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Viewing 91 to 120 of 61866
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2365
John A. Hogan, Julie A. Levri, Rich Morrow, Jim Cavazzoni, Luis F. Rodriguez, Rebecca Riaño, Dawn R. Whitaker
An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL®) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPIS will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2370
Susmita Mohanty, Barbara Imhof
This paper presents and details the premise for a theoretical research project in space architecture funded by the Austrian Chancellery of Art titled: TRANSCRIPTS OF AN ARCHITECTURAL JOURNEY: MUSINGS TOWARDS A NEW GENRE IN SPACE ARCHITECTURE. The premise is that space architecture, like any other field of architecture, is evolving continuously and needs to be recognized as such. To better understand this evolution, the project classifies it in to three genres: the 1st genre [Voyage d’Esprit] comprises of concepts introduced through science fiction books and films, the 2nd genre [Man-in-a-Can] encompasses the spaceships designed and built by space agencies, and the 3rd genre [Trans-Gravity] is being shaped by professional architects and designers external to the traditional domain of space agencies. The paper discusses the first two genres and then goes on to contemplate the 3rd genre through case studies.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2317
Valter Perotto, Vincenzo Mareschi
ALTAN (ALenia Thermal ANalyser) is a tool developed in Alenia Spazio, for the thermal simulation of satellites. Distinctive features of ALTAN are the description of the system in terms of thermal objects that can be considered as high level primitives, the accurate modelling of the energy sources (planets and sun) and of the optical properties, the integration in a single tool of the steps of radiative, conductive and thermal calculations and of the post-process of the results. An example of ALTAN application is given for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury, in particular the modelling of the highly variable planet temperature and the directional optical properties of the planet surface.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2309
R. V. Gavrylov, Yu. A. Melenevskiy, V. I. Dranovskiy, M. I. Koshkin
The stand rig facility for thermo-vacuum testing of Space vehicles (STVT), described in this paper, is intended for simulation of: space vacuum, cold Space environment, electromagnetic radiation by the Sun and Earth, and Earth-albedo, as well as determination of influence of these factors on thermal regime of hardware and instruments of SV.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2307
Pierre Jamotton, Antonio Cucchiaro, Isabelle Domken
Both Planck and Herschel satellite are cryogenic payloads, the first one having a cold point around 0.1 [K], the second one around 0.3 [K]. Not only the detectors are cooled, but also major subsystems and systems of the spacecraft’s. The Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL) is involved in the testing of several parts of the spacecraft’s, starting from optical tests on the mirrors or on the telescopes, going on with cryogenic vibration testing of scientific focal plane instruments, ending with the full Planck spacecraft testing. Each test requires temperature lower than 20 [K], in volumes ranging from 1 [m3] to 60 [m3], cooling down several kilograms to more than one ton, and withstanding heat load up to 150 [W] in stabilization. These tests are done is 4 different facilities of CSL, linked to a common cold Helium network. This latter allows full flexibility for operation of the different facilities quasi independently.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2311
Jih-Run Tsai, Chia-Ray Chen, Lou-Chuang Lee, Chiuder Hsiao, Marco Molina, Maddalena Cova, Alberto Franzoso, Joseph Burger
The thermal vacuum / thermal balance test design and execution are described in the paper for the qualification campaign of 37 electronic units flown with the payload of ISS (International Space Station), i.e., AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer). The tests are run in 10 separate test campaigns, across a time frame of 3 years (2002–2005). The tests have been carried on at NSPO (National Space Program Office in Taiwan), maximizing the time usage of thermal vacuum facilities. During each experimental campaign several units are tested at the same time, sharing the vacuum chamber volume. Because independent heaters are applied to each unit, the electronic crates can be tested at temperature levels different from one another. The reliability of thermal analysis is enhanced at each thermal balance test, with the final aim to fully validate the thermal mathematical model deviating less than 3°C from actual measurements.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2310
M. T. Pauken, G. M. Kinsella, K. S. Novak, G. T. Tsuyuki, C. J. Phillips
