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Viewing 1 to 30 of 4013
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1094
L. Brabetz, M. Ayeb, D. Tellmann
The power requirements of future vehicle electrical distribution systems will increase considerably. Consequently, electrical energy has a major impact on the overall vehicle energy balance, so its generation and storage must be as efficient as possible. The presented concept is based on a voltage-controlled alternator in combination with super capacitors and a corresponding energy management system. The focus is energy efficiency, recuperation, and the use of standard components. A specific hardware in the loop based test set-up was built that allows the control and monitoring of the mechanical and electrical energy flows. Besides the theoretical description, the paper presents first experimental data and results followed by a discussion of the next steps and future potentials.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1095
Haoyi Lu
This paper presents the structure of the control module (CUi and CUv) used in control unit SD08, Semiconductor Breaker and Relay (SBR) and the Charging and Discharging Adjuster of batteries (CDAB) etc, and introduces the electronic monitoring and control of vehicle circuit system with SBR and the cyclic charging of batteries with CDAB. It is proved by theoretical analysis and experiments that, by using SBR and CDAB etc, the circuit system can be protected more effectively than by using traditional circuit protectors, vehicle fires caused by short circuits can be prevented, and the battery service life can be extended.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1096
Simon Ramer, Daniel Winkler
Alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) are rapidly gaining market shares around the world due to increasing gasoline prices, the rising awareness of global warming and federal tax incentives. Whereas HEV’s combine an internal combustion engine with an electric motor that supports the gasoline engine during acceleration and low speed condition when the combustion engine is not efficient, fuel cell vehicles are solely propelled by an electric motor. Both concepts have in common that they use high voltage batteries with voltages of 600 volts and higher to power the electric power train. This paper aims to address the requirements of various OEMs and harness makers for high voltage cables used on board of HEV vehicles to connect high voltage battery, inverter, AC compressor, 3-phase generator and 3-phase motor.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1090
V. Hasson, J. P. Morin, D. Preterre, V. Keravec, D. Farin, F. Dionnet, A. Bion-Robin, M. Meyer
European regulations have made the use of diesel particulate filter (DPF) unavoidable because all future diesel vehicles have to comply with the Euro 5 regulation regarding particulate matter emissions. Indeed, DPF has an overall excellent filtering efficiency but should be periodically regenerated. We propose here an in vitro comparative toxicological study of diluted sampled exhaust, emitted during legislative NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycles with or without a DPF regeneration phase. Pollutants, particle sizing, ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) measurement and post-exposure biological evaluation were monitored. Only TNFα (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha), a biological molecule produced during inflammatory processes, was slightly induced for the highest exhaust concentration including regeneration phase. In conclusion, it appears that regeneration process does not induce an acute toxicity.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1091
C. Quigley, R. McMurran, R. P. Jones, P. Faithfull
The objective of the research discussed in this paper is to propose a methodology for comparing candidate electrical architectures on a cost basis at the very beginning of the architecture design process. To achieve this objective, historical data concerning the cost of a wiring harness for a driver’s door electrical system is analysed along with information on an electrical architecture for the door system of a small four door passenger car. The study is focused around a driver’s door electrical system based on LIN and hardwired integration. However, it is concluded that the results are applicable to other types of automotive electrical architectures.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1092
Masahiro Kondo, Yuitsu Sakuraba, Takuya Osaki
We have developed a membrane circuit connector that consists of an automotive standard-type connector on a membrane, thus allowing the membrane circuit to be directly connected to wiring harnesses or the ECU circuit board. We have achieved miniaturization, multi-face connections and high reliability by a newly developed X-bead structure.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1093
Mohamed Ayeb, Ludwig Brabetz, Patrick Graebel, Giscard Jilwan, Dirk Tellmann
