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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1366
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0804
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon, John Melvin
Throughout the first decade of the twenty first century, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) race series. Enhancements to the occupant restraint system include the implementation and advancement of head and neck restraints (HNR), minimum performance requirements for belts and seats and the introduction of energy-absorbing foam are a few highlights, among others. This paper summarizes three non-injury case studies of actual on-track incidents, including the acceleration pulses, principal direction of force, restraint systems used and driver anthropometry information. Also discussed are the NASCAR personal safety equipment requirements as well as frontal, oblique and side sled testing data of similar input acceleration magnitudes for the Hybrid III (H-III) fiftieth percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0802
Yuping He
This paper presents the design of airfoil and briefly introduces a real physical prototype for an actively controlled wing to improve high speed vehicle safety. Conventionally, active safety systems of road vehicles, including active steering and differential braking, mainly manipulate the tire/road forces to enhance the lateral stability of vehicles. However, this active safety technology is hindered by the saturation of tire/road forces at high lateral accelerations and on icy slippery roads. In contrast, the use of controlled aerodynamic forces has received little attention. In this paper, the actively controlled wing is proposed to manipulate the negative lift force (downforce) to enhance handling capabilities of vehicles at high speeds.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0806
Timo Völkl, Martin Muehlmeier, Hermann Winner
The extended steady state lap time simulation combines a quasi steady state approach with a transient vehicle model. The transient states are treated as distance dependent parameters during the calculation of the optimal lap by the quasi steady state method. The quasi steady state result is used afterwards to calculate a new dynamic behavior, which induces in turn a different quasi steady state solution. This iteration between the two parts is repeated until the dynamic states have settled. An implementation of the extended quasi steady state simulation is built up to determine the capabilities of the approach. In addition to pure steady state simulation abilities, the method is able to judge the influence of the transient or time variant vehicle states on lap time. Sensitivity studies are generated to analyze the influence of basic parameters like mass, but also the influence of parameters with transient interaction like vertical damping or tire temperature.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0805
John J. Christopher, Mark R. Sochor, Joseph Pellettiere, Robert Scott Salzar
Monitoring head accelerations as an indicator of possible brain injury may lead to faster identification of injury and treatments. This study investigates the skull-coupling of a tri-axial accelerometer mounted to a back molar and compares it with a tri-axial accelerometer inserted in the boney ear canal. These tri-axial accelerometers were mounted to three post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) skulls, and compared with a rigid, skull-mounted laboratory sensor reference cube. Each specimen was subjected to both a high-g loading from a vertical drop tower and a low frequency cyclic loading from a shaker device. The specimens were subjected to an approximate 150g input acceleration on the drop tower, and up to 10g at a frequency of 9Hz on the shaker device. Each specimen was tested on all three of the anatomical axes on both the drop tower and the cyclic shaker.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0829
Alastair Long, David Thornhill, Cecil Armstrong, David Watson
Die pre-heating has a beneficial effect on die life, by reducing thermal shock and stress fluctuations on the die surface. The findings from this paper indicate that the die surface stress decreased by 44% when the die is pre-heated to 150°C, and decreases by 57% when the die is pre-heated to 200°C, in comparison to when the die is started "cold" with an initial temperature of 20°C. Changes to the die start-up procedure, by switching off the die internal water cooling for the first four casting cycles, results in the die heating to operating temperature in fewer casting cycles, resulting in fewer castings being scrapped before the die achieves steady state operating temperature. From this, a saving of four castings per start-up can be made, reducing scrap by 4.5%, leading to lower manufacturing costs, reduced energy usage and increased useful die life.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0799
Sachin R Kamath, Prajwal Kumar M P, Shashank S N, Vinay Damodaran, Anand S R, Prakash Kulkarni