In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landed on the surface of Mars to begin their mission as robotic geologists. A year prior to these historic landings, both rovers and the spacecraft that delivered them to Mars, were completing a series of environmental tests in facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the test program undertaken to validate the thermal design and verify the workmanship integrity of both rovers and the spacecraft. The spacecraft, which contained the rover within the aeroshell, were tested in a 7.5 m diameter thermal vacuum chamber. Thermal balance was performed for the near earth (hot case) condition and for the near Mars (cold case) condition. A solar simulator was used to provide the solar boundary condition on the solar array. IR lamps were used to simulate the solar heat load on the aeroshell for the off-sun attitudes experienced by the spacecraft during its cruise to Mars.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2322
S. A. Walker, J. Tweed, J. W. Wilson, R. K. Tripathi
The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2319
Hume Peabody, Sharon Peabody
ThermPlot Pro is a Windows based, post-processing tool that interfaces with standard output files from many of the industry’s leading finite difference thermal modeling tools, including: SINDA/FLUINT, SINDA/G, ESATAN, TMG, TAK2000, and TSS. ThermPlot Pro takes the standard output from these tools and imports the data into a user created Microsoft Excel® workbook. From the ThermPlot interface, a user may define Tables or Plots of relevant data, group nodes together for simplification, create specialized parameters, or evaluate heat flow throughout a model using a specialized, interactive HeatMap workbook. Tabular data may include minimums, maximums, averages, or any selected timestep. It also includes the option to add user-defined limits to the tables and highlight data that is out of limit conditions. Plotted data allows the user full control over series properties (color, linetype, marker, etc) as well as control over the axes properties (minimum, maximum, major division, etc.)
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2318
R. V. Gavrilov, A. M. Kislov, V. G. Romanenko
An applied program MIRAGE is intended for numerical modeling of radiant fluxes in mirror-lens optical systems of solar simulators. In the given area of the reference plane of a solar simulator the distribution of irradiance and its non-uniformity concerning of its average value as well as average irradiance and maximal angle of divergence of beam are calculated.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2321
M. C. Haupt, R. Niesner, R. Schlitt, F. Bodendieck, Ch. Strom
This paper will give an overview of the effort to develop a thermal engineering tool for space applications, which is based on open source software (OSS) tools. It will describe the architecture of the analysis system and discuss the considered OSS packages used as building blocks with respect to the integration aspect and the engineering capabilities. The discussion of the software is completed with the experiences in creating a web-based community.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2320
Marco Molina, Paolo Vercesi
The paper presents the simulation and the performance evaluation for an innovative Temperature and Humidity Control in a manned orbiting module. Starting from the EcosimPro® modelling capabilities, a Space Station Module has been built and a standard Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) has been designed, based on a classical PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller, suitably developed. After that, a fuzzy logic controller has been dsigned and thanks to EcosimPro programmability a fuzzy logic controller block has been created. The controller have been sized and its performances suitably simulated. Performances of the innovative controller are checked against the standard control techniques.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2326
William Atwell, Lawrence W. Townsend, Thomas Miller, Christina Campbell
The highly successful Galileo mission made a number of startling and remarkable discoveries during its eight-year tour in the harsh Jupiter radiation environment. Two of these revelations were: 1) salty oceans lying under an icy crust of the Galilean moons: Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, and 2) the possible existence or remnants of life, especially on Europa, which has a very tenuous atmosphere of oxygen. Galileo radiation measurement data from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) have been used (Garrett et al., 2003) to update the trapped electron environment model, GIRE: Galileo Interim Radiation Environment, in the range of L (L: McIlwain parameter – see ref. 6) = 8–16 Rj (Rj: radius of Jupiter ≈ 71,400 km) with plans to extend the model for both electrons and protons as more data are reduced and analyzed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2336
Hilary R. Bollan, Richard Kearn, Adrian D. Carp, Alex C. Goodall, Jacob Ford
This paper investigates the use of an industry standard tube and closure method with the aim of replacing the existing glass tube. In order to accredit the tube the long-term stability of the samples was investigated in terms of accuracy, precision, and robustness with actual and control samples in the submarine environment and with control samples in the laboratory.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2274
