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Viewing 271 to 300 of 61859
1999-08-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-2982
John K. Schmidt, USN, Donald W. Lawson, USN, Brent W. Goodrum, USMC
In order to address a Naval Fleet Logistics Support (VR) Wing Commander’s request to proactively uncover safety factors in VR maintenance operations, a prototype climate survey was taken by VR Wing maintainers in 13 squadrons. Nearly 800 surveys were tabulated, and the results were analyzed using a model for high reliability organizations. Overall, the preliminary analysis of the survey data pointed out some potential areas in the VR Wing and each of its aircraft communities for intervention.
1999-08-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-2981
John K. Schmidt, USN, Robert C. Figlock, USMC, Curtis D. Teeters, USN
To study maintainer error, the Naval Safety Center’s Human Factors Accident Classification System (HFACS) was adapted for Maintenance Related Mishaps (MRMs). The HFACS Maintenance Extension (ME) successfully profiled the errors present Naval Aviation Class A MRMs. In order to assess its suitability for studying major and minor airline accidents, a post hoc analysis was conducted on 124 Naval Fleet Logistics Support (VR) Wing maintenance related mishap, hazard, and injury reports. Two judges separately coded the 124 VR Wing incidents; a Cohen’s kappa of .78 was achieved, indicating an “excellent” level of agreement. Generally, HFACS-ME was able to profile maintainer errors found in more minor incidents and the factors that contribute to them. Common factors observed include errors attributed to third party maintenance, inadequate supervision, failed communications, skill-based errors, and procedural violations.
1999-08-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-2980
J.C. Taylor
These results show that FAA certified aircraft mechanics in Asian countries (Japan, Korea, SE Asia, and India) display greater power distance from superiors than do their U.S. counterparts working for the same international air carrier. This finding tends to confirm the findings and theory of Hofestede (1984), as well as recent replications of Hofestede’s work among airline pilots by Helmreich & Merritt (1998). However, divergence from Hofstede’s strong correlation between high power distance and collectivist values is also found in this sample of airline mechanics. The present findings show that mechanics (regardless of national origin) tend to be more uniformly individualistic than Helmreich & Merritt’s international sample of airline pilots, who are in turn considerably more individualistic than Hofstede’s international sample of IBM employees. It is speculated that this divergence is explained by a combination of occupational and organizational factors.
1999-08-10
Technical Paper
1999-01-2979
Manoj S. Patankar
This study, based on Helmreich and Merritt’s (1998) definitions of professional and organizational cultures, identifies the challenges faced by airlines in the United States and India in the implementation of MHF/MRM programs. Data was gathered through ethnographic observations and field interviews (n=350) at two major airlines in the United States and one regional airline in India. The results of this study indicate the following barriers at the professional and organizational levels. At the professional level, an appropriately qualified AMT or AME holds individual airworthiness authority; whereas, the human factors training promotes team performance. Unless specific mechanisms are developed so that the individual AMTs and the AMEs are not coerced into releasing an aircraft in a hurry, the implementation of MHF/MRM programs will not be successful.
1999-08-17
Technical Paper
1999-01-2893
Yuri A. Krassin
A new application is proposed for a light aircraft in personal transportation - that is of a long range grand tourism vehicle; the role it can perform much better than an automobile. Light aircraft more conventional usage for short ranges is more suitable for business goals. A convertible road to air vehicle (aircar) having a high CL/CD ratio is considered to be the most suitable means of personal transportation in the future. A rather low CL/CD of previously built aircars is considered to be one of the reasons of their failure in the past. A narrow road module having a controlled body tilt and a high aspect ratio wing are proposed as remedies. Simple original equations comparing light aircraft expenses against that of an automobile or an airliner ticket cost are proposed. They show that the light aircraft costing up to $35K per passenger at CL/CD =12 can be competitive with an airliner on a range of up to 2,500 miles and an aircar at CL/CD =20 or more of up to 12,000 miles.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0142
Gary Rushton, Armen Zakarian
Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. In this paper, a methodology that combines the system modeling, integration analysis, and optimization techniques for development of modular electrical/electronic vehicle systems is presented. The approach optimizes integration and interactions of the electrical/electronic system elements and creates functional and physical modules for the system. The approach proposed in this paper is systematic and can be used to support product development and decision making in engineering design.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5580
Petter Krus
There is a clear risk that system aspects and flight control issues are not dealt with satisfactory in the preliminary design phase. There are several reasons for this. The first is that aircraft are becoming increasingly complex and the second is that there are limited resources available at the preliminary design stage. Therefore it is a risk that preliminary design is handed over that requires a lot more attention in the system and control areas than would otherwise been needed if these matter could have been dealt with more efficiently at the preliminary design phase. With the advent of powerful simulation techniques the resources needed to do this are becoming available. There is, however, a need for tools that can be used to connect the different disciplines with each other. At present designers in different disciplines usually relays, not only on totally different tools, but also different paradigms.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5586
