ is a sort of new concept control device as if a combination of PC mouse and joystick. It has three simple buttons and a haptic wheel designed for a faster and easier use to learn the vehicle infotainment functions. In addition it has a motion sensor to call a menu via hand approach to change media channels or to display status with just a driver's hand motion within a certain distance. Also this development includes a new concept GUI(graphical user interface) which is compatible with the ‘Moustick’ device. This development could be very helpful to use a car infotainment system.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1169
Obinna Ehirim
Race car aerodynamic design and improvements enhance the performance of a race car. However, the use of aerodynamic devices by FSAE collegiate teams have been largely minimal although design requirements in Formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) do allow the inclusion of aerodynamic or ground effect devices (rear and front wings, under tray and diffusers) to enhance vehicle performance. This is largely due to design complexity and lengthy hours needed to develop a design for these devices. Subsequently, this issue has prevented several FSAE teams from implementing the design of ground effect or race car aerodynamic devices. However, this research work has devised a much simpler and accurate process in conducting Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1168
P.S. Sriram, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Andrew Misenheimer
Using a combination of inverse airfoil design techniques, rapid interactive analysis methods, detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel testing, aft loading of an airfoil has been explored as a design direction for high-downforce airfoils for race car rear wing applications while ensuring performance sustainability across a wide angle-of-attack operating range. Unlike in aircraft oriented high-lift airfoil designs, pitching moment constraints can be circumvented for race vehicle wing designs and this allows for further design freedom in the quest for downforce. The PROFOIL inverse design code was used to design a candidate airfoil exhibiting downforce maximized using aft loading at low Reynolds numbers.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1167
Daniel del Cerro Turner, Yufeng Yao, Denis Marchant
This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study of motorcycle aerodynamic performance through belly pan design and improvement process. A 1/6th scale motorcycle model was adopted and tested in a closed-return low-speed wind tunnel. Due to the light weight of the scale model, a test platform with an innovative method to balance and obtain measurement data was proposed and applied that overcame the difficulties of using the normal method of hanging the model from a strut. Prior tests were performed through a careful calibration process against benchmark data. A CAD model was also re-constructed and flow simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were performed. Based on wind tunnel tests and CFD simulations of the baseline model, it was found that the flow around the low-section of the vehicle between the front and the rear wheels was highly non-uniform due to geometry variations and ground effects.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1172
Peter Hylton, Andrew Borme, Chase Kaufman, Ryan Corso, Paul Lucas
A number of performance and safety related aspects of motorsports have received attention in recent years, but not at the same level of in-depth engineering research analysis that other similar highly technical industries have. Part of this can be attributed to the fact that motorsports has not had the same close working relationship with the students and faculty in the academic research arena that other industries have historically had. This is changing as more institutions of higher education are building closer relationships with teams, businesses, and sanctioning bodies in the motorsports industry. This paper will discuss how the motorsports engineering faculty and students at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis have utilized the traditional research approach of academia to assist in the design of new aspects of competition vehicles aimed at increasing safety and also enhancing performance.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1173
Todd Fitz
Laboratory accelerated weathering test methods, such as SAE J2527 and JIS D 0205, are used to predict long term durability in the development and approval of automotive coatings. However, recent studies have shown that these methods are deficient with respect to spectral match to sunlight, simulation of water, and temperature profile. These deficiencies can limit the confidence of the laboratory accelerated test, and as a result the user needs to rely more heavily on long term natural exposure results. To increase the confidence of laboratory accelerated weathering testing, a new xenon arc light source filter and test protocol were investigated. Through a combination of natural weathering studies and prototype method testing, an improved accelerated weathering test cycle has been developed.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1170
David Anderson, Justin Callies, Baitao Xiao, Robert Gary Prucka
