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Viewing 121 to 150 of 61866
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2261
Robert Murray Pias
This Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) removal of Foreign Object Debris (FOD) was performed on January 15, 2003. The concern began during post-flight inspections of the Passive Common Berthing Mechanism (PCBM) on the Utility Flight (UF) UF-2 (STS-111) Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The inspection identified debris imbedded into the sealing substrate on the MPLM Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM). Material analysis determined the debris contained Starblast™, a sandblasting material used to clean the launch pad. Debris corresponding to the MPLM CBM debris was found on the International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Nadir CBM sealing surface during a Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) camera survey of the Node 1 Nadir CBM.
2004-04-20
Technical Paper
2004-01-1808
Mitchell P. Kaplan, Timothy A. Wolff
This paper describes some of the steps necessary to certificate a camera installation in a Part 23 aircraft. The camera is large and necessitates the severing of a major structural member (keel beam). Damage tolerance analysis is required because of the penetration of the pressure vessel. Cable rerouting is necessary because of the location of the hole. The design, the basis for the structural substantiation and the structural substantiation of this design are discussed in this paper.
2004-04-20
Technical Paper
2004-01-1817
Scott Gilchrist, Daniel Ewing, Chan Ching, Joseph Brand, Michael Dowhan
A new aero-engine nose cone anti-icing system using a rotating heat pipe has been proposed to replace the current method of blowing hot compressor bleed air over the nose cone surface. Here, the heat is transferred from a hot source within the engine to the nose cone through a rotating heat pipe along the central fan shaft. A compact evaporator is used at the evaporator end due to space constraints in the engine. The system is modeled as a thermal resistance network where the thermo-fluid dynamics of each component determine the resistors. This paper reviews each of the component models and results, which show that the evaporator thermal resistance is one of the limiting factors for adequate transfer of heat for anti-icing.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1023
Dinesh Pahuja, Arpit Kapila, Sanjay Haldar, Sandeep Raina
Interiors of past vehicles were created to satisfy specific functions with appearance being a secondary consideration, but in the present & future market with ever increasing vehicle luxury, decoration of vehicle has become a prime focus in automobile industry along with the safety & economy. Automotive interiors have evolved over the years from a collection of trims covering bare sheet metal panels to add quality & richness of interior cabin, ultimately delivering greater value to customers. One such area in interiors is Side door trims serving the dual purpose of functionality and creating a pleasing environment too. The aesthetic appeal to the Side door trim is added usually through a Door trim insert having a decorative skin pasted on to the plastic base. And the selection of pasting technique for pasting decorative film on to the plastic base insert is a challenge for an automotive interior designer.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0355
Diego Muniz Benedetti, Ricardo Luiz Utsch de Freitas Pinto, Ricardo Poley Martins Ferreira
In this paper it is presented an analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of paragliders. The paragliders stability analysis is part of the thesis named “Paragliders Flight Dynamics”, submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) - Brazil - in partial fulfillment of the requirements to obtain the master's degree in mechanical engineering. The full thesis presents a complete theoretical analysis of paragliders flight dynamics providing useful information for paragliders conceptual design optimization, and representing a first initiative to incentivize the international aeronautical engineering community to dedicate attention to this particular field.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0353
Luciano Magno Frágola Barbosa, José Eduardo Mautone de Barros
The aim of this work is to present the preliminary configuration design studies for an unmanned, lightweight (less than 15 kg), supersonic research aircraft. The studies comprise the aircraft typical mission, the aerodynamic and structural arrangement, preliminary performance, as well as mass distribution. The aircraft, an Unmanned Air Vehicle, or “UAV”, is named as Pohox (“arrow” in Maxakali indian language). It is intended to be the flying test bed for a multicycle engine capable to provide thrust in subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. In order to provide validation of the analysis tools, flight performance characteristics of a known, high speed aircraft - North American X-15 - have been also evaluated and compared with the available flight test data. The present analysis is an important step towards the aircraft detailed definition. And the features associated with the configuration obtained are good indications of the technical feasibility of this supersonic UAV.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0639
Jairo Eduardo Moraes Siqueira, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
The realization of modern systems subjected to automatic control, such as aircraft, automobiles, satellites, rocket launchers, cargo and military ships, and so forth; increasingly assume, within its very set of requirements, the task of providing better dependability, i.e.: safety, reliability, and availability altogether. Towards this demand, fault-tolerant control greatly meets such growing demand of dependability, by its ability of recognizing the occurrence of potentially hazardous/hazardous faults within the overall (closed-loop) system, and by taking remedial action whenever necessary/mandatory. The process of fault tolerance can be segregated into two fundamental steps: (1) that of fault diagnosis, comprising fault detection-isolation-identification, and, (2) control adjustment/reconfiguration. This paper focuses on the second step, of control adjustment/reconfiguration.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0541
