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Viewing 1 to 30 of 158
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2860
Xinyu Ge, Jonathan Jackson
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2858
Bernd Zaehe, David Herbert
Abstract Counterbalance valves are used in hydraulic circuits to avoid uncontrolled movements of cylinders and Motors. They are often installed in the return line of the cylinder or motor. The flow control valve on the meter in side then sees a positive load regardless of external forces on the cylinder. The counterbalance valve can be seen as a relief valve with a setting high enough to support the highest expected load. The setting of the counterbalance valves is reduced when the cylinder or motor moves. Usually the inlet pressure of the cylinder is used as a Pilot Pressure for the counterbalance in the return line. The so called Pilot Ratio describes how much the setting of the CB valve is reduced per increase in Pilot Pressure. A high Pilot Ratio of 10 e.g. reduces the setting by 100 bar when the Pilot Pressure increases by 10 bar.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2856
Hongbin Wang, Ojas Patil, QingHui Yuan, Aaron Hertzel Jagoda
EXTENDED ABSTRACT Fuel economy of both highway and off-highway vehicles is a major driver for new technology development. One of the technologies to meet this driver is a digital valve based hydraulic system. Digital Hydraulics technology employs high speed on/off valves to achieve the same functionality with no throttling loss. Furthermore, by forming various architecture by using digital valves, it provides the system level capability and flexibility for energy saving and productivity improvement. There are many challenges in fully realizing the full efficiency benefits of the system in an actual application. These challenges include packaging, durability, a change in the operator's perception of the vehicle as well as hydraulic system performances during operation. One significant issue is the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) of the system. Due to the nature of the digital valve operation, there are severe transient dynamics in the fluid system.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2864
Xinyu Ge, Jarrett Corcoran, Paul Gamble
With stringent emission regulations, many subsystems that abate engine tailpipe-out emissions become a necessary part for engines. The increased level of complexity poses technical challenges for the quality and reliability for modern engines. Among the spectrum of quality control methodologies, one conventional methodology focuses on every component's quality to ensure that the accumulative deviation is within predetermined limits. This conventional methodology tightens the component tolerance during the manufacturing process and typically results in increased cost. Another conventional methodology that is on the other side of the spectrum focuses on tailoring an engine calibration solution to offset the manufacturing differences. Although the tailored engine calibration solution reduces manufacturing cost for components, it increases the development and validation cost for engines.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2865
Damodar Kulkarni, Pankaj Deore
Abstract Cost-reduction and cost competitiveness have emerged as major strategic tools to an enterprise and are being used all over the world to fight for survival as well as maintain sustainable growth. Maximization of value-creation by enriching the planet, people and the economy should be the key drivers leading to cost-reduction strategies in any business. The main objectives of this paper are to explain the Processes and Principles of Cost-reduction in technology-transfer to low-cost emerging economies to achieve sustainable cost-reduction and create a culture of cost-consciousness throughout an organization.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2861
Burcu Guleryuz, Martin Raper, Cagkan Kocabas
Abstract Dimensional Variation Analysis (DVA) is a decision-making methodology for tolerance analysis, and is employed to evaluate assembly variations and identify problems in manufacturing assembly processes at early stages of design. In this study, the impact of component tolerances on manufacturing and assembly process variations is presented on a case study. The case study includes the alignment analysis between crankshaft and input shaft for clutch systems. The impact of component tolerances on axial alignment measurements in regard to these applications is discussed. The study shows that when combined with effective tolerance combinations, Variation Simulation Analysis (VSA) facilitates operational visibility; thus improve quality, reduce manufacturing cost, and enable reduction of production release time. The case study presents the impact of component tolerances at two levels: 1. Pre-Design, 2. Optimized Design.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2863
Yogesh Sharma, Rohit Kumar Garg, Rishabh Raj Bhargava, Aadityeshwar Saran Singh Deo, Aditya Krishna, Shubham Garg, Rahul Mehendiratta, Ankit Goila