This research describes several data processing and analysis techniques that can be used to quantify indicated torque losses associated with in-cylinder thermodynamic events. The detailed thermodynamic techniques are intended to aid the development of performance engines under high-load conditions. This study investigates potential IMEP gains that could be made to an engine based on evaluating cylinder and manifold pressure data collected during wide-open-throttle operation. Examination of the data can guide engine design changes by exposing inefficiencies that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. Examples of calibration adjustments and physical intake and exhaust manifold design changes are also presented to validate the data analysis techniques presented. The research data sets were recorded using a 5.3L V8 engine in conjunction with a highly-controlled transient dynamometer.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1171
Lorenzo Scappaticci, Giacomo Risitano, Michele Battistoni, Carlo Grimaldi
This work focuses on optimizing the aerodynamic design of a vehicle produced for supersport use. The main objective was to search for the best performance in terms of aerodynamics by optimizing the behavior with slight changes, in order to respect the distinctive forms of the fairing of the vehicle, keeping the motorbike recognizable: in this way the rules of road competitions, such as the World Super Bike Championship, are fulfilled, since the fairing equipment remains quite similar to the OEM one. As a matter of fact, the optimization was obtained by realizing slight changes and suitable aerodynamic appendices that can be produced aftermarket.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1177
Hamma Tadjine, Karsten Schulze, Sven Bogdanow, marcel heiddel
The increasing complexity of automotive design includes elementary aspects such as lighting. In order to validate modern light systems, new approaches must be developed. Innovative solutions are provided with an indoor lighting facility which performs tests under ideal and repeatable environmental conditions, as well as a ground-breaking approach in evaluating the static and dynamic aspects of lighting. This combination enables the simulation of traffic scenarios and the stimulation of lighting assistance systems.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1174
Syed Mahdi
Ceramic enamel (frit) is an opaque, decorative border found along the periphery of glass windshields used in passenger and commercial transportation vehicles, as well as, architectural spandrel and decorative glass applications. In transportation and architectural applications, the primary function of ceramic enamel is to conceal aesthetically unpleasing, but essential structural components and to prevent photodegradation of the underlying polyurethane adhesive, which is used to bond glass windows into supporting structures. Typically, ceramic enamels are applied by screen printing ceramic slurry onto the glass substrate, which is subsequently fired in a furnace during the glass-forming process. The fired enamel is then primed with solvent-based primer(s) to facilitate adhesion between the enamel and polyurethane adhesive.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1181
Atsushi Togawa, Daisuke Murakami, Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
This study proposes an impact-triggered automatic braking system as a potential safety improvement based on the characteristics of the Multiple Impact Crashes (MICs). The system activates with a signal of airbag deployment in a collision to reduce the vehicle speed in the subsequent collisions. The effectiveness was estimated by an in-depth review of the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). The cases were extracted on the basis of the 3-point lap and shoulder belted occupants, incurring Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale level 3 to 6 injuries (MAIS 3+), in the crashes occurred from 2004 to 2006, without vehicle rollover or occupant ejection, where the involved vehicles were 2000 and newer model year cars and light trucks.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1180
Mohamed Ali Emam
This paper presents a safety mechanism that is supposed to be used to enhance in the agricultural tractors. A tractor instability situation may be occurring when drawbar force becomes large enough to cause no load (weight) on its front axle. This endangers the tractor stability and the tractor will be overturned rearward. The proposed tractor safety mechanism is based on monitoring the location of tractor center of gravity and progressively shifting forward in a dead weight to counteract for the effect of tractors front lift-up. A laboratory tractor model has been developed in such a way that the lift of its front is sensed and accordingly a mechanism that shifts a movable dead weight ahead to the front a distance that automatically ensures its longitudinal stability. Such arrangement provides a solution that practically ensures longitudinal tractor stability in the situations when maximum drawbar-pull is suddenly developed.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1178
Mario Nombela, Eloi Boix
Worldwide, 1.2 million people die in road crashes yearly; 43,000 in Europe alone. This implies a cost to European society of approximately 160 billion euros, and takes up 10% of all healthcare resources. To reduce these rates, safety technologies have been developed which help to minimize the severity of injuries to vehicle occupants. However, studies have shown that most deaths due to road accidents occur in the time between the accident and the arrival of medical care. Therefore, a fast and efficient rescue operation would significantly increase the injured person's probability of survival. The aim of this project was to define the On-Board Unit (OBU) hardware and software installed in all modern vehicles which could request medical and technical support after a road accident. This device, based on the information from the vehicle sensors, automatically decides whether the car has suffered a road accident or not, the severity of the accident and the kind of accident (impact area).