Eloy Martins de Oliveira Junior, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
Current systems such as satellites, aircrafts, automobiles, turbines, power controls and traffic controls are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754a Standard. Such systems operate in a real time distributed environment which frequently requires a common knowledge of time among different devices, levels and granularities. So, temporal correctness is mostly needed, besides logical correctness. It can be achieved by hardware clocks and devices, software clocks and algorithms, or both, to avoid or tolerate, within appropriate margins, the time faults or failures that may occur in aerospace and automotive systems. This paper presents an overview of clock synchronization algorithms and their uses in aerospace and automotive systems. It is based on a review of the literature, discussion and comparison of some clock synchronization algorithms with different policies.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0535
Sérgio Roberto Ferreira Machado, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
The aerospace and automotive electronic systems are getting more complex and/or highly integrated, as defined by ARP 4754A, making extensive use of microelectronics and digital memories which, in turn, operates in higher frequencies and lower voltages. In addition, the aircraft are flying in higher altitudes, and polar routes are getting more frequent. These factors raise the probability of occurrence of hazardous effects like the Single Event Upsets in their embedded electronic systems. These must be designed in a way to tolerate and assure the immunity to the Single Event Upsets, based upon criteria such as reliability, availability and criticality. This paper proposes an overview of an assurance process of immunity of embedded electronic systems to Single Event Upsets caused by ionizing particles by means of a review of literature and an analysis of standards as ECSS-E-ST-10-1, NASA Single Event Effects Criticality Analysis and IEC TS 62396-1.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0530
Lorena Gayarre Peña, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza, Guilherme Conceição Rocha
Real-time critical systems are those whose failures may cause loss of transactions/data, missions/batches, vehicles/properties, or even people/human life. Accordingly, some regulations prescribe their maximum acceptable probability of failures to range from about 10−4 to 10−10 failures per hour. Examples of such systems are the ones involving nuclear plants, aircrafts, satellites, automobiles, or traffic controls. They are becoming increasingly complex and/or highly integrated as prescribed by the SAE-ARP-4754A Standard. Those systems include, most of the time, real time critical software that must be specified, designed, implemented, validated, verified and accredited (VVA). To do that, models, specially the V-Model, are frequently adopted, together with methods and tools which perform software VVA to ensure compliance (of correctness, reliability, robustness, etc.) of software to several specific standards such as DO178-B/DO-178C (aviation) or IEC 26262 (automotive) among others.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0731
M. Shariyat, Mahboobeh Rajabi Ghahnavieh
Beam-type structural elements are generally utilized in construction of majority of the automotive structures, e.g. the buses, trailers, and solid axles. These components are usually subjected to spatially-random or uncertain load conditions during their service lives. Moreover, material properties of the beams-type structural elements may vary from a sample to another in a random manner. The situation will be more complex when both material properties and load conditions exhibit random natures in the spatial domain. In the present paper, an algorithm is presented to assess the probabilistic behavior of the beam-type vehicle's components in relation with the strength and deflection requirements. A consistent finite element reliability model that may be employed for beams with arbitrary inclinations under simultaneous spatially-random loading conditions and random material properties is introduced.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0728
Amandeep Singh, Zissimos Mourelatos, Efstratios Nikolaidis
Reliability is an important engineering requirement for consistently delivering acceptable product performance through time. As time progresses, the product may fail due to time-dependent operating conditions and material properties, component degradation, etc. The reliability degradation with time may increase the lifecycle cost due to potential warranty costs, repairs and loss of market share. Reliability is the probability that the system will perform its intended function successfully for a specified time interval. In this work, we consider the first-passage reliability which accounts for the first time failure of non-repairable systems. Methods are available in the literature, which provide an upper bound to the true reliability which may overestimate the true value considerably. Monte-Carlo simulations are accurate but computationally expensive.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0727
Erik Wilhelm, Alexander Wokaun
Evaluating options for reducing the environmental impact of light duty vehicles is complicated by the number of technologies being actively researched. In this work, various alternative transportation fuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, and electricity as well as advanced materials and drive-train concepts are analyzed for their environmental benefits compared to conventional diesel and gasoline vehicles. To objectively evaluate the impact of technology and fuel options on various stakeholder criteria under uncertainty (e.g. fuel and technology costs), it is necessary to consider how the technology may be applied to a broad set of vehicle designs. The heuristic vehicle design method uses rules from first principles and engineering practice to ensure vehicles in the design set (virtual fleet) are composed of self-consistent technology options.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0729