Vincenzo Mareschi, Valter Perotto, Matteo Gorlani, Danilo Lazzeri, Olivier Pin
Stochastic method is being used in several domains for design optimisation, but its application to spacecraft thermal control design is not yet consolidated. The paper presents an assessment of this technique applied to spacecraft thermal control design, made by Blue Engineering and Alenia Spazio under ESA contract, with the objective to assess the applicability of the method, the requirements for its implementation, the effects on the design process.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2275
B. Cullimore, S. G. Ring, J. Baumann
Thankfully, the age of stand-alone fixed-input simulation tools is fading away in favor of more flexible and integrated solutions. “Concurrent engineering” once meant automating data translations between monolithic codes, but sophisticated users have demanded more native integration and more automated tools for designing, and not just evaluating point designs. Improvements in both interprocess communications technology and numerical solutions have gone a long way towards meeting those demands. This paper describes a small slice of a larger on-going effort to satisfy current and future demands for integrated multidisciplinary tools that can be highly customized by end-users or by third parties. Specifically, the ability to integrate fully featured thermal/fluid simulations into Microsoft’s Excel™ and other software is detailed. Users are now able not only to prepare custom user interfaces, they can use these codes as portals that allow integration activities at a larger scale.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2273
D. Martin
Traditionally, the preliminary thermal design is behind the mechanical and electrical spacecraft design. Many factors contribute to this including a lack of detailed physical characteristics of the spacecraft and knowledge of the distribution of the thermal loads within the spacecraft. Therefore, the thermal design typically reacts to the mechanical and electrical designs. The thermal analyst gets a configuration and then tries to wrap an acceptable solution around it. The analyst relies on years of experience and trial and error to determine the appropriate design cases and create a thermal design. Depending on the experience level of the engineer, several iterations may be necessary to determine the worst-case design points and an acceptable thermal design.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2279
Eric P. Rubenstein, Marek A. Wójtowicz, Elizabeth Florczak, Erik Kroo, Robert C. Singleterry
AFR, Inc. is developing a multifunctional Carbon material that, in addition to excellent radiation shielding characteristics, is appropriate for certain energy storage applications. As an excellent Hydrogen gas sorbent, it increases the usable storage capacity of a gas cylinder by ~25% at 3500 PSI and by ~150% at 500 PSI. Our recent NASA-Langley SBIR study shows that when a sorbent-filled tank is charged with hydrogen, it provides shielding superior to polyethylene against most types of ionizing particles. Even as hydrogen is consumed, the carbon and tank ensure that significant radiation shielding capability is maintained. Vastly improved radiation shielding is a clear requirement for a potential manned mission to Mars or a long-duration base on the surface of the Moon. However, current shielding technologies are predicated upon systems dedicated solely to the task of shielding.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2276
R. V. Gavrilov, V. N. Fenchenko, A. M. Kislov, V. G. Romanenko
The software package for computerized modeling of thermal regimes of a spacecraft (S/C) provided with passive and active means of temperature control, under conditions of orbital flight mission and at thermo-vacuum testing conditions, is represented. The programs of the package have been developed in Object Pascal programming language. Description of the package programs and their basic functions is outlined. An example of calculations for thermal regimes of satellite, with its longitudinal axis oriented on the Sun, is represented.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2282
Lynn D. Harper, Gregory K. Schmidt, Ronald L. Schaefer, Ingrid L. Rudolph-Angelich, Richard Mains, Darren Hughes, Gregory Leonard
Studying the biology of terrestrial life on another world will offer unique opportunities for understanding the fundamental nature of life in the universe. Still accelerating revolutions in biotechnology, information technology, robotics, and super-miniaturization now make it possible to conduct detailed research into opportunities inherent in living on other worlds. Although close to Earth, the Moon includes features found nowhere else in the solar system. Different gravity, radiation stresses, magnetic fields and day/night cycles are among the biologically relevant forces of interest on the Moon. Results from studying different organisms in the lunar environment over complete life cycles and multiple generations would provide the first comparative, biological reference data of the transition of life from one world to another, and foundational information for evaluating potential health and safety problems on a Mars mission.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2281
