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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1404
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0958
Naveen Kumar, Sidharth Bansal, Harveer Singh Pali
Abstract Concerns about long term availability of petroleum based fuels and stringent environmental norms have been a subject for deliberations around the globe. The vegetable oil based fuels and alcohols are very promising alternative fuels for substitution of diesel, reduce exhaust emissions and to improve combustion in diesel engines which is mainly possible due to oxygenated nature of these fuels. Jatropha oil is important non-edible oil in India which is either used in neat or modified form as diesel fuel. Furthermore n-butanol is renewable higher alcohol having properties quite similar to diesel fuel. In the present study, n-butanol was blended in Jatropha Oil (JO) and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JME) on volumetric basis (10 and 20%). The blends were homogeneous and stable and there was no phase separation. The different physicochemical properties of blends were evaluated as per relevant standards.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0960
Thomas Huelser, Daniel Klein, Benedikt Heuser, Thorsten Brands, Christian Schulz, Gerd Grunefeld, Stefan Pischinger
Abstract With increasing interest in new biofuel candidates, 1-octanol and di-n-butylether (DNBE) were presented in recent studies. Although these molecular species are isomers, their properties are substantially different. In contrast to DNBE, 1-octanol is almost a gasoline-type fuel in terms of its auto-ignition quality. Thus, there are problems associated with engine start-up for neat 1-octanol. In order to find a suitable glow-plug position, mixture formation is studied in the cylinder under almost idle operating conditions in the present work. This is conducted by planar laser-induced fluorescence in a high-speed direct-injection optical diesel engine. The investigated C8-oxygenates are also significantly different in terms of their evaporation characteristics. Thus, in-cylinder mixture formation of these two species is compared in this work, allowing conclusions on combustion behavior and exhaust emissions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0963
Miao Tian, Robin Van Haaren, Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot
Abstract Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
James M. Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott Miers, Jeff Wasil
Abstract In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0967
Tingjun Hu, Ho Teng, Xuwei Luo, Bin Chen
Abstract Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engines often have a flat torque curve with the maximum torque covering a wide range of engine speeds. Increasing the high-speed-end torque for a TGDI engine provides better acceleration performance to the vehicle powered by the engine. However, it also requires more fuel deliveries and thus longer injection durations at high engine speeds, for which the multiple fuel injections per cycle may not be possible. In this study, results are reported of an experimental investigation of impact of fuel injection on dilution of the crankcase oil for a highly-boosted TGDI engine. It was found in the tests that the high-speed-end torque for the TGDI engine had a significant influence on fuel dilution: longer injection durations resulted in impingement of large liquid fuel drops on the piston top, leading to a considerable level of fuel dilution.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0966
Sauhard Singh, Anil Bhardwaj, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh, B P Das, Nishant Tyagi, Jaywant Mohite, N B Chougule
Abstract The ever increasing demand of fuels for vehicles can only be met by use of alternate fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Hydrogen (H2). The 18 percent hydrogen enriched CNG fuel referred to as HCNG has the potential to lower emissions and is considered to be the first step towards promotion of a Hydrogen economy. While, automotive industry matures up with the usage of new engines, lubricant manufacturers are also moving on to the next stage by formulating oils to be used in gas engines such as CNG, HCNG etc. This paper presents the evaluation of gas engine oil on 6-cylinder heavy duty CNG engine using HCNG. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was optimized for using HCNG fuel. Initial performance of the engine using HCNG was compared vis-à-vis CNG and, thereafter, the engine was subjected to endurance test of 500 hours as per 8 mode engine simulated driving cycle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0984
Yang Zheng, Mengmeng Li, Michael Harold, Dan Luss
Abstract Current NOx emission reduction systems, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and NOx storage and reduction (NSR), function well after achieving their operation temperature (typically ca. 250 °C) but have unsatisfactory NOx conversion at lower exhaust temperatures encountered during cold start and low load operation. The reduced exhaust temperature of advanced diesel engines with higher fuel efficiency challenges the low-T NOx reduction. We report here a new concept of high low-T deNOx efficiency of up to 80% at a feed temperature of ca. 200 °C at relevant space velocities (70k h−1). It utilizes high-frequency hydrocarbon pulsing on a dual-layer LNT-SCR monolithic catalyst under lean conditions. This system has the potential to expand the operating temperature window of the conventional deNOx devices.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0986