The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future vehicle power nets. Reliability and performance of the electrical network must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. This paper presents a test bench for automotive electrical networks based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) platform. The test bench is used to assess the power and temperature behavior of the wiring harness and the connected power consumers. This characterisation facilitates the development of new tailored automotive electrical networks to meet the increased requirements while efficiently using the available resources.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1104
Changho Yang, Hua Zhao, Thanos Megaritis
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was investigated in a Ricardo E6 single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved by employing positive valve overlap in combination with variable compression ratios and intake air temperatures. The combustion characteristics and emissions were studied in order to understand the major advantages and drawbacks of CAI combustion with positive valve overlap. The enlargement of the CAI operational region was obtained by boosting intake air and adding external EGR. The lean-boosted operation elevated the range of CAI combustion to the higher load region, whilst the use of external EGR allowed the engine to operate with CAI combustion in the region between boosted and N/A CAI operational ranges. The results were analyzed to investigate combustion characteristics, performance and emissions of the boosted CAI operations.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1105
James Krasselt, David E. Foster, Jaal Ghandhi, Randy Herold, David Reuss, Paul Najt
This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1106
R. E. Herold, J. M. Krasselt, David E. Foster, J. B. Ghandhi, D. L. Reuss, P. M. Najt
The effect that thermally and compositionally stratified flowfields have on the spatial progression of iso-octane-fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion were directly observed using highspeed chemiluminescence imaging. The stratified in-cylinder conditions were produced by independently feeding the intake valves of a four-valve engine with thermally and compositionally different mixtures of air, vaporized fuel, and argon. Results obtained under homogeneous conditions, acquired for comparison to stratified operation, showed a small natural progression of the combustion from the intake side to the exhaust side of the engine, a presumed result of natural thermal stratification created from heat transfer between the in-cylinder gases and the cylinder walls. Large differences in the spatial progression of the HCCI combustion were observed under stratified operating conditions.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1107
Vahid Hosseini, W. Stuart Neill, Wallace L. Chippior
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics of dual-stage autoignition fuels were examined over the speed range of 600 to 1700 rpm using a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine. A fuel vaporizer was used to preheat and partially vaporize the fuel inside the intake plenum. The air and fuel were well-mixed prior to entering the cylinder. Since low temperature heat release (LTHR) is known to be an important factor that affects HCCI combustion of fuels that exhibit dual-stage autoignition behavior, a detailed heat release analyses were performed on both time and crank angle bases. At the lower and upper speeds, the operating ranges were compared as a function of air/fuel ratio (AFR) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) from the knocking to misfiring limits. The AFR-EGR operating region was more limited at 1700 rpm than at 900 rpm for the commercial ULSD fuel. Combustion stability was problematic at higher engine speeds.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1100
Jean Milpied, Nicolas Jeuland
This paper presents the major results of an International Consortium study carried out by IFP and focused on the evaluation of fuel impacts on Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) combustion. The formulation and tests of two adapted fuel matrix have allowed identifying and evaluating the main fuel properties that can improve CAI combustion for a maximum enlargement of the CAI operating range. CAI combustion mode appears as one promising solution for the development of low CO2 gasoline engines. Fuel properties can then be key parameters to improve the performances of CAI engines. During a first step of the study, steady state tests have been performed on a single cylinder Port Fuel Injection Spark Ignition (PFI SI) engine, with real fuels.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1101
Dale Turner, Guohong Tian, Hongming Xu, Miroslaw L. Wyszynski, Eudoxios Theodoridis
The differences between modern diesel and gasoline engine configurations are now becoming smaller and smaller, and in fact will be even smaller in the near future. They will all use moderately high compression ratios and complex direct injection strategies. The HCCI combustion mode is likely to lead to the merging of gasoline and diesel engine technologies to handle the challenges they are facing, offering a number of opportunities for the development of the fuels, engine control and after-treatment. The authors' recent experimental research into the HCCI combustion quality of gasoline and diesel blend fuels has referred to the new combustion technology as ‘Dieseline’.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1102