Engine overheating problems have been the major cause for vehicle breakdown during FSAE endurance runs. Therefore, it is crucial to study the cooling performance, which is affected by the air flow through the side-pod. CFD is used as a tool for this study and simulation based on the complete race car 3D model (NITK Racing 2012 formula student race car - NR XII) is carried out for different cases. Further, Wind Tunnel Experiment is carried out to validate these results. The results obtained for different cases are analyzed to decide the best configuration of the cooling duct. CFD analysis helped in calculating the mass flow rate through the radiator at various velocities. Pressure distribution and velocity distribution were also obtained along the length of the side-pod for different velocities of the car. Area of flow separation and turbulence is visualized and thus smooth airflow into the radiator core area is ensured.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0801
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Since its inception in 1948, NASCAR® (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) has continually strived to promote and improve driver, crew and spectator safety. As the vehicles used in NASCAR have changed over the years, their windshields have evolved also. The 1948 NASCAR Rulebook specified that all cars must have safety glass. In 2013, the NASCAR Sprint cup Series will use a laminated polycarbonate windshield. This paper describes the ballistic testing of the latest polycarbonate laminated design as well as previous monolithic polycarbonate designs.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0800
John Patalak, Thomas Gideon
Over the last twenty years, large improvements in occupant safety have been made in NASCAR®'s (National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc.) racing series. While proper occupant protection requires both occupant restraint and preservation of sufficient occupant survival space, this study is focused mainly on the latter of these two necessities. The NASCAR tubular vehicle chassis has evolved through the years to provide improved protection for the driver in rollover incidents. The chassis has continued to progress over time to improve its strength as unique crashes sometimes highlighted opportunities for advancement. Recent enhancements tested using computer modeling, quasi-static testing, and full scale drop tests have improved the roof structure of the stock car chassis. These improvements have been incorporated into the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup and Nationwide Series cars.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0835
Henry Hameister
To join sheet metal made out of aluminium, riveting is common practice. This process contains several disadvantages. On the one hand, large, specially designed and cost-intensive machines are used within automation engineering. Normally, those tools are not reconfigurable and cannot be used for general purposes. On the other hand, adding the rivet to the structure also increases weight of the whole craft. The proposed method of friction welding addresses those limitations of riveting. At the Institute of Production Engineering, Helmut-Schmidt-University, research is conducted to provide a control assuring process reliability to perform friction welding fully automated as well as manually. Friction spot welding is a sub-section of friction welding, where a rotating tool that consists out of three parts is used to heat up material to a dough-like state.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0833
S. Chaudhari, Deepak Gupta, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan
Industries related to automotive manufacturing and its supply chain play a key role in leaving a carbon footprint during an automobile's life cycle. Per the report from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in March, 2008 [1], “motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually.” The proposed research will focus on energy savings opportunities in automotive manufacturing and its supplier network. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds 24 Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) throughout the U.S. that conduct energy assessments at many of these facilities. The results of these assessments are summarized in a database maintained by Rutgers University which acts as the central management body for all the IACs. This research will present key concepts summarized from this database.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0834
Jason Cambridge, Shane Frazier, David W. Goodman, Malek Nofal, Ali Razban
This paper discusses an energy efficient compressed air system at an industrial automation components manufacturing facility. The authors performed and energy assessment as part of the DOE's Industrial Assessment Center program and followed up with additional investigations on the compressed air system. The compressed air system utilizes an outlet pressure transducer to a microcontroller to adjust system capacity by changing motor speed and modulating an electric proportional inlet valve. This control system allows reduced modulation of operating pressure and a lower operating set point, when compared to either system alone, and avoids thermal overloads when the VFD attempts to operate at low frequencies. The control system will be examined and discussed with respect to operation, energy savings, installation costs, and payback.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0831