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1179
Renaud Deborne, Reymond Gilles, Andras Kemeny
In order to improve driver safety, car manufacturers propose a wide range of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Their behavior can drastically modify the vehicle dynamics and generate for the driver a discrepancy between the expected and observed behavior. The modification of car response can also be due to the occurrence of an ADAS component failure. It appears the assessment of the impact of such systems and such events on the driver is a major challenge, which designers have to cope with. However, it appears, the monitoring of driver's response may become complex to implement on real car or even hazardous. The introduction of driving simulator allows overcoming many of these limitations but the conduct of exhaustive experiments is also difficult considering the number of possible events, driving context and involving a wide range of drivers' profiles. The use of driver models which is able to reflect driver control behavior in such conditions is necessary.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1160
Scott W. Piper, James Teune
Whenever a new simulation tool or method is introduced into a product development process, immediately the tool is required to prove its worth before it can be trusted. Typically, this requires a reproduction of results that were originally obtained using physical measurement equipment. Proving out a simulation tool or method has challenges. The challenges include the need to engineer a test representative of the problems that the tool will need to solve but be simple enough for the results to be easily understood. Electromagnetic modeling and simulation tools are able to solve many types of problems, such as determining electromagnetic cross coupling from one conductor to another, the radiation of an electromagnetic field by a conductor, and analyzing impedance of a printed circuit board power distribution network. There are problems that arise in both measurement and modeling techniques but the two used together can overcome the weaknesses of either technique.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1165
Niklas Dyverfors, Kristoffer Borre, Christian Arnell, Jonathan Rice
This study reflects on two areas of vehicle aerodynamics, optimising cooling performance and features that will improve the handling of the car. Both areas will have a significant impact on the overall performance of the car and at the same time these areas are linked to each other. The considered vehicle in this study was the Chalmers Formula Student 2011 Formula SAE car and the flow field was analysed using both numerical simulations as well as performing wind tunnel experiments on a 1:3-scale model of the car. The focus on increasing downforce without increasing the aerodynamic drag is particularly good in Formula SAE since fuel economy is an event at the competition. Therefore, the intention of this work is to present a study on how undertrays with different design such as added foot plates, diffuser and strakes can improve the downforce and reduce the drag.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1164
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Jianlin Wei, Jihong Wang
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have long been used to test electronic control units (ECUs) and software in car manufacturers. It provides an effective platform to the rapid development process of the ECU control algorithms and accommodates the added complexity of the plant under control. Accurate Model based HIL simulation (AMHIL) is considered as a most efficient and cost effective way for exploration of new designs and development of new products, particularly in calibration and parameterization of vehicle stability controllers. The work presented in the paper is to develop a mathematical model of a windscreen wiper system for the purpose of conducting HIL vehicle test and eventually to replace the real component with the model for cost cutting and improved test efficiency. The model is developed based on the electro-mechanical engineering principles.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1163
Boris Nikolaevich Beloousov, Tatiana Ksenevich
The article presents results of comprehensive theoretical and experimental studies aimed at creation of traction-and-transport vehicles (TTVs) - trucks and tractors of the future, which meet the modern requirements for their active and environmental safety. The concept is based on the original complex mathematical model (CMM), which allows simulating various interaction schemes of all TTV systems, including those accounting for the contact (tribological) interaction of the wheel with the rolling surface. The CMM was used to study the work of all the subsystems of TTVs equipped with electric transmission, all-wheel steering and electro-hydraulic servo system of wheel turning, as well as with the wheel-springing system and the onboard information-and-control system. Besides, the CMM and its individual units were used as simulators for programming the functionality algorithms of all these subsystems and their relationships with each other.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1161
Jun Tajima, Norihiko Sakamoto, Tsutomu Mochida, Shin Tanaka, Hiroshi Yasuda
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1067
William Glewen, David Heuwetter, David E. Foster, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger
Deviations between transient and steady state operation of a modern light duty diesel engine were identified by comparing rapid load transitions to steady state tests at the same speeds and fueling rates. The validity of approximating transient performance by matching the transient charge air flow rate and intake manifold pressure at steady state was also assessed. Results indicate that for low load operation with low temperature combustion strategies, transient deviations of MAF and MAP from steady state values are small in magnitude or short in duration and have relatively little effect on transient engine performance. A new approximation accounting for variations in intake temperature and excess oxygen content of the EGR was more effective at capturing transient emissions trends, but significant differences in magnitudes remained in certain cases indicating that additional sources of variation between transient and steady state performance remain unaccounted for.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1060
Surendra Datar
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1170

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