Li Cao, Amit Bhave, Haiyun Su, Sebastian Mosbach, Markus Kraft, Antonis Dris, Robert M. McDavid
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1103
Changho Yang, Hua Zhao, Thanos Megaritis
The negative valve overlap has been shown as one of the most effective means to achieve controlled autoignition combustion in a four-stroke gasoline engine. A number of researches have been carried out on the performance and emission characteristics of CAI engines but there are still some fundamental questions that are yet to be addressed such as in-cylinder process. In the present study, a Ricardo Hydra single cylinder, four stroke optical gasoline engine was instrumented to investigate CAI combustion through negative valve overlap configuration. The effects of direct fuel injection timings and direct air injection at lambda 1 were studied by means of simultaneous in-cylinder heat release study and high speed images of complete chemiluminescence emission, OH and CHO radicals. In particular, the minor combustion process during the NVO period with various air injection quantities was studied with both heat release analysis and chemiluminescence results.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1435
P. Ramu, C. G. Saravanan
The experimental study of the effect of thermal barrier coating on combustion, performance and emission of a diesel engine was investigated. The thermally insulated pistons were compared with standard engine. In general, thermal barrier coating improves the efficiency of the engine and reducing the various energy losses. The experiment was conducted in a single cylinder water cooled DI diesel engine. The results indicate that SiC coated engine shows maximum reduction of NOx emission compared to ZrO2-Al2O3 coated engine and standard engine. By the effect of coating, performance of the engine is slightly increases and smoke density is also slightly enhanced. The second part of the investigation is blending of 2-methoxyethyl acetate (MEA) additive with sole fuel, plus thermal barrier coated engine. The combined effect of thermal barrier coating plus fuel additive shows better performance and simultaneously reduces the smoke and NOX emission.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1437
Pieter Roels, Yves Sledsens, Sebastian Verhelst, Roger Sierens, Lieven Vervaeke
In 2004 the European Parliament ratified the Euro III and IV standards limiting the pollutant emission of, among others, rail and marine diesel engines. In these sectors, it is particularly important to keep any fuel consumption penalty, when reducing emissions, to a strict minimum. Furthermore, exhaust gas after treatment is mostly avoided for cost reasons. Thus, manufacturers are looking to pretreatment of fuels, alternative fuels, and limiting engine-out emissions as ways to attain the required emission levels. This paper discusses the experimental work done on a 1324 kW, 1000 rpm six cylinder marine diesel engine equipped with mechanical unit injectors. The aim was to determine the influence of compression ratio and fuel injection parameters on engine-out emissions, with emphasis on NOx emissions. A range of fuel injection parameters were examined, varying the start of injection, pump plunger diameter, injection pressure, and injector nozzle geometry.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1438
Takayuki Adachi, Yuzo Aoyagi, Masayuki Kobayashi, Tetsuya Murayama, Yuichi Goto, Hisakazu Suzuki
The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1439
Samiur Rahman Shah, Alain Maiboom, Xavier Tauzia, Jean-François Hétet
This paper presents an experimental study of a water injection (WI) application where water fog is added in the intake of a common rail High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) automobile Diesel engine in order to reduce pollutant emissions Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter (NOx and PM) for future emissions standards. Also studied are the physical parameters of the engine (in-cylinder pressure, air inlet temperature, air mass flow, specific fuel consumption etc). The results are compared with those obtained with low-pressure dry Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP EGR) on the same engine. Tests performed with the water injection system show that a much better NOx / PM trade-off (reduced NOx emission levels at constant PM emission levels) is obtained than with EGR especially at points of high engine loads. In addition, tests are performed with EGR in parallel with water injection to investigate the reduction of NOx emissions while potentially reducing water consumption.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1440
Sangwook Han, Euijoon Shim, Jinyoung Jang, Jungseo Park, Choongsik Bae, Jongnam Park, Hyunok Kim