Shigeki Nitta, Kanako Ito
The purpose of this study is to define requirements for technological and business success in the world's first implementation of Reverse-Supply-Chain, in which bumper materials of end-of-life vehicles (ELV) are recycled for use as ingredients in new bumper materials. In Japan, ELVs are recovered following to the government regulation. About 20% (700,000 ton) of such collected ELVs are automotive shredder residues (ASR), most of which are burnt as fuel or used as landfill trash. ASRs are mainly plastics, which are largely used as materials of bumpers. The reverse-supply-chain was started as a small business by a collaboration between the car manufacture (Mazda), dismantler, and resource-recycling business operator, and enhanced by the development of easy-to-recycle bumpers, technologies of paint removal from crushed bumpers and sorting-out, a material quality control method, and improvement in transportation efficiency.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0832
Alex R. Quintal, Ghanshym Gaudani, Dragoljub Kosanovic
Chilled water systems constitute a major portion of energy consumption in manufacturing plants. In many cases, these systems do not operate at optimal efficiency due to the operating parameters set and/or the components used. As companies and building administrators search for ways to reduce operating costs and save money, energy conservation is on the forefront of many boardroom discussions. Because chilled water systems are a major consumer of energy, they are prime targets for energy conservation analysis. However, the time constraints and ability of the interested parties make the task of analyzing the system daunting and is therefore, rarely undertaken. For this reason, a tool to provide energy consumption and potential saving estimates would be highly beneficial. The results of this preliminary analysis may provide the motivation to undertake a more through savings analysis.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0893
Elana Chapman, Jill Cummings, Douglas Conran
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0883
Arjun Prakash, Aaron Jones, Edward Nelson, James Macias, Eugene Jimenez, Matthew Hinojosa
A higher octane quality fuel used in premium-recommended vehicles has the potential for delivering better acceleration and power. Octane number is a standard measure for the anti-knock quality of a gasoline fuel. A higher octane number fuel can withstand more compression before detonation (or knock). Higher compression ratios directly correlate with engine power and thermodynamic efficiency. Hence engines that are designed for higher octane or premium grade fuels should typically develop higher power by extracting more from the calorific value of the fuel. However, in the case of premium-recommended vehicle models that are designed to run even on lower octane fuels, the extent of performance benefits of using premium grade higher octane fuels can be deciphered via vehicle testing. In this regard, two gasoline fuels with anti-knock index values (AKI) of 87 and 91 respectively were compared in five premium-recommended vehicles for acceleration and power benefits.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0884
Brian West, C. Scott Sluder
Automobile manufacturers strive to minimize oil consumption from their engines due to the need to maintain emissions compliance over the vehicle life. Engine oil can contribute directly to organic gas and particle emissions as well as accelerate emissions degradation due to catalyst poisoning. During the Department of Energy Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability program, vehicles were aged using the Standard Road Cycle (SRC). In this program, matched sets of three or four vehicles were acquired; each vehicle of a set was aged on ethanol-free retail gasoline, or the same base gasoline blended with 10, 15, or 20% ethanol (E0, E10, E15, E20). The primary purpose of the program was to assess any changes in tailpipe emissions due to the use of increased levels of ethanol. Oil consumption was tracked during the program so that any measured emissions degradation could be appropriately attributed to fuel use or to excessive oil consumption.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0885
Michael Russell, Jill Cummings, Timothy Cushing, William Studzinski
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0886
Tien Mun Foong, Kai J. Morganti, Michael J. Brear, Gabriel da Silva, Yi Yang, Frederick L. Dryer
This paper examines the effect of charge cooling on the Research Octane Number (RON) of ethanol/gasoline blends. While gasoline is fully vaporized prior to entry into the engine in a standard RON test, significant charge cooling is observed for blends with high ethanol content, with the presence of a near-saturated and potentially two-phase air-fuel mixture during induction. Thus, the relative significance of the charge cooling and the autoignition chemistry cannot be determined from the standard RON test. In order to better delineate the effects of charge cooling and autoignition chemistry, a so-called ‘modified RON’ test is therefore devised in which the temperature of the air-fuel mixture entering the engine is fixed and representative of that observed for primary reference fuels (PRFs).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0887