Dieter Rauch, David Kubinski, Giovanni Cavataio, Devesh Upadhyay, Ralf Moos
Abstract Ammonia adsorption on the catalyst surface is a crucial step in the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides over zeolites with NH3 as the reducing agent. In this study, two small pore zeolites with chabazite frameworks, H-SSZ-13 and Cu exchanged SSZ-13, are examined. Adsorption of NH3 on the zeolite causes changing electrical properties of the material. They can be detected by a radio frequency based technique. We have found that with this method it is possible to determine the amount of adsorbed NH3 on these catalysts, examining both the influences of temperature and NH3/NO feed gas ratio. At constant temperature, a fairly linear correlation between the resonance frequency and the amount of adsorbed ammonia was observed. Furthermore, this method also allows differentiation between some of the NH3 adsorption sites.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0985
José Ramón Serrano, Vicente Bermudez, Pedro Piqueras, Emanuele Angiolini
Abstract Wall-flow diesel particulate filters have become the most effective system for particulate matter abatement in Diesel engines being required for current and future emission standards fulfillment. Despite the high filtration efficiency that wall-flow DPFs exhibit their use involves a noticeable impact in fuel consumption because of the increase of the exhaust back-pressure. Additionally, the fuel economy penalty increases as the DPF becomes soot/ash loaded. This constraint demands the approach and development of new solutions to reduce the DPF pressure drop. This paper focuses on the improvement of the ratio between the pressure drop and the loading by means of pre-DPF water injection. A proper management of the water injection events is able to completely remove the dependence between these magnitudes. The test campaign and the discussion of the experimental results address how the DPF pressure drop reduction leads to benefits in engine fuel consumption.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0989
Steve Schiller, Mark Brandl, Bruce Hoppenstedt, Korneel De Rudder
Abstract Diesel engine NOx emissions requirements have become increasingly stringent over the past two decades. Engine manufacturers have shown through the use of EGR and SCR technology that these requirements can be met. However, the desires for improved fuel efficiency, lower overall cost, and potential legislation to reduce NOx levels further increase the demand for higher DEF dosing rates. To meet this demand, a new DEF mixing technology has been developed. This paper describes the development methods used to create a compact, in-pipe mixer which utilizes an optimized wire mesh along with swirling flow to permit high DEF dosing rates without deposit formation. Its excellent mixing characteristics allowed for high NOx reduction to be achieved. Utilization of this technology makes it possible to reduce regeneration frequency, reduce the overall size of the SCR system, possibly eliminate the EGR system, and improve fuel efficiency through combustion enhancements.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0988
Fabien Ocampo, Virginie Harle, Naotaka Ohtake, Renaud Rohe, Barry W.L. Southward
Abstract The reduction of NOx to meet current diesel regulation standards has been achieved using two main technologies named NH3-SCR and LNT. In the forthcoming years, the implementation of new and colder test cycles such as “real driving emissions” (RDE), combined with CO2 targets (95 g/km is 2020 target in Europe) will require higher NOx storage capacity (NSC) in the low temperature region (120-350°C). On the other hand, lean-burn Gasoline vehicles, emitting exhaust gases at higher temperatures, will require improved NSC over a broader temperature range (200-500°C). Therefore, the development of more efficient NSC materials is an area of extensive study by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), catalysts manufacturers, and raw materials suppliers. Today, ceria is a key component in the formulation of active NSC washcoats.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0991
Nathan Ottinger, Rebecca Veele, Yuanzhou Xi, Z. Gerald Liu
Abstract Lean-burn natural gas (NG) engines are used world-wide for both stationary power generation and mobile applications ranging from passenger cars to Class 8 line-haul trucks. With the recent introduction of hydraulic fracturing gas extraction technology and increasing availability of natural gas, these engines are receiving more attention. However, the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon emissions from lean-burn NG and dual-fuel (diesel and natural gas) engines is particularly challenging due to the stability of the predominant short-chain alkane species released (e.g., methane, ethane, and propane). Supported Pd-based oxidation catalysts are generally considered the most active materials for the complete oxidation of low molecular weight alkanes at temperatures typical of lean-burn NG exhaust. However, these catalysts rapidly degrade under realistic exhaust conditions with high water vapor concentrations and traces of sulfur.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0992