There has been a rapid increase in popularity of multipurpose All-terrain vehicles (ATV) across the globe over the past few years. SAE BAJA event gives student-community an opportunity to delve deeper into the nitty-gritty of designing a single seat, four-wheeled off road vehicle. The design and development methodology presented in this paper is useful in conceptualization of an ATV for SAE BAJA event. The vehicle is divided into various subsystems including chassis, suspension, drive train, steering, and braking system. Further these subsystems are designed and comprehensively analyzed in software like SolidWorks, ANSYS, WINGEO and MS-Excel. The 3-D model of roll cage is designed in SolidWorks and analyzed in ANSYS 9.0 for front, rear and side impact along with front and side roll-over conditions. Special case of wheel bump is also analyzed. Weight, wall thickness and bending strength of tubing used for roll cage are comprehensively studied.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2834
James Roger Lackore, Kevin Voss
Abstract Access method design for entry and egress of medium and heavy duty truck cabs and bodies is a critical aspect of vehicle design. Occupational injuries due to entering or exiting the truck cab, or climbing onto and off of the truck body, can be a significant percentage of a fleet's lost-time incident rate. Many vocational trucks operate in both off-road and on-road conditions, and the slip resistance of the stepping surface is an important design aspect. Examples of vocational vehicles that involve off-road operation include dump, refuse, utility, tree-trimming, and concrete trucks. Stepping surfaces in these applications must provide a balance between traction and the ability to shed water, snow, and mud. While there are a few methods and devices for measuring walking surface slip resistance, they are either complicated, or not well suited to measuring aggressive surfaces.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2833
Ashley L. Dunn, Brian Boggess, Nicholas Eiselstein, Michael Dorohoff, Harold Ralston
Abstract Brake chamber construction allows for a finite stroke for pushrods during brake application. As such, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) mandate maximum allowable strokes for the various chamber types and sizing. Brake strokes are often measured during compliance inspections and post-accident investigations in order to assess vehicle braking performance and/or capability. A number of studies have been performed, and their results published, regarding the effect of brake stroke and function on braking force and heavy truck stopping performance [1] through [4]. All of the studies have relied on a brake supply pressure of 100 pounds per square inch (psi). When brake strokes are measured in the field, following the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) procedure, the application pressure is prescribed to be maintained between 90 and 100 psi.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2832
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Khahn Bui, Matthew Stephens, Alyssa Schmidt
Abstract The incidence of fire in heavy trucks has been shown to be about ten times higher under crash conditions than occurs in passenger vehicles. Fuel tank protection testing defined in SAE standard J703 was originally issued in 1954 and presently echoes federal regulations codified in 49 CFR 393. These tests do not reflect dynamic impact conditions representative of those that can be expected by heavy trucks on the road today. Advanced virtual testing of current and alternative fuel tank designs and locations under example impact conditions is reported. Virtual testing methods can model vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to fixed object impacts. These results can then be utilized to evaluate and refine fuel tank protection system design approaches.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2839
Rangaraj Ramanan Durai, Ashok Thirupathi, Mohith Krishna Shetty, Dilip Joy Mampilly
In this paper Longitudinal Force Slip (LFS) controller will be designed for controlling the traction force in each wheel when Rock Crawl Scenario prevails for commercial vehicles working in Off-Road condition. During Rock Crawling the wheels can have more longitudinal slip than lateral slip. Slip is caused by relative movement of tires with the rock. PID controller (Longitudinal Force Controller) will be designed in order to stabilize the traction force on individual wheels. Individual Lateral and Longitudinal force will be calculated for each wheel from Tire modeling. Optimal longitudinal force will be determined based on fuzzy model with the help of determined Mue. The designed LFS controller which controls the individual traction force by applying active braking. Active braking on individual wheel will be realized with the hydraulic system associated with Vehicle Stability Control ECU (VSC - ECU). Optimal engine torque will be calculated based on driver pedal request.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2837
Subramanian Premananth, Hareesh Krishnan, Riyaz Mohammed, Dharmar Ganesh