Kohtaro Hashimoto, Mitsuo Koshi, Akira Miyoshi, Yoshinori Murakami, Tatsuo Oguchi, Yasuyuki Sakai, Hiromitsu Ando, Kentaro Tsuchiya
Gasoline includes various kinds of chemical species. Thus, the reaction model of gasoline components that includes the low-temperature oxidation and ignition reaction is necessary to investigate the method to control the combustion process of the gasoline engine. In this study, a gasoline combustion reaction model including n-paraffin, iso-paraffin, olefin, naphthene, alcohol, ether, and aromatic compound was developed. KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems) [1] was modified to produce paraffin, olefin, naphthene, alcohol automatically. Also, the toluene reactions of gasoline surrogate model developed by Sakai et al. [2] including toluene, PRF (Primary Reference Fuel), ethanol, and ETBE (Ethyl-tert-butyl-ether) were modified. The universal rule of the reaction mechanisms and rate constants were clarified by using quantum chemical calculation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0888
James P. Szybist, Brian H. West
Ethanol is a very attractive fuel from an end-use perspective because it has a high chemical octane number and a high latent heat of vaporization. When an engine is optimized to take advantage of these fuel properties, both efficiency and power can be increased through higher compression ratio, direct fuel injection, higher levels of boost, and a reduced need for enrichment to mitigate knock or protect the engine and aftertreatment system from overheating. The ASTM D5798 specification for high level ethanol blends, commonly called “E85,” underwent a major revision in 2011. The minimum ethanol content was revised downward from 68 vol% to 51 vol%, which combined with the use of low octane blending streams such as natural gasoline introduces the possibility of a lower octane “E85” fuel.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0891
Sumit Khadilkar, Ahmed Soliman, Peter Schuetzbach, Marko Kustic
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0892
Yuan Zhuang, Guang Hong
Ethanol direct injection plus gasoline port injection (EDI+GPI) is a new technical approach to make the use of ethanol fuel more effective and efficient in spark ignition (SI) engines. Ethanol fuel direct injection timing, as one of the primary control parameters in EDI+GPI engines, directly affects the quality of the fuel/air mixture and consequently combustion and emissions. This paper reports the experimental investigation to the effect of ethanol injection timing and pressure on engine performance, combustion, emissions of a single cylinder SI engine equipped with EDI+GPI. Firstly, the effect of EDI timing before and after the inlet valve closing, defined as early and late injection timings (EEDI and LEDI) was investigated at three injection pressure levels of 40 Bar, 60 Bar and 90 Bar and a fixed ethanol/gasoline ratio. Spark timing was fixed at original engine setting to investigate the potential engine efficiency improvement due to the EDI solely.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0643
Florian Netter, Frank Gauterin, Johannes Schreyer
This paper presents the further development, implementation and evaluation of a computer-aided engineering (CAE) method for tool-independent simulation model coupling with a function-based modular framework for entire-system simulations. For that purpose, the preliminary findings regarding the development process of the function-based modular framework are presented. Emanating from that, a hierarchical structure for consistent data distribution and deposition for separating the system to be simulated is introduced. Therein the boundaries of the subsystems are defined, to avoid overlapping and ensuring a consistent ratio of the subsystems. Thus, the exchangeability and the reuse of simulation models are supported. Additionally, a scheme for signal names of the subsystems interfaces is described to allow general interoperability between the subsystems within the function-based modular framework.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0642
Hossam Metwally, Peiran Ding
In this case study, the thermoforming of an automotive instrument panel is considered. The effect of different oven settings on the final material distribution is studied using structural FEA simulation. The variable thickness distribution of the thermoformed part is mapped onto a structural model using a new simple mapping algorithm, and a structural FEA simulation is carried out to examine the final warpage of the instrument panel. The simulation predicts that the minimum thickness of the formed part can be increased by 10% by optimizing the oven settings. Although the optimized process uses oven settings that are less uniform than the baseline settings, the model indicates that warpage experienced by the optimized part will be less than that of the baseline case.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0654
Pritpal Singh, Sandeep Raina, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Sweta Bansal
