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Viewing 1 to 30 of 316
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2701
Ekenechukwu C. Okafor, Yosuke Fukuda, Yukihide Nagano, Toshiaki Kitagawa
Abstract Syngas, is an alternative fuel consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in various proportions. An understanding of the effects of the varying constituents on the combustion characteristics is important for improvement of the thermal efficiency of syngas-fueled engines. The effects of hydrogen concentration and mixture pressure on the turbulent burning velocity of outwardly propagating stoichiometric flames of hydrogen-carbon monoxide-air were studied in a constant volume fan-stirred combustion chamber at a constant mixture temperature of 350 K. The mole fraction of hydrogen in the binary fuel was varied from 0 to 1.0, at mixture pressures of 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 MPa. The turbulence intensity was kept constant at 3.27 m/s. For fixed mixture pressures, it was found that the turbulent burning velocity increased with an increase in hydrogen fraction primarily due to increase in the unstretched laminar burning velocity.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2703
Xiuliang Zhao, Yong Cheng, Limei Wang
Abstract The surface vibration signals are widely used since they have much combustion information. However, for an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), the measured surface vibration signals are difficult to utilize because they contain non in-cylinder pressure excitation response. The vibration response signals excited by the in-cylinder pressure excitation (ICPE) and the reciprocating inertia force excitation (RIFE) are overlapped in both time and frequency domain. That means they cannot be separated effectively by conventional signal processing method. In this paper, a new strategy to extract ICPE response from measured vibration signals by pattern recognition method is proposed. A model is established to describe the RIFE response. Then, the RIFE response could be predicted and subtracted directly from the measured vibration velocity signals. The processing results indicate that a fourth-order model and the data of initial compression stroke can reach satisfactory results.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2697
Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Soichiro Kubo, Koji Yamane, Chihiro Kondo
Abstract The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of NO and NO2 on the combustion characteristics such as pressure development and combustion phasing in natural gas HCCI engine. A secondary aim is to demonstrate a method of obtaining a significant sensitizing effect on methane oxidation reaction from small amounts of NOx. Experiments were conducted using a rapid compression-expansion machine that was constructed from a single-cylinder diesel engine. First, the sensitizing effect of NO and NO2 on the HCCI combustion of natural gas was investigated in a case where NOx was uniformly mixed into a charge. Obtained results show that the auto-ignition timing is significantly advanced and an acute heat release is promoted by adding either NO or NO2.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2699
Moritz Schumacher, Michael Wensing
Abstract Hydrogen engines represent an economic alternative to fuel cells for future energy scenarios based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC). This scenario incorporates LOHCs to store hydrogen from fluctuating renewable energy sources and deliver it to decentralised power generation units. Hydrogen engines were deeply investigated in the past decade and the results show efficiencies similar to CI engines. Due to the low energy density and tendency towards pre-ignition of hydrogen, the key element to reach high efficiency and a safe operation is a direct injection of the hydrogen. Because high injection pressure is not available in practical applications or would reduce the possible driving range, a low injection pressure is favourable. The low density leads to large flow cross sections inside the injector, similar to CNG direct injectors. So far, some research CNG and hydrogen low pressure direct injectors were investigated, but no commercial injector is available.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2693
Weifeng Li, Zhongchang Liu, Zhongshu Wang, Chao Li, Lianchao Duan, Hongbin Zuo
Abstract In recent years, strict emission regulations, the environmental awareness, and the high price of conventional fuels have led to the creation of incentive to promote alternative fuels. Among the alternative fuels, natural gas is very promising and highly attractive for its abundant resources, clean nature of combustion and low encouraging prices. But nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are still a problem in natural gas engines. In order to reduce NOx emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) were respectively introduced to dilute fuel-air mixtures in the cylinder. To this aim a 6.62 L, 6-cylinder, turbocharged, electronic controlled large-powered NG engine was subjected to a basic performance test to observe the effects of CO2, N2 and Ar on fuel economy and NOx emissions. During the test, the engine speed and torque were separately kept at 1450 r/min and 350 Nm.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2695
Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
Abstract The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2678
Buyu Wang, Shi-Jin Shuai, Hong-Qiang Yang, Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang, Hongming Xu
Abstract A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2680
Martin Tuner, Thomas Johansson, Hans Aulin, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
This work investigates the performance potential of an engine running with partially premixed combustion (PPC) using commercial diesel engine hardware. The engine was a 2.01 SAAB (GM) VGT turbocharged diesel engine and three different fuels were run - RON 70 gasoline, RON 95 Gasoline and MK1 diesel. With the standard hardware an operating range for PPC from idle at 1000 rpm up to a peak load of 1000 kPa IMEPnet at 3000 rpm while maintaining a peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) below 7 bar/CAD was possible with either RON 70 gasoline and MK1 diesel. Relaxing the PPRR requirements, a peak load of 1800 kPa was possible, limited by the standard boosting system. With RON 95 gasoline it was not possible to operate the engine below 400 kPa. Low pressure EGR routing was beneficial for efficiency and combined with a split injection strategy using the maximum possible injection pressure of 1450 bar a peak gross indicated efficiency of above 51% was recorded.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2723
Alexandra S. Fersner, Julie M. Galante-Fox
Abstract In recent years, the number of complaints and the severity of premature diesel fuel filter plugging have increased dramatically in the U.S. and Europe. These instances are often accompanied by longer start up times, poor drivability, and increased maintenance across different fuel filter applications. The rise in these instances of filter plugging is closely associated with the increasing prevalence of high pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel systems and the growing usage of biodiesel. Smaller pore size restrictions for fuel filters due to tighter clearances in HPCR injectors, coupled with contaminants from biodiesel and carboxylate salts in fuel, have been identified as accelerants of diesel fuel filter plugging. Testing protocols will be reported that can be used to screen contaminant-doped B10 fuels (10% FAME biodiesel in ULSD) to determine their propensity to plug fuel filters.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2727
Hu Li, Laura Campbell, Seyed Hadavi, Job Gava
Abstract Direct use of straight vegetable oil based biofuels in diesel engines without trans-esterification can deliver more carbon reductions compared to its counterpart biodiesel. However, the use of high blends of straight vegetable oils especially used cooking oil based fuels in diesel engines needs to ensure compatible fuel economy with PD (Petroleum Diesel) and satisfactory operational performance. There are two ways to use high blends of SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) in diesel engines: fixed blending ratio feeding to the engine and variable blending ratio feeding to the engine. This paper employed the latter using an on-board blending system-Bioltec system, which is capable of heating the vegetable oils and feeding the engine with neat PD or different blends of vegetable oils depending on engine load and temperature.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2713
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Ramadhas Arumugam Sakunthalai, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Akbar Ghafourian
Abstract Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2716
Balaji Bandaru, L. Navaneetha Rao, P. S. S. Babu, Krishna Kumar Varathan, J. Balaji
Abstract The present work describes an approach to predict the vehicle fuel economy by simulating its engine drive cycle on a transient engine dynamometer in an engine testbed. The driving cycles investigated in the current study were generated from the typical experimental data measured on different vehicles ranging from Intermediate Commercial Vehicle (ICV) to Heavy-duty Commercial Vehicle (HCV) in real-world traffic conditions include various cities, highways and village roads in India. Reliability and robustness of the method was studied on various engines with cubic capacity from 3.8 liters to 8 liters using different drive cycles, and the results were discussed. Later, using same measured drive cycles, vehicle fuel economy was predicted by a vehicle simulation tool (AVL CRUISE) and results were compared with experimental data. In addition, engine coolant temperature effect on fuel economy was investigated.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2709
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li
Abstract Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have attracted interest as automotive power-plants because of their potential advantages in down-sizing, fuel efficiency and in emissions reduction. However, GDI engines suffer from elevated unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during start up process, which are sometimes worsened by misfires and partial burns. Moreover, as the engine is cranked to idle speed quickly in HEVs (Hybrid Electric Vehicle), the transients of quick starts are more dramatically than that in traditional vehicle, which challenge the optimization of combustion and emissions. In this study, test bench had been set up to investigate the GDI engine performances for ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) HEVs during start up process. Based on the test system, cycle-controlled of the fuel injection mass, fuel injection timing and ignition timing can be obtained, as well as the cycle-resolved measurement of the HC concentrations and NO emissions.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2705