Robert H. Vandel
What is the challenge? A series of products to eliminate both controlled flight into terrain and approach and landing accidents has been developed. Several different working groups, who were focused on elimination of the threat, developed these products. Now the challenge is how to get the information into the hands of all aviators and aviation organizations worldwide. Your first impulse might be to just send everyone a copy and be done with it. That although expensive sounds relatively simple. That is the challenge that faces the Flight Safety Foundation today and one that I will address in this paper. I will review the effort made to date, the problems encountered and where we are currently headed. CFIT and ALAR are global problems and we will need a lot of assistance if we are to eliminate these maladies. How significant is the problem? By reviewing Figure 2, one can easily determine where the effort needed to be focused.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5588
R. A. Faerber, T. G. Sharpe, T. J. Etherington, S. S. Chappell, T.R. Barnes, T. L. Vogl, S. M. Zellers, D. H. Hartley, J. A. Klein, R. D. Jinkins
Tomorrow’s flight deck will contain avionics similar in nature to today’s aircraft. However, tomorrow’s avionics display formats and the manner in which pilots will interact with and control those displays will be significantly different. These differences will be for the benefit of the pilot and allow him/her to intuitively interact with their equipment, increase their performance, and heighten the safety of all passengers aboard. This paper will highlight some of the advanced avionics display formats and control technologies that the Human Interface Technology Group of Rockwell Collins, Inc. Advanced Technology Center (ATC) have been investigating over the last year and provide recommendations for future research efforts.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5587
Ratan Khatwa, Robert L. Helmreich
Executive Summary This document is the final report of the Data Acquisition and Analysis Working Group (DAAWG) of the Flight Safety Foundation (FSF) Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction (ALAR) Task Force (Appendix D contains the complete listing of participants). The DAAWG was established in August 1997 to independently analyze data that may lead to the identification and/or resolution of approach-and-landing safety issues. Activities pursued by the DAAWG included: high-level analyses of 287 fatal accidents; detailed case studies of 76 accidents and serious incidents; and the assessment of key crew behavioral markers isolated in the occurrences and in the line audits of about 3,300 flights. The DAAWG is also conducting an economic analysis of the cost of approach-andlanding accidents (ALAs) to the industry (in progress).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5590
Laurent Moussault
This paper presents an approach to pilots’ situation awareness (SA) that focuses on temporal issues. This approach must be complemented by other factors such as spatial awareness. The temporal aspects of SA are important for the flying task, for computer interaction, and for human communication. The presence of these three domains together inside the cockpit leads to difficulties with time management. Temporal aspects in human-computer interaction (HCI) are investigated in the context of aviation SA. Useful tools for their evaluation and anticipation are proposed. Finally, psychological, cognitive and philosophical studies on time consciousness that enable the investigation of relevant attributes of complex dynamic systems such as aircrafts are presented.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5591
Christopher D. Wickens, John Helleberg, Xidong Xu
In two experiments, strategic conflict avoidance maneuvers of 32 licensed pilots were analyzed when they flew a series of missions in a low fidelity (Experiment 1) and a high fidelity (Experiment 2) flight simulator, rendering an outside view and a cockpit display of traffic information. On various legs of the mission, aircraft generating traffic conflicts intruded from above, below and at the same altitude as ownship at various azimuth orientations. Pilot maneuvers were categorized in terms of the dimension of maneuver (vertical, lateral, airspeed), and the direction of change within that maneuver. Decision analysis revealed a strong tendency of pilots to use simple one dimensional maneuvers, and of these, to prefer vertical over lateral and airspeed maneuvers. Airspeed maneuvers in particular were avoided.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5559
Steven M. Nash, Stuart E. Rogers
An overset grid approach is used to analyze a 3-element trapezoidal wing high-lift configuration. A new software system was developed to automate the overset computational fluid dynamics process. A three-dimensional grid resolution study is conducted, and comparisons of numerical results are made to experimental data which were obtained after the simulations. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data are in good agreement for the lift coefficient over a wide range of angles of attack, up to and including CLmax. Comparisons of chordwise distributions of the pressure coefficient between numerical and experimental data are in good agreement for all three elements, except the lift is under-predicted for the tip region when the wing is near CLmax.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5558
Dimitri J. Mavriplis
A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver based on unstructured mesh techniques for analysis of high-lift configurations is described. The method makes use of an agglomeration multigrid solver for convergence acceleration. Directional agglomeration and implicit line-smoothing is employed to relieve the stiffness associated with highly stretched meshes. A GMRES technique is also implemented to speed convergence at the expense of additional memory usage. The solver is parallelized on shared and distributed memory machines using the MPI message passing library. Convergence and scalability results are illustrated for various high-lift test cases.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5564