Abstract Overall in-vehicle visibility is considered as a key safety parameter essentially mandated due to the increasing traffic scenario as seen in developing countries. Driver side bottom corner visibility is one such parameter primarily defined by A-pillar bottom and outside rear-view mirror (OSRVM). While defining the OSRVM package requirements such as size, position and regulatory aspects, it is also vital to consider other influencing parameters such as position of pillars, waist-line height, and Instrument panel which affect the in-vehicle visibility. This study explains the various package considerations, methods to optimize OSRVM position, shape and housing design in order to maximize the in-vehicle visibility considering the road and traffic conditions. A detailed study on in-vehicle visibility impacted by OSRVM packaging explained and had been verified for the results.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2838
Dharmar Ganesh, Riyaz Mohammed, Hareesh Krishnan, Radakrishnan Rambabu
Abstract In-vehicle displays such as an instrument cluster in a vehicle provide vital information to the user. The information in terms of displays and tell-tales needs to be perceived by the user with minimal glance during driving. Drivers must recognize the condition of the vehicle and the state of its surroundings through primarily visual means. Drivers then process this in the brain, draw on their memory to identify problem situations, decide on a plan of action and execute it in order to avoid an accident. There are visual hindrances seen in real world scenario such as obscuration, reflection and glare on the instrument cluster which prevents the vital information flow from vehicle to the driver. In order to ensure safety while driving, the instrument cluster or driver displays should be placed in an optimized location.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2835
Sughosh J. Rao, Mohamed Kamel Salaani, Devin Elsasser, Frank Barickman, Joshua L. Every, Dennis A. Guenther
Abstract This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2843
Xu Kuang, Jianqiang Wang, Keqiang Li
Abstract Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2842
Hongyu Zheng, Jinghuan Hu, Shenao Ma
Abstract Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of with high center of gravity position, large weight and volume, wheelbase is too narrow relative to the body height and so on, so that they always prone to rollover. In response to the above heavy security problems of heavy vehicle in running process, this paper mainly analyzes roll stability and yaw stability mechanism of heavy vehicles and studies the influence of vehicle parameters on stability by establishing the vehicle dynamics model. At the same time, this paper focuses on heavy vehicles stability control methods based on simulation and differential braking technology. At last, verify the effect of heavy vehicle stability control by computer simulation. The results shows that self-developed stability control algorithm can control vehicle stability effectively, so that the heavy vehicles instability can be avoided, the vehicle driving safety and braking stability are improved.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2841
Hongyu Zheng, Shenao Ma
Abstract This paper establishes a brake pedal model for braking intention identification, using the structural features of electronic braking system and selecting the proper parameters. A three-dimensional model is built that the input parameters are pedal displacement and pedal displacement change rate, and the output parameter is braking intensity. The relationship between the driver braking operation and braking intention are designed. A hardware-in-the-loop test bench experiment has been taken under several skilled drivers to practice the established the brake pedal model with the operation data during the braking. Thus, it results a model indicating the braking intention by braking operation that means effectively improve the braking comfort and applies to the research of electronic braking system of commercial vehicle.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2840
Michael Peperhowe, Markus Friedrich, Peter Schmitz-Valckenberg
Abstract Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming increasingly important for today's commercial vehicles. It is therefore crucial that different ADAS functionalities interact seamlessly with existing electronic control unit (ECU) networks. For example, autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems directly influence the brake ECU and engine control. It has already become impossible to reliably validate this growing interconnectedness of control interventions in vehicle behavior with prototype vehicles alone. The relevant tests must be brought into the lab at an earlier development stage to evaluate ECU interaction automatically. This paper presents an approach for using hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation to validate ECU networks for extremely diverse ADAS scenarios, while taking into account real sensor data. In a laboratory environment, the sensor systems based on radars, cameras, and maps are stimulated realistically with a combination of simulation and animation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2847
Adam Kouba, Jiri Navratil, Bohumil Hnilicka, Patrick C. Niven