Ronald L. Schaefer, Ingrid L. Rudolph-Angelich, Richard Mains, Darren Hughes, Gregory Leonard, Lynn D. Harper, Gregory K. Schmidt
Exploring worlds beyond Earth will require terrestrial life to survive and ultimately flourish in environments fundamentally different to those in which it has evolved. The effects of deep space and conditions on the surface of other worlds must be studied and compared to the Earth, to understand and reduce the risks to explorers, and to make full use of the broad research opportunities and scientific benefits offered by such unique environments. We are only beginning to learn about adaptations to the space environment -- key changes in terrestrial life may only be revealed over complete life cycles and across multiple generations beyond Earth. The demands and potential risks of exploring and inhabiting other worlds necessitate a detailed understanding of these changes at all levels of biological organization, from the smallest genetic alteration to impacts on critical elements of reproduction, development and aging.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2285
Jon Holladay, Greg Day, Larry Gill
Spacecraft are typically designed with a primary focus on weight in order to meet launch vehicle performance parameters. However, for pressurized and/or man-rated spacecraft, it is also necessary to have an understanding of the vehicle operating environments to properly design the pressure vessel. Proper sizing of the pressure vessel requires an understanding of the space vehicle’s life cycle and compares the physical design optimization (weight and launch “cost”) to downstream operational complexity and total life cycle cost. This paper provides an overview of some major environmental design drivers and presents a generic set of cracking pressures for both positive and negative pressure relief valves that encompasses environmental effects for a variety of launch and landing sites. In addition, an example is provided to compare up-front launch weight penalties against downstream operational constraints.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2291
Edward Hodgson, Peter Kinsman, Richard C. Wilde
When humans visited the moon, the lunar rover provided an enabling resource that dramatically multiplied the scope of their exploration activities and science yield. Due to longer expected mission durations and Mars’ larger size and higher gravity, rovers will be even more crucial to effective human exploration. Unlike the Apollo program in which rovers were added part way through the program, rovers for Mars can be fully considered and integrated into the development of EVA systems at the outset. Research and mission studies of Mars exploration systems at HSSSI and elsewhere in recent years reflect this thinking. However, specifics have varied widely from small, EVA-assist rovers that are not ridden to large, pressurized rovers intended to support extended traverses over hundreds of kilometers.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2295
David L. Akin, Mary L. Bowden
The University of Maryland has performed a detailed design for the space equivalent of an atmospheric diving suit. The Space Construction and Orbital Utility Transport (SCOUT) is a small single-person spacecraft, with all necessary utilities for extended sorties away from the host station. Through a pair of AX-5 style space suit arms integrated into the cabin wall, as well as a trio of dexterous manipulators, the SCOUT operator can directly interact with the work site environment, performing spacecraft servicing, structural assembly, or other tasks traditionally done by an astronaut in a space suit. Originally designed as an augmentation to the NASA Gateway station architecture for the Earth-Moon L1 system, studies indicate that a SCOUT-type EVA system would represent a substantial benefit to International Space Station operations as well.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2296
Jeffrey T. Richards, Sharon L. Edney, Neil C. Yorio, Gary W. Stutte, Nathan Cranston, Raymond M. Wheeler, Gregory D. Goins
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), green onion (Allium fistulosum L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are among several “salad” crop species suggested for use on the International Space Station (ISS) as a supplement to the crew’s diet. Among the more important factors affecting the crop yields will be the light intensity or photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) used to grow the plants. Radish (cv. Cherry Bomb), green onion (cv. Kinka), and lettuce (cv. Flandria) plants were grown for 35 days in growth chambers at 8.6, 17.2, and 26 mol m−2 d−1 (150, 300, or 450 μmol m−2 s−1 PPF, respectively) with a 16 hr photoperiod and cool-white fluorescent lamps and either 400 or 1200 μmol mol−1 CO2. Final (35-day) edible yields were taken for the treatments under ambient or supplemented CO2. Results showed a response of growth to incident PPF that indicated a strong influence of lighting on yields.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2293