Mojghan Naseri, Ceren Aydin, Shadab Mulla, Raymond Conway, Sougato Chatterjee
Abstract Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, while discussions are in progress for tightening NOx emissions from HD engines post 2020. This will require increasingly higher NOx conversions across the emission control system and will challenge the current aftertreatment designs. Typical 2010/2013 Heavy Duty systems include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) along with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) in addition to the SCR sub-assembly. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as cold start concept (dCSC™) catalyst, SCR coated on filter (SCRF® hereafter referred to as SCR-DPF) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversions, in combination with improved control strategies.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0994
Hiroyuki Kojima, Michael Fischer, Hisao Haga, Naoki Ohya, Kensuke Nishi, Takuya Mito, Naoko Fukushi
Abstract Diesel engines provide a solution for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from motor vehicles. For diesel engines, however, technology to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions is essential. This report focuses on Urea - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as an aftertreatment system for NOx reduction. The NOx conversion performance of SCR catalyst depends on exhaust gas temperature and the NO2/NOX ratio. In order to raise the NO2/NOX ratio, it is essential to raise the temperature of oxidation catalyst. For these purposes, it is necessary to raise the temperature of oxidation catalyst and SCR catalyst to high level in order to enhance NOx conversion. Temperature rising is implemented by in-cylinder fuel injection (post-injection).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0996
Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Vinay Nagaraju, Yue Wu, Erik Koehler, Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg
Abstract Although designed for the purpose of reducing engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions to meet or exceed mandated emissions regulations, the particulate filter also incurs a fuel economy penalty. This fuel penalty is due to the increased exhaust flow restriction attributed to the PM accumulated in the filter, in addition to fuel consumed for active regeneration. Unlike the soot which may be oxidized through the regeneration process, incombustible material or ash continues to build-up in the filter following each regeneration event. Currently pressure- and model-based controls are used to provide an indirect estimate of the loading state of the particulate filter, in order to manage the filter operation and determine when to regenerate the filter. The challenges associated with pressure- and model-based particulate filter control over real-world operating conditions are well-known.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0998
Paul Mentink, Rob van den Nieuwenhof, Frank Kupper, Frank Willems, Dennis Kooijman
Abstract Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0997
Jonas Jansson, Åsa Johansson, Hanna Sjovall, Mikael Larsson, Gudmund Smedler, Colin Newman, Jason Pless
Abstract This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed at future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimization has to be considered. Examples of this include: catalyst development, optimized thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimized SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough system screening using a range of advanced SCR technologies, where the pros and cons from a system perspective will be discussed. Further optimization of selected systems will also be reviewed. The results suggest that current legislation requirements can be met for all SCR catalysts under investigation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1010
Hongsuk Kim, Hoyeol Lee, Sunyoup Lee, Gyubaek Cho
Diesel burners have been used to regenerate diesel particulate filters (DPF) because of their simplicity in engine torque control and less oil dilution by fuel compared with the commonly used in-cylinder post fuel injection method. We previously developed a novel diesel burner using rotating plasma as an ignition source and found it to be effective in DPF regeneration. Here, we carry out in-depth studies on combustion efficiency of this plasma-ignited diesel burner and investigate the effects of influential factors such as plasma power, the amount of fresh air supplied, and O2 concentration in the exhaust gas on combustion characteristics of the burner. The obtained results show that fresh air supplied to the burner plays an important role in ignition and the early stage of combustion, and O2 concentration in the exhaust gas is identified as the most dominant factor for combustion efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1013
Shankar Ramadas, Sunil Prasanth Suseelan, Thiyagarajan Paramadhayalan, Ambalavanan Annamalai, Rahul Mital
Abstract Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1015
Guanyu Zheng, Jianhua Zhang, Fengshuang Wang, Kaihua Zhao