Abstract Internal combustion engines continue to grow more complex every day out of necessity. Legislation and increasing customer demand means that advanced technologies like variable valve actuation (VVA), multi-path exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), advanced boosting, and aftertreatment systems continue to drive ever-expanding requirements for engine control to improve performance, fuel economy, and reduce emissions. Therefore, controller development and implementation are becoming more costly, both in terms of time and the monetary investment in engine hardware. To help reduce these costs, a sophisticated tool chain has been created which allows a real-time, physical, crank-angle resolved one-dimensional (1D) engine model to be implemented on a rapid prototyping engine control unit (ECU) which is then used in the control strategy of a running engine. Model-based controllers have been developed and validated to perform as well as or better than controllers using traditional sensors.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2845
Qi Chen
Abstract Recent years have witnessed an increase in the number of electrical loads being driven by semiconductor devices in the body control module (or BCM) rather than by electro-mechanical relays in a typical truck with a 24V vehicle power net. This paper presents the major challenges caused by the higher voltage class of the truck supply and the longer wire harness cables, followed by an analysis of some key issues related to the design of truck BCMs to drive different loads. It offers some general guidance on practical design issues to BCM designers, such as an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of different BCM architectural topologies, how to make a choice between a relay or a semiconductor driver, knowledge of the requirements of semiconductors used in truck applications etc.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2846
Chunshan Li, Guoying Chen, Changfu Zong, Wenchao Liu
Abstract This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) algorithm for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm is utilized in the fault detection (FD) module so as to estimate the in-wheel motor parameters, which could detect parameter variations caused by in-wheel motor fault. A motion controller based on sliding mode control (SMC) is able to compute the generalized forces/moments to follow the desired vehicle motion. By considering the tire adhesive limits, a reconfigurable control allocator optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators so as to minimize the tire workloads once the actuator fault is detected. An actuator controller calculates the driving torques of the in-wheel motors and steering angles of the wheels in order to finally achieve the distributed tire forces. If one or more in-wheel motors lose efficacy, the FD module diagnoses the actuator failures first.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2884
Sam Waltzer, Julie Hawkins, Arvon Mitcham, Angus Lock, Dennis W. Johnson
Abstract The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data. Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
Abstract The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall on an FPGA device. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the hardware design procedures of the CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2886
Kebing Tang, Li He, Yao Zhao, Heinz Friz, Bo Li
Abstract The development of a new Dongfeng Heavy truck had very strict targets for fuel consumption. As the aerodynamic drag plays a crucial role for the fuel consumption, a low drag value had to be achieved. It was therefore essential to include evaluation and optimization of the aerodynamics in the development process. Because wind tunnel facilities were not available, the complete aerodynamics development was based on digital simulation. The major portion of the aerodynamic optimization was carried out during the styling phase where mirrors, sun visor, front bumper and aero devices were optimized for drag reduction. For optimizing corner vanes and mud guards, self-soiling from the wheel spray was included in the analysis. The aero results did also show that cooling air flow rates are sufficiently high to ensure proper cooling. During the detailed engineering phase an increase of the drag above the target required further optimization work to finally reach the target.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2885
Nicholas Schaut, Raja Sengupta
Abstract As part of the United States Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, Volvo Trucks and its partners were tasked with demonstrating 50% improvement in overall freight efficiency for a tractor-trailer, relative to a best in class 2009 model year truck. This necessitated that significant gains be made in reducing aerodynamic drag of the tractor-trailer system, so trailer side-skirts and a trailer boat-tail were employed. A Lattice-Boltzmann based simulation method was used in conjunction with a Kriging Response Surface optimization process in order to efficiently describe a design space of seven independent parameters relating to boat-tail and side-skirt dimensions, and to find an optimal configuration. Part 1 concerns a fully-skirted tractor-trailer system, and consists of an initial phase of optimization, followed by a mid-project re-evaluation of constraints, and an additional period of optimization.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2888