Low temperature diesel combustion with a large amount of exhaust gas recirculation in a direct injection diesel engine was investigated. Tests were carried out under various engine speeds, injection pressures, injection timings, and injection quantities. Exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were measured at different torque and engine speed conditions. High rates of exhaust gas recirculation led to the simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxide and soot emissions due to a lower combustion temperature than conventional diesel combustion. However, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased as the combustion temperature decreased because of incomplete combustion and the lack of an oxidation reaction. To overcome the operating range limits of low temperature diesel combustion, increased intake pressure with a modified turbocharger was employed.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1441
Arjan Helmantel, Valeri Golovitchev
Further restrictions on NOx emissions and the extension of current driving cycles for passenger car emission regulations to higher load operation in the near future (such as the US06 supplement to the FTP-75 driving cycle) requires attention to low emission combustion concepts in medium to high load regimes. One possibility to reduce NOx emissions is to increase the EGR rate. The combustion temperature-reducing effects of high EGR rates can significantly reduce NO formation, to the point where engine-out NOx emissions approach zero levels. However, engine-out soot emissions typically increase at high EGR levels, due to the reduced soot oxidation rates at reduced combustion temperatures and oxygen concentrations.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1443
Naoto Horibe, Takuji Ishiyama
This study aims to determine strategies for improving the relations between the pressure rise rate and emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) in low temperature combustion (LTC) operation of a diesel engine. For this purpose, an analysis was conducted on data from experiments carried out using a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with variation in the injection quantity, injection timing, exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) rate, injection pressure, injection nozzle specification and combustion chamber geometry. The results reveal that the pressure rise rate and NOx exhibit similar tendencies when varying injection timing and EGR rate, which is opposite to CO and total HC (THC) emissions, regardless of injection quantity. When the injection quantity is increased, smoke emission becomes problematic in the selection of the injection timing.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1425
Alberto A. Boretti, Harry C. Watson
Favorable and unfavorable properties of hydrogen as a combustion engine fuel have been accommodated in a design of a fuel efficient and clean engine providing similar to gasoline maximum torque and power. The advanced H2ICE being developed is a turbocharged engine fitted with cryogenic port hydrogen fuel injection and the hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). The combustion chamber is designed to produce a high compression ratio and therefore high thermal efficiency. A waste gated turbocharger provides pressure boosting for an increased power density running ultra lean for SULEV operation without after treatment. Thanks to the combustion properties of hydrogen further enhanced by the HAJI system, the engine load is mainly controlled throttle-less decreasing the fuel-to-air equivalence ratio from ultra lean ϕ=0.43 to ultra-ultra lean ϕ=0.18. The computational model developed for addressing the major design issues and the predicted engine performance and efficiency maps are included.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1428
David A. Parenti
This paper describes an embedded software solution to manage the various powertrain component and system diagnostics required for On-Board Diagnostics (OBDI and OBDII) regulatory compliance. It utilizes flexible configuration of the complex interactions between systems and components that would otherwise be very difficult to define early enough in the Engine Control Module (ECM) software process to meet lead-time requirements. This method for managing the OBD test routines and their interdependencies allows the interactions to be configured through the use of calibration tables after software verification testing has been completed. This results in higher reliability of productionized software by avoiding the need to have the interactions pre-defined and included in the software up-front, and by enabling configuration changes later in the process without affecting the software itself.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1429
D. Sundar, S. VenuMadhav, B. Srinivasan, S. Govindarajan, B. Subbulakshmi, Madhuri Marathe