Graham Pitcher
Abstract The tumble flow in modern spark ignition engines is assuming an evermore important role for fuel guiding, air/fuel mixing and the generation of turbulence kinetic energy to enhance the combustion process. This paper describes results obtained with laser Doppler anemometry in multiple vertical planes in the cylinder of a motored, tumble flow engine and looks at the post processed data in terms of tumble ratios and mean and turbulence kinetic energies. The tumble results indicate very different flow fields in parallel planes lying in the main tumble direction, showing the complex nature of the flows in the cylinder. A simple method of integrating the tumble ratios from the different planes is suggested, leading to a tumble ratio more in line with those expected from an integrated method of measuring tumble, albeit these results are crank angle dependent. The tumble in a perpendicular plane shows unexpected asymmetries and values for the tumble.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2707
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin J. Lawler, Charles E.A. Finney, Michelle L. Edwards, Robert M. Wagner
Abstract Advances in engine controls and sensor technology are making advanced, direct, high-speed control of engine combustion more feasible. Control of combustion rate and phasing in low-temperature combustion regimes and active control of cyclic variability in dilute SI combustion are being pursued in laboratory environments with high-quality data acquisition systems, using metrics calculated from in-cylinder pressure. In order to implement these advanced combustion controls in production, lower-quality data will need to be tolerated even if indicated pressure sensors become available. This paper examines the effects of several data quality issues, including phase shifting (incorrect TDC location), reduced data resolution, pressure pegging errors, and random noise on calculated combustion metrics that are used for control feedback.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2745
Markus Behringer, Pavlos Aleiferis, Dave OudeNijeweme, Paul Freeland
Abstract One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ‘direct replacement’ Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with global illumination using diffused Laser light. The images were statistically analyzed to obtain spray penetration, spray tip velocity and spray ‘cone’ angles. Furthermore, droplet sizing was undertaken using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). A single spray plume was isolated for this analysis and measurements were obtained across the plume at a fixed distance from the nozzle exit.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2747
Ogheneruona E. Diemuodeke, Ilai Sher
Abstract Fuel injector performance has a direct effect on the combustion efficiency, pollutant emissions and combustion instability of internal combustion engines. Liquid fuels are normally accelerated into an elevated combustion-chamber temperature to maintain a desirable homogeneous combustible mixture - liquid vapour and air. The accelerated jet breakup may be induced by cavitation, turbulent, hydrodynamic and aerodynamic forces interactions and variation in fluid properties. The absolute majority of studies have been devoted to the extensive study on some of the effects that cause jet instability and breakup, while others are still at their infant study. In particular, relatively few researchers have studied the combined effects of jet acceleration and non-isothermal condition on jet instability and breakup, despite its practical relevance in liquid fuel spray and combustion.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2739
Hiroshi Kawanabe, Sho Tanaka, Shota Yamamoto, Hirokazu Kojima, Takuji Ishiyama
Abstract Single-excite dual-fluorescence PLIF was applied to a diesel spray of a two-component fuel, the components of which have different boiling points. The spray was formed by injecting fuel into a constant-volume vessel under high-temperature, high-pressure conditions. The fluorescence emitted from the two tracers for the fuel was optically separated to measure the concentration of each component. Mixture formation was investigated based on the concentration distributions of each fuel component. The fuel concentration was derived based on the change in fluorescence intensity due to temperature and the assumption of adiabatic mixing of fuel and the surrounding fluid. The variation in the mixture distribution due to differences in the vaporization characteristics was investigated, and the results revealed that the two components have similar distribution. The concentration of the high-boiling-point component increased upstream region in a spray.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2743