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Tristan Donley, Jaehoon Han, Karthik Mahadevan Muthuraman, P. David Campbell, Tom Mertz
Abstract Design and evaluation of construction equipments and vehicles in the construction industry constitute a very important but expensive and time consuming part of the engineering process on account of large number of variants of prototypes and low production volumes associated with each variant. In this article, we investigate an alternative approach to the hardware testing based design process by implementing a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation based methodology that has the potential to reduce the cost and time of the entire design process. The simulation results were compared with test data and good agreement was observed between test data and simulation.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2889
R. Saravana Venkatesh, Sunil Pandey, Sathyanandan Mahadevan
In heavy duty diesel engines, exhaust gas recirculation is often preferred choice to contain NOx emissions, in this a part of exhaust gas is tapped from exhaust manifold or later and recirculated to air intake pipe before intake manifold. Critical to such engines is the design of air intake pipe and intake manifold combination in view of proper exhaust gas mixing with intake air. The variation in exhaust gas mass fraction at each intake port should be as minimal as possible and this variation must be contained within +/− 10% band to have a minimal cylinder to cylinder variation of pollutants. Exhaust gas homogeneity for various intake configurations was studied using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics for a 4 cylinder, 3.8 L, Diesel fuelled, common rail, turbocharged and intercooled heavy duty engine. Flow field was studied in the computational domain from the point before exhaust gas mixing till all the four intake ports.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2890
Felix Hoffmann, Hanns-Joachim Schmidt, Christian Nayeri, Oliver Paschereit
Abstract The potential of drag reduction on a generic model of a heavy vehicle using base flaps operated in combination with flow control devices is investigated experimentally. Base flaps are well known as drag reduction devices for bluff bodies and heavy road vehicles. However, for optimal performance their deflection angle should typically not exceed 12°. In this paper the primary goal is to increase the usable range of the deflection angles by applying flow control. The secondary goal is to find the most suitable method for flow control. A comparison is made between triangular vortex generators and fluidic oscillators as passive and active flow control methods, respectively. Vortex generators have the advantage of being very simple devices but produce drag. Fluidic oscillators are also quite simple devices but require additional air supply. Their advantages are that they can be activated when needed and that they do not generate additional drag.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2891
Trevor Hirst, Chuanpeng Li, Yunchao Yang, Eric Brands, Gecheng Zha
Abstract This paper conducts experimental study and numerical large eddy simulation for the drag reduction effect of jet boat-tail passive flow control on bluff body models. The jet boat-tail for bluff bodies operates by surrounding a converging duct around the end of a bluff body where the base surface is located. The duct captures free stream and forms a high speed jet angled toward the center of the bluff body base surface circumferentially to have the effect of a boat tail. A rectangular prism bluff body representative of various motor vehicle shapes such as trucks, vans, SUVs is used in this study. The numerical Large Eddy Simulation shows that the jet boat-tail sucks in the forebody boundary layer due to the low base pressure and significantly thins the boundary layer. The jet interacts with the shear layer and creates large vortex structures that entrain the freestream to base flow and energize it.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2892
Carlos A. Pereira, Max Morton, Claire Martin, Geert-Jan Schellekens
Abstract The current trend towards energy efficient commercial vehicles requires a substantial improvement in their aerodynamic performance. This paper describes the design methodology for a new roof fairing design with integrated ducts and the predicted effects of the final design on downstream flow. It also provides a baseline comparison with the fairing of a commercial platform and highlights the advantages of using rapid prototyping technologies to test aerodynamic improvements on commercial vehicles. By integrating into the design of a thermoplastic roof fairing ducts that divert and speed-up air flow it is possible to obtain reduction of drag in the trailer gap and alter the trailer wake favorably. The resulting decrease in yaw-averaged overall drag coefficient is of 5.8%. This translates into an improvement in fuel efficiency of 2.9% when compared to the baseline.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 158

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