Multiple suppliers have developed new cordierite 10.5″ OD substrates in China market. One key issue is to evaluate the feasibility of their applications to diesel SCR markets. To this end, test procedures were conceived and performed towards multiple substrate characteristics. Besides typical parameters such as product dimensions, structures, and material strength, thermo-mechanical properties were characterized by hot vibration, thermal shock and thermal cycle tests. Flow performance before and after tests was characterized by a hot flow bench. Four suppliers were selected to provide product samples which went through these developed rigorous test procedures. Comparisons of multiple properties were made. Conclusions regarding their applicability and recommendations for future work are provided at the end.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1012
Carl Justin Kamp, Paul Folino, Yujun Wang, Alexander Sappok, Jim Ernstmeyer, Amin Saeid, Rakesh Singh, Bachir Kharraja, Victor W. Wong
Abstract While metal fiber filters have successfully shown a high degree of particle retention functionality for various sizes of diesel engines with a low pressure drop and a relatively high filtration efficiency, little is known about the effects of lubricant-derived ash on the fiber filter systems. Sintered metal fiber filters (SMF-DPF), when used downstream from a diesel engine, effectively trap and oxidize diesel particulate matter via an electrically heated regeneration process where a specific voltage and current are applied to the sintered alloy fibers. In this manner the filter media essentially acts as a resistive heater to generate temperatures high enough to oxidize the carbonaceous particulate matter, which is typically in excess of 600°C.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1011
Kazutake Ogyu, Toyoki Ogasawara, Yuichi Nagatsu, Yuya Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro Higuchi, Kazushige Ohno
Abstract The Particle Number (PN) emission limit is implemented for Direct Injection (DI) gasoline from EU6 regulation in European region. The wall-flow type ceramic filter technology is an essential component for Diesel PN emission control, and will be one potential solution to be investigated for the future Gasoline DI PN emission control demand. Especially the requirement of lower pressure loss with smaller filter volume is very strong for the filter substrate for Gasoline DI compared to DPF, not to lose better fuel economy benefit of Gasoline DI engine. Re-crystallized SiC (R-SiC) has high strength as its own property, and enable for Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) design to make the wall thickness thinner and the porosity higher compared to the other ceramic materials.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1018
Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura
Surface pores that are open to the inlet channel below the surface play a particularly important role in the filtration of particulate matter (i.e., soot) inside the walls of a diesel particulate filter (DPF); they are closely related to the pressure drop and filtration efficiency through the DPF as well as the performance of the regeneration process. In this study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to dynamically visualize the soot deposition process at the particle scale as “time-lapse” images corresponding to the different increases in the pressure drop at each time step. The soot was first trapped at the deepest areas of the surface pores because the porous channels in this area were constricted by silicon carbide grains; soot dendrite structures were observed to grow and finally cause obstructions here.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1019
Changpu Zhao, Man Bai, Junwei Yang, Fang Shang, Gang Yu
Abstract The main objective of this paper was to investigate the pressure drop characteristics of ACT (asymmetric cell technology) design filter with various inlet mass flow rates, soot loads and ash loads by utilizing 1-D computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The model was established by AVL Boost code. Different ratios of inlet to outlet channel width inside the DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) were investigated to determine the optimal structure in practical applications, as well as the effect of soot and ash interaction on pressure loss. The results proved that pressure drop sensitivity of different inlet/outlet channel width ratios increases with the increased inlet mass flow rate and soot load. The pressure drop increases with the increased channel width ratio at the same mass flow rate. When there is little soot deposits inside DPF, the pressure drop increases with the bigger inlet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1016
Hidemasa Iwata, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Kazuki Nakamura, Akihito Ogiso, Kazutake Ogyu, Toshiaki Shibata, Kazushige Ohno