Luca Marchitto, Simona Merola, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Abstract Alcohols are largely used in spark-ignition (SI) engines as alternative fuels to gasoline. Particularly, the use of butanol meets growing interest due to its properties that are similar to gasoline, if compared with other alcohols. This paper aims to make a comparative analysis on the atomization process of gasoline and n-butanol fuel injected by a multi-hole injector nozzle for spark ignition engines. Phase Doppler Anemometry technique was applied to investigate the behavior of a spray emerging from a six-hole nozzle for direct injection spark ignition engine applications. Commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol were investigated. The fuels were injected at two pressures: namely at 5 and 10 MPa, in a test vessel at quiescent air conditions, ambient temperature and backpressure. Droplets diameter and velocity were estimated along the axis and on the edge direction of a jet through Phase Doppler Anemometry in order to provide useful information on the atomization process.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2737
Daliang Jing, Hongming Xu, Shi-jin Shuai, Zhi Wang, Yanfei Li
Abstract Fuel spray atomization process is known to play a key role in affecting mixture formation, combustion efficiency and soot emissions in direct injection engines. The fuel spray Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling technology can be an effective means to study and predict spray characteristics such as penetration, droplet size and droplet velocity, and as a consequence, to drastically reduce experimental work during the engine development process. For this reason, an accurate numerical simulation of the spray evolution process is imperative. Different approaches and various models based on aerodynamically induced breakup mechanism have been implemented to simulate spray atomization process in earlier studies, and the effects of turbulence and cavitation from the injector nozzle is recently being concerned increasingly by engine researchers.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2735
Alessandro Ferrari, Pietro Pizzo, Federica Paolicelli
Abstract A numerical-experimental analysis of a new generation Common Feeding (CF) fuel injection system, equipped with last generation solenoid injectors that feature pressure-balanced pilot-valves, has been developed. The main feature of the CF system is that it removes the accumulator from the high-pressure layout of the standard Common Rail (CR). In the CF apparatus, the high-pressure pump is connected directly to the injectors, and a small accumulation volume is integrated in the pump high-pressure circuit. The hydraulic performance of the CF system, including the injectors with the pressure-balanced pilot-valve, has been compared with that of the standard CR system in terms of injected masses, fuel leakages, high-pressure and injected flow-rate time histories. A previously developed advanced one-dimensional code for CR type systems has been adapted for the simulation of the CF high-pressure layout.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2733
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yusuke Kimoto, Satoshi Kato
Abstract Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be made from biomass resources that are renewable. In the most cases, however, ethanol is blended with conventional fuels because of the limited amount of production. Ethanol-fuel blends are typically azeotropic and have a unique characteristic in vapor pressure and phase equilibrium, which is different from that of blends composed of simple aliphatic hydrocarbons. The current studies by the authors have developed a numerical vaporization model for ethanol-gasoline blends, which takes into account vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope and high latent heat of vaporization of ethanol, in order to update the authors' multicomponent fuel spray model and to investigate effects of blending ethanol on droplet vaporization processes. In this paper, the developed vaporization model was validated through a comparison with experimentally-observed vaporization rate for single droplets of ethanol-n-heptane blends.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2729
Paul Hellier, Nicos Ladommatos, Tom Headen, Stephen Bennington
Abstract Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2772
Annika Talus, Lisen Johansson, Francesco Regali, Ali Saramat
Abstract Biodiesel is chemically unstable and sensitive to oxidation. Aging of biodiesel results in the formation of degradation products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and water. These products may cause corrosion of metals in fuel systems. When performing corrosion tests, biodiesel continuously degrades during the test, resulting in an uncontrolled test system. In order to obtain a stable corrosion testing system, a test fuel was developed using a saturated FAME (methyl myristate), which was doped with RME degradation products at levels typically seen in field tests. The test fuel was compared to RME with regards to structure, SCFA and water content before and after aging tests. In addition, an accelerated corrosion study of copper was performed in both the test fuel and in RME. The copper specimens were analyzed before and after test using light optical microscope and weight measurements. The Cu content in the test fuel and RME was also analyzed.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2770
Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Alberto Macamo
Abstract Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method which is shown in many papers. The ideal diesel alternative fuel obtained considering Jatropha as materials is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with Jatropha crude (JC) oil. It is the purpose of this research to examine a possibility of using advantageous JC oil direct use as diesel engine fuel, in consideration of the sustainable production of the Jatropha biofuel in Mozambique. The adaptability to the diesel engine of diesel oil and the mixed fuel of JC was examined. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PEs) which is a promoter of cancer. Measurement of the concentration of PEs in an exhaust gas was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2768
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Vincent Chen, Carlos Espinoza, Tyler Berte, Thomas Durbin, Akua Asa-Awuku, Heejung Jung, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Alexander Bergmann
Abstract The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2766
Gian Marques, Lian Izquierdo, Camila Coutinho
Abstract Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. More sustainable and cost effective new biofuels are being designed and produced using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. These new microbial fuels have great potential to become viable alternatives and supplements for petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. MAN Latin America has worked in cooperation with REG Life Sciences, a North American industrial biotechnological company, to help in the development of high quality fuels for automotive purposes. The aim of this paper is to present the test engine results of a novel microbially produced fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), under the banner of UltraClean™ Diesel, in a Proconve P7 (Euro V) MAN D0834, diesel engine. Described are a comprehensive performance and emissions evaluation as well as an interpretation of the primary fuel properties.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2764
Bhimrao Patil, Vighnesha Nayak, Mohanan Padmanabha
Abstract This work aims study on the method of NOx reduction and performance enhancement by analysis of MPFI multi-cylinder gasoline engine running on LPG using the gas injection system and vaporized water-methanol induction to the intake manifold. For the generation of vaporized water-methanol, heat from the exhaust gas has been used. Different percentages of water- methanol by mass basis were used with variable engine speed ranging from 2000 to 4500 RPM. The outcomes indicated that as the percentage water-methanol induction level of the engine increased, there is a slight increase in percentage of useful work, while the NOx decreased drastically about 47%. Additionally, the engine brake thermal efficiency gains. The mean gain in the brake thermal efficiency for a 20% water methanol with LPG is approximately 1.5% over the use of LPG without water-methanol induction.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2762
Pradip Lingfa, Pranab Das, Lalit Das, Satya Naik
Abstract In the present experimental investigations the influence of injector opening pressures and injection timings on the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a naturally aspirated single cylinder diesel engine has been investigated. The test were conducted with four different fuels, namely diesel and Tung biodiesel blends (TB10, TB15, TB20 and TB50) at three different injector opening pressures (150 bar, 200 bar and 250 bar) respectively. Fuel injection opening pressures were varied by changing the spring tension of the needle valve of injector nozzle. The three different injection timings (Standard timing at 23° BTDC, Retarded Timing of 21° BTDC and Advanced Timing of 25° BTDC) were used. The injection timings were varied by changing the thickness of the shim. The entire tests were conducted at the constant engine speed of 1500 rpm under various load conditions.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2760
More Manjunath, Pratheesh Prakash, Vasudevan Raghavan, Pramod S. Mehta
Abstract From the energy security and environment standpoint, the biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats appear to be promising alternative to fossil diesel. Although the engine experiments prove their viability, the scientific data base for characterizing biodiesel combustion is limited. Detailed studies on the characterization of biodiesel fuels and their effects on fundamental engine processes like droplet evaporation and combustion are essential. The present study evaluates the useful thermo-physical properties and droplet evaporation characteristics of biodiesel fuels. The droplet evaporation measurements are carried out using suspended droplet experiments on five biodiesel fuels of Indian origin viz. jatropha, pongamia (karanja), neem, mahua and palm. The droplet evaporation rates of these fuels are related to properties such as binary diffusivity and molecular weight, which in turn depend on their fatty acid composition.
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