R.C.J. Ruigrok, R.N.H.W. van Gent, J.M. Hoekstra
This paper describes the initial results of a simulation experiment in which the human factors implications of three Mixed Equipage, Integrated Air-Ground, Free Flight Air Traffic Management (ATM) scenarios were investigated. The experiment primarily addressed how to accommodate a fleet of mixed equipped aircraft, with and without Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS), in a transitional free flight era in which both air and ground players have defined responsibilities. All three transitional ATM operational concepts evaluated, were designed with the idea that equipping aircraft should be immediately beneficial to the airlines.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5563
Brian Hilburn, Wouter D. Pekela
This paper presents selected results of four experiments into air traffic control (ATC) aspects of free flight (FF). The first two examined basic human performance implications of FF, in terms of workload and ability to monitor traffic. The third explored the potential for improved ATC displays to benefit controllers under FF traffic patterns. The fourth experiment examined methods for accommodating mixed equipage, such as during a transitional FF era in which both FF capable and FF incapable aircraft would be expected to share the same airspace. The first three experiments involved controllers operating in “open-loop” simulations, with computer-generated traffic and simulated pilot responses. In the final experiment, pilots and controllers were linked in real-time sessions.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5566
Eric Hoffman, Karim Zeghal, Gildas Courtet
The Evolutionary Air-ground Co-operative ATM Concepts (EACAC) study of the Freer-Flight project investigates the delegation by the controller to the pilot, of some tasks related to separation assurance. Starting from the analogy of visual clearances, EACAC investigates the possibility of giving electronic clearances. One of the issues of the study deals with the appropriate assistance scheme to be provided to the pilot, considering the proposed concept of limited delegation. The “scales of separations” is one of the levels of assistance envisaged. Two models of turns and their appropriateness for lateral scales of effects are investigated. The scales of separations implementing these models will be evaluated by pilots, first through a cockpit environment in a stand-alone mode (end 1999), and then using a cockpit simulator in a real-time simulation with controllers (mid 2000).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5565
Karim Zeghal, Eric Hoffman, Jean-Pierre Nicolaon, Anne Cloerec, Isabelle Grimaud
This paper presents the initial evaluation of the EACAC study, which is investigating delegation by the controller to the pilot of some tasks related to separation assurance. The concept is applied in managed airspace for two classes of application: crossing and passing in enroute, and sequencing in Terminal Manoeuvring Area. The concept relies on two key points discussed in the paper: “limited delegation” and “flexible use of delegation”. The initial evaluation using a simplified ATC environment has been set up to get “feedback” from both controllers and pilots, and to assess the operational feasibility and potential interest of the concept. The overall feeling about the method is “promising” with a “great potential”, and could reduce workload. The notion of “flexible use of delegation” would enable the gradual growth of confidence and would also provide flexibility to use the method under different conditions (traffic, airspace, practice level).
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5571
J. Garth Thompson, null, Head, H. Paul Stough, AWIN Project Manager Walter S. Green, Flight Systems Workpackage Leader
A study of the cockpit information system architecture of current single-engine single-pilot aircraft was performed to establish a baseline for the evaluation of the reliability of new cockpit systems being developed through the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) program. That study defines a “typical” General Aviation (GA) cockpit information system architecture consisting of 38 components making up 32 subsystems. It also developed a reliability (fault tree) model for the system and utilized a proprietary analysis tool to compute system reliability. Fault tree reliability models have gained wide acceptance since their introduction in the 1960’s to analyze the probability of success of military defense systems. Fault trees use logic gates to express the relationships between failures of the components and resulting failures of subsystems and of the system.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5567
Walter W. Johnson, Vernol Battiste, Sheila Holland Bochow
Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5570
Paul A. Eustace, Lloyd R. Jenkinson
This paper presents the results of four case studies of future fighter concepts incorporating new technologies. The introduction of advanced materials, enhanced agility and lower observability are individually assessed relative to an existing design (F-16). All these technologies are then integrated into a single design concept for final assessment. A newly developed mass prediction model (AMBER) [1] [2] has been used in these studies to estimate structural masses, centers of gravity and pitch inertia. The method employs idealized structural analysis to size the aircraft framework. This allows more accurate predictions in the aircraft conceptual design phase than existing statistically based methods and provides design insights into the aircraft configuration.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5575
Fred G. Williams
This paper presents an analysis approach to investigate wing leading edge static charge dissipation caused by frictional electrification. The static charge is normally dissipated through the anti-static coating layer beneath the topcoat to the aircraft structure, and subsequently is dissipated into the air via the static discharge system on the trailing edge. Composite leading edges that have non-conductive coating materials pose a unique static charge dissipation design problem. When the induced static charge exceeds the dielectric strength of the nonconductive coating, discharge to the structure can damage the coatings. This paper describes the anti-static system design analysis performed to develop a system design solution.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5572