The interface between human body and automotive seat contours is seat upholstery. Seating comfort has a functional correlation to the upholstery. Two seats having different upholstery will give different comfort perception. Even an ergonomically designed seat if fitted with poor quality fabric will subdue the seat comfort drastically. The effect of fabric comfort ranges from initial short term to long term comfort, driven by properties like wick-ability and factors like thermal stress. Beyond material characteristics, fabric fit also plays an important role. This paper analyses the effect of fabric parameters and construction on automotive seat comfort. A comprehensive comparative study is followed by systematic analysis and comfort improvement scope through upholstery. The research is to conclude potential of the seat fabric in enhancing the automotive seating comfort within stipulated constraints of fabric properties and cost.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1301
Gary D. Neely, Jayant V. Sarlashkar, Darius Mehta
The diesel engine can be an effective solution to meet future greenhouse gas and fuel economy standards, especially for larger segment vehicles. However, a key challenge facing the diesel is the upcoming LEV III emissions standard which will require significant reductions of hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from current levels. The challenge stems from the fact that diesel exhaust temperatures are much lower than gasoline engines so the time required to achieve effective emissions control with current aftertreatment devices is considerably longer. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of a novel diesel cold-start emissions control strategy for achieving LEV III emissions. The strategy combines several technologies to reduce HC and NOx emissions before the start of the second hill of the FTP75.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1302
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Shi-Jin Shuai
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1303
Manabu Hasegawa, Toru Nishizawa, Yoshihiro Imaoka, Keiji Kawamoto, Atsushi Teraji, Shuichi Iio
For diesel engine, lower compression ratio has been demanded to improve fuel consumption, exhaust emission and maximum power recently. However, low compression ratio engine might have combustion instability issues under cold temperature condition, especially just after engine started. As a first step of this study, cold temperature combustion was investigated by in-cylinder pressure analysis and it found out that higher heat release around top dead center, which was mainly contributed by pilot injection, was the key factor to improve engine speed fluctuation. For further understanding of combustion in cold condition, particularly mixture formation near a glow plug, 3D CFD simulation was applied. Specifically for this purpose, TI (Time-scale Interaction) combustion model has been developed for simulating combustion phenomena. This model was based on a reasonable combustion mode, taking into account the characteristic time scale of chemical reactions and turbulence eddy break-up.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1304
Piotr Bielaczyc, Joseph Woodburn, Andrzej Szczotka
Diesel (compression ignition, CI) engines are increasingly exploited in light-duty vehicles, due to their high efficiency and favorable characteristics. Limited work has been performed on CI cold-start emissions at low temperatures. This paper presents a discussion and a brief literature review of diesel cold-start emissions phenomena at low ambient temperatures and the results of tests performed on two European light-duty vehicles with Euro 5 CI engines. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer within an advanced climate-controlled test laboratory at BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute, Poland to determine the deterioration in emission of gaseous (HC, CO, NOx, CO2) and solid (PM, PN) pollutants following the EU legislative test procedure (testing at 20°C to 30°C and at -7°C, performed over the NEDC). The tests revealed appreciable increases in emissions of regulated pollutants.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1305
Ian Whelan, David Timoney, William Smith, Stephen Samuel
This work investigates the effect of a three-way catalytic converter and sampling dilution ratio on nano-scale exhaust particulate matter emissions from a gasoline direct-injection engine during cold-start and warm-up transients. Experimental results are presented from a four cylinder in-line, four stroke, wall-guided direct-injection, turbo-charged and inter-cooled 1.6 litre gasoline engine. A fast-response particulate spectrometer for exhaust nano-particle measurement up to 1000 nm was utilised. It was observed that the three-way catalytic converter had a significant effect on particle number density, reducing the total particle number by up to 65 % over the duration of the cold-start test. The greatest change in particle number density occurred for particles less than 23 nm diameter, with reductions of up to 95 % being observed, whilst the number density for particles above 50 nm diameter exhibited a significant increase.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 1366

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