Edward Hodgson, Allison Bender, Joel Goldfarb, Gregory Quinn, Catherine Thibaud-Erkey, Fred Sribnik
An important, though often unstated, requirement to achieve NASA’s strategic goals will be an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) system that will let future astronauts work safely and effectively at the chosen destinations without imposing unacceptable burdens on the astronauts or the mission systems that support them. Past studies have shown that this may present an insurmountable challenge if pursued with current technologies and system design concepts. With funding from the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC), Hamilton Sundstrand has been studying a conceptual architecture for future EVA systems to meet this challenge. The Chameleon Suit concept shifts the EVA design paradigm from one in which the pressure garment and life support system are separate, largely independent subsystems to one in which the EVA system integrates distributed life support functions with the pressure suit.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2301
P. Gichuhi, E. Bromfield, N. Alvarez, M. Biswas, M. Egnin, K. Kpomblekou-A, A. C. Bovell-Benjamin, D. Dean
Protein profiles and morphological characteristics of two newly developed sweetpotato varieties (TU-82-155 and J6/66) were compared to a commercial variety (Beauregard) using SDS-PAGE, and SEM, respectively. Under reducing and denatured conditions, electrophoresis displayed the major protein, sporamins, at 25 kDa, for all the three cultivars. No major variability in protein profile or morphological structures, among the sweetpotatoes, was observed. Presence of sporamin was established and total protein was higher in TU-82-155 on a dry weight basis. Starch granules were slightly larger and more sparsely distributed in J6/66.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2306
A. Robson, S. Dolce, P. Ayache
MetOp is a series of three meteorology and climate monitoring satellites, which will be launched using the Russian Soyuz-Fregat vehicle over a period of 14 years starting in 2005. MetOp will form part of the American ‘Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites’ (POES) programme, a further step in European/American collaboration in space. The MetOp satellites will fly in a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of between 800 and 850km, with a repeat cycle of 29 days. The satellite is based on the successful Spot platform, which has carried a number of European earth observation satellites over the last 15 years, and consists of two parts: 1. The Payload Module (or PLM) which carries twelve instruments, provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the French space agency, CNES. 2.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2305
Juergen Schilke, Silvio Dolce, Elena Checa, Gaetan Piret
The METOP satellite is Europe’s polar-orbiting meteorological satellite. It balances the US provided POES (Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite) program. 3 flight models are built under EUMETSAT/ESA contract by an industrial consortium led by Astrium. Instruments are supplied by NOAA and EUMETSAT. This paper gives a summary on the thermal testing of METOP payload module. The testing started with TB test on EM, conducted in may 2001 at ESTEC Large Space Simulator. It was followed by a TV test on the same model in June 2001. The test was split into a TB part with solar simulation and a TV part without. Between both tests a test jig carrying a set of stimuli and test equipment was installed on the PLM. In November 2002 the PLM flight model 1 was subjected to a TV test at ESTEC with additional TB phases to improve the TMM. In February 2004 PLM flight model 2 has executed also TV testing at ESTEC.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2304
Christian Vettore, Federico Pamio, A. A. Sochivko, I. P. Lukaschuk, A. S. Smoljaninov
This paper describes the Thermal Balance test that has been performed on the PAMELA telescope Pressurized Container (PC) to verify the performance of the PC Thermal Control System (TCS). The PC will be attached outside the Russian satellite RESOURS DK to be flown in2004 The thermal control system of the PAMELA PC is based on a mechanical pumped loop fed with Isooctane as working fluid. The test has been performed with PAMELA Structural Thermal Model (STM) inside the PC to have representative interfaces for the thermal control system. Simulation of close-to-real flight environmental heat loads have been accomplished in a vacuum chamber by means of a complex system of IR lamps suitably oriented toward the PC and mechanically mounted on a tubular structure outside the PC. Overall test results have been excellent; PAMELA thermal control system thermal/fluidic requested performance have been verified. PAMELA telescope thermal interfaces have been confirmed as well.
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