Terence J. Barnes
Mr. Barnes is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Chief Scientific and Technical Advisor for Structural Loads and Design Criteria, and in this position he is responsible for recommending appropriate research to support his discipline. He recommended the establishment of the FAA Operational Loads Monitoring Program in 1988, (Reference 1) and continues to actively promote and monitor the research, and use of the results.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5576
Marianne Mosher, Michael E. Watts, Michael Barnes, Jorge Bardina
A processing system has been developed to meet increasing demands for detailed noise measurement of aircraft in wind tunnels. Phased arrays enable spatial and amplitude measurements of acoustic sources, including low signal-to-noise sources not measurable by conventional measurement techniques. The Microphone Array Phased Processing System (MAPPS) provides processing and visualization of acoustic array measurements made in wind tunnels. The system uses networked parallel computers to provide noise maps at selected frequencies in a near real-time testing environment. The system has been successfully used in two subsonic, hard-walled wind tunnels, the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel and the NASA Ames 12-Foot Wind Tunnel. Low level airframe noise that can not be measured with traditional techniques was measured in both tests.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5578
Mark A. Hale, Dimitri N. Mavris
The enabling of advanced design methods in an internet-capable framework will be discussed in this paper. The resulting framework represents the next generation of design and analysis capability in which engineering decision- making can be done by geographically distributed team members. A new internet technology called the lean-server approach is introduced as a mechanism for granting Web browser access to frameworks and domain analyses. This approach has the underpinnings required to support these next generation frameworks - collaboratories. A historical perspective of design frameworks is discussed to provide an understanding of the design functionality that is expected from framework implementations to insure design technology advancement. Two research areas were identified as being important to the development of collaboratories: design portals and collaborative methods.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5543
Charles Raab
Air Traffic Services (ATS) and Airline Operational Control (AOC) have developed independently as higher-level management functions to address separate, but related concerns of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the airlines, respectively. In today’s National Air Space (NAS), most interactions are limited to the results of unilateral decisions and communication of chosen options, with very little information about the objectives, constraints, processes, or rationale for those decisions being exchanged. However, the underlying philosophy of Air Traffic Management (ATM) and AOC is changing and the system is becoming much more collaborative. Increasingly, the military is beginning to be a key user in the overall NAS community, as well as in the global airspace community. As the concepts of free flight begin to emerge, military users will need to employ methods and technologies in use by commercial airspace users for both ground and air.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5544
Thomas M. Leard
A multifunction display provides the flight crew with access to a mix of information. The challenge for the crew, the designer, and the certification agencies, is to determine if the human interface to this mix can be understood under normal and abnormal conditions. The technical capabilities of signal processing and displays permit endless information combinations to exist. However, human performance and mental processing capabilities impose significant challenges in designing the display and controller interface. For the crews to be successful, they ultimately need to obtain an increase in their level of situational knowledge from the flow of information that a multifunction display provides.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5540
Lynne Martin, Jeannie Davison, Judith Orasanu, Chesley Sullenberger
Despite efforts to design systems and procedures to support “correct” and safe operations in aviation, accidents still occur and errors in human judgment are found to be contributing factors. In this paper we examine how the wider aviation system may play a role in decision processes. Our strategy was to examine a collection of identified decision errors (National Transportation Safety Board [NTSB], 1994) through the lens of an aviation decision process model and to search for common patterns. The second and more difficult task was to determine what might account for those patterns. The decision process model suggests that decisions with undesirable outcomes can arise in two major ways: either through misassessment of the situation - a problem with situation awareness, or through judgment of the best course of action.
1999-10-19
Technical Paper
1999-01-5541
Jacqueline A. Duley, Scott M. Galster, Raja Parasuraman, Anthony J. Smoker
Increases in technological capability permit us to obtain more information with improved accuracy from the systems and actors in the NAS. Collaborative Decision Making is a philosophy of redistributing information such that airspace users and service providers can act cooperatively to solve problems in areas such as flow control, and ground or weather delays. Designers are creating new tools to access this information and provide it to the users and ATC. We are concerned with the controller interface to this information and its incorporation of these new tools. We recommend a human-centered approach to the development of an effective interface.
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