The simple design and low cost of the carburator makes it an attractive proposition to be used for two-wheeler applications in India and other countries. However, stringent emission standards pose greater challenge in carburator matching for different vehicle applications. The use of electronics for controlling the air-fuel ratio in a carburator with closed-loop control to meet Euro-III standards is the driving force to undertake this project. The goal is to achieve the best catalytic converter efficiency when the air-fuel-ratio is maintained at stoichiometric within a close band. Inherent variations in manufacturing of carburators can cause the air-fuel ratio to drift from stoichiometric and have an adverse effect on catalytic converter efficiency. The most efficient method of maintaining air-fuel ratio within a close band near stoichiometric is through closed-loop control. This method is widely used in passenger cars with fuel injection.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1430
Satoshi Takizawa, Eisei Higuchi, Tatsuo Iwabe, Masahiko Emura, Takayuki Kisai, Takayuki Suzuki
To examine factors influencing side impact compatibility, as a first step, car-to-car tests were conducted to investigate the effect of sill interaction. As a result, it was found that sill interaction had a less significant effect on side impact performance than reducing the load aligned with the dummy. In addition, a series of Mobile Deformable Barrier (MDB) tests were performed to corroborate the conclusions of the car-to-car tests. Comparison of the results of these MDB tests showed that the effect of reducing loading aligned with the driver dummy is more significant than that of engagement with the target car's sill, which is consistent with the car-to-car test results.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1432
Taisuke Fujiwara
Due to the relative high speed and short distance between the door and occupant, side impact presents a challenging task when analyzing the input force from the door to the occupant. The new FMVSS214 Final Rule in 2007 and the new NCAP in 2008 mandated the use of a SID-IIs in the oblique pole impact test and in the rear seat during an MDB side impact test. Therefore, a high-precision measurement and calculation of the three-dimensional dummy kinematics, as well as the interaction of force inside the dummy (internal force) and force exerted from outside the dummy (external force) will help provide efficient evaluation of design requirements for the door trim and supplemental restraint systems that meet legally mandated requirements.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1433
Jeff Dix, Doug Stein
This paper describes a new test methodology for simulating a near side oblique pole impact per FMVSS 214. Given the complexity, time, and cost of using full vehicle crash tests to develop occupant restraint systems, it is desirable to have a simple test method that allows engineers to develop an optimized restraint system in a timely and cost effective manner. The authors will present a new sled test method that accurately simulates a full vehicle oblique pole side impact test using only minimal vehicle components. This test method was validated through correlation with vehicle testing using the SID IIs (5th percentile female) and the ES2-RE (50th percentile male) dummies, on both a sport utility vehicle (SUV) and mid sized sedan to show application of this test method to a wide range of vehicle architectures.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1434
Paul Scullion, Lilly Nix, Richard M. Morgan, Vinay Nagabhushana, Kennerly H. Digges, Cing-Dao Kan, Tony M. Lamb
This study assessed the primary involved physical components attributed to the head and face injuries of child occupants seated directly adjacent to the stuck side of a vehicle in a side impact collision. The findings presented in this study were based upon analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) for the years 1993–2007. Injury analysis was conducted for those nearside child occupants aged between 1–12 years-old. The involved children were classified as toddler-type, booster-type, or belted-type occupants. These classifications were based upon the recommended restraint system for the occupant. Injury mechanisms were assessed for the child occupants in each of the three groups. A detailed study of NASS/CDS cases was conducted to provide a greater understanding of the associated injury mechanisms.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1453
Kubilay Yay, I. Murat Ereke, Mehmet Bilir, Veysel Çataltepe
Theoretical and experimental techniques in road data are needed for design of vehicle body and chassis according to nowadays technology concept. In this paper, both theoretical analysis and experimental accelerated techniques are explained considering domestic and export production of Anadolu ISUZU company urban type midi bus vehicle. First of all, the chassis and body (skeleton system) of the midi bus vehicle were modeled in 3D by using Catia program and then finite element model (FEM) of the chassis and the body were created by using Ansys, Workbench program. Static and dynamic loading models obtained from dynamic wheel loads acting on the vehicle were developed. In this model, during the service life of the vehicle under vertical and lateral dynamic loads (straight good road, straight bad road, cornering bad road, and singular obstacle road) arising from the road conditions were taken into account.
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