Abstract In order to guide the development of asymmetric plugging layout Diesel Particulate Filters, hereafter referred to as “VPL-DPF”, in this paper we present some evaluation results regarding the effect of design parameters on the VPL-DPF performance. VPL-DPF samples which have different wall thicknesses (thin and thick walls) were evaluated in regards to their pressure drop and soot oxidation behaviors, with the aim to optimize the design of DPF structure. As a result of pressure drop evolution during soot loading, contrary to our expectation, in some cases, it was found out that VPL increases the transient pressure drop compared to the conventional plugging layout DPF. That meant there is an appropriate specific optimum wall thickness for adoption of VPL which has to be well defined at its structural design phase. Based on our previous research, it is expected that this result is due to interactions among the different (five) wall flows that exist in a VPL-DPF.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1017
Yuki Jin, Narimasa Shinoda, Yosuke Uesaka, Tatsuyuki Kuki, Masataka Yamashita, Hirofumi Sakamoto, Tasuku Matsumoto, Philipp Kattouah, Claus Dieter Vogt
Abstract Since the implementation of Euro 6 in September 2014, diesel engines are facing another drastic reduction of NOx emission limits from 180 to only 80 mg/km during NEDC and real driving emissions (RDE) are going to be monitored until limit values are enforced from September 2017. Considering also long term CO2 targets of 95 g/km beyond 2020, diesel engines must become cleaner and more efficient. However, there is a tradeoff between NOx and CO2 and, naturally, engine developers choose lower CO2 because NOx can be reduced by additional devices such as EGR or a catalytic converter. Lower CO2 engine calibration, unfortunately, leads to lower exhaust gas temperatures, which delays the activation of the catalytic converter. In order to overcome both problems, higher NOx engine out emission and lower exhaust gas temperatures, new aftertreatment systems will incorporate close-coupled DeNOx systems.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0887
J. Felipe Rodriguez, Wai K. Cheng
Abstract The impact of the operating strategy on emissions from the first combustion cycle during cranking was studied quantitatively in a production gasoline direct injection engine. A single injection early in the compression cycle after IVC gives the best tradeoff between HC, particulate mass (PM) and number (PN) emissions and net indicated effective pressure (NIMEP). Retarding the spark timing, it does not materially affect the HC emissions, but lowers the PM/PN emissions substantially. Increasing the injection pressure (at constant fuel mass) increases the NIMEP but also the PM/PN emissions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0957
George Karavalakis, Daniel Short, Diep Vu, Robert Russell, Akua Asa-Awuku, Thomas Durbin
Abstract Biofuels, such as ethanol and butanol, have been the subject of significant political and scientific attention, owing to concerns about climate change, global energy security, and the decline of world oil resources that is aggravated by the continuous increase in the demand for fossil fuels. This study evaluated the potential emissions impacts of different alcohol blends on a fleet of modern gasoline vehicles. Testing was conducted on a fleet of nine vehicles with different combinations of ten fuel blends over the Federal Test Procedure and Unified Cycle. The vehicles ranged in model year from 2007-2014 and included four vehicles with port fuel injection (PFI) fueling and five vehicles with direct injection (DI) fueling.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0955
Hejun Guo, Qining Xun, Shenghua Liu, Xuanjun Wang
Abstract In the present paper, a new biofuel ethylene glycol monomethyl ether soyate has been developed. The biofuel was synthesized with a refined soybean oil and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as reactants and sodium as catalyst under 90°C. The synthesized crude product was purified and structurally identified through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FT-IR), 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR) and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analyses. The physicochemical properties of the biofuel and its addition effects on properties of diesel fuel were measured according to China national standard test methods. A single cylinder diesel engine was employed to evaluate the influences of the biofuel on engine fuel economy and engine-out emissions of CO, HC, NOx and smoke.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0954
Mario Martins, Thompson Lanzanova, Rafael Sari
Abstract This study evaluates the performance of an ethanol fueled spark ignited engine running with high levels of hydration. Ethanol is a renewable fuel and has been considered a promising alternative to counteract global warming and to reduce pollutant emissions. Its use is well established in ICE as the main fuel or blended with gasoline. However, due to its lower calorific value, it shows increased fuel consumption when compared to gasoline, rendering its use sometimes less attractive. The energy demand to produce ethanol, especially at the distillation phase, increases exponentially as the concentration of ethanol-in-water goes from 80% onwards. Thus, mixtures with less than 80% of ethanol-in-water would reduce the energy consumption during production, yielding a less expensive fuel. In previous studies, to evaluate the feasibility of wet ethanol as a fuel for spark-ignited engines, results have shown that it was possible to use mixtures of up to 40% of water-in-ethanol.
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