Bart Zalewski
Engineering systems are often too complex and their behavior cannot be determined using closed form or exact methods. To circumvent this problem, numerical methods, such as boundary element method, have been formulated to obtain approximate solutions to partial differential equations, which describe the behavior of the physical engineering systems. However, the inherent uncertainty in constitutive formulation causes uncertainties in the solutions obtained by numerical methods and undermines their validity. Conventional analysis does not account for material uncertainty, which is, however, accounted for in the design phase. This paper addresses the impact of uncertain shear modulus for plane strain linear elasticity problems on the numerical solutions obtained using boundary element method. The uncertainty is modeled using fuzzy approach.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0725
Zissimos Mourelatos, Jing Li, Vijitashwa Pandey, Amandeep Singh, Matthew Castanier, David A. Lamb
Understanding reliability is critical in design, maintenance and durability analysis of engineering systems. A reliability simulation methodology is presented in this paper for vehicle fleets using limited data. The method can be used to estimate the reliability of non-repairable as well as repairable systems. It can optimally allocate, based on a target system reliability, individual component reliabilities using a multi-objective optimization algorithm. The algorithm establishes a Pareto front that can be used for optimal tradeoff between reliability and the associated cost. The method uses Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the system failure rate and reliability as a function of time. The probability density functions (PDF) of the time between failures for all components of the system are estimated using either limited data or a user-supplied MTBF (mean time between failures) and its coefficient of variation.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0726
Dan Ghiocel, Dan Negrut, David A. Lamb, David Gorsich
This research paper addresses the ground vehicle reliability prediction process based on a new integrated reliability prediction framework. The integrated stochastic framework combines the computational physics-based predictions with experimental testing information for assessing vehicle reliability. The integrated reliability prediction approach incorporates the following computational steps: i) simulation of stochastic operational environment, ii) vehicle multi-body dynamics analysis, iii) stress prediction in subsystems and components, iv) stochastic progressive damage analysis, and v) component life prediction, including the effects of maintenance and, finally, iv) reliability prediction at component and system level. To solve efficiently and accurately the challenges coming from large-size computational mechanics models and high-dimensional stochastic spaces, a HPC simulation-based approach to the reliability problem was implemented.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1080
Vijitashwa Pandey, Efstratios Nikolaidis, Zissimos Mourelatos
Multi-attribute decision making and multi-objective optimization complement each other. Often, while making design decisions involving multiple attributes, a Pareto front is generated using a multi-objective optimizer. The end user then chooses the optimal design from the Pareto front based on his/her preferences. This seemingly simple methodology requires sufficient modification if uncertainty is present. We explore two kinds of uncertainties in this paper: uncertainty in the decision variables which we call inherent design problem (IDP) uncertainty and that in knowledge of the preferences of the decision maker which we refer to as preference assessment (PA) uncertainty. From a purely utility theory perspective a rational decision maker maximizes his or her expected multi attribute utility.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1081
Yibo Li, Efstratios Nikolaidis, Zissimos Mourelatos
This paper presents a methodology to evaluate and optimize discrete event systems, such as an assembly line or a call center. First, the methodology estimates the performance of a system for a single probability distribution of the inputs. Probabilistic Reanalysis (PRRA) uses this information to evaluate the effect of changes in the system configuration on its performance. PRRA is integrated with a program to optimize the system. The proposed methodology is dramatically more efficient than one requiring a new Monte Carlo simulation each time we change the system. We demonstrate the approach on a drilling center and an electronic parts factory.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1268
Ioan F. Campean, Edwin Henshall, David Brunson, Andrew Day, Rod McLellan, Joseph Hartley
Function analysis provides the backbone of systems engineering design and underpins the use of Design for Six Sigma and Failure Mode Avoidance tools. Identification and management of interfaces is a key task in systems engineering design, in ensuring that the system achieves its functions in a robust and reliable way. The aim of the work presented in this paper was to develop and implement a structured approach for function analysis of a complex system, which focuses on the identification and characterization of interfaces. The proposed approach is based on the principle of separation of the functional and physical domains and development of function decomposition through iteration between functional and physical domains. This is achieved by integrating some existing / known engineering tools such as Boundary Diagram, State Flow Diagram, Function Tree and an enhanced interface analysis within a coherent flow of information.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1701
Tongan Wang, John Maxon
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has been used widely by industry and academia for more than 20 years to predict the mid-to-high frequency range behavior of complex acoustic systems. At Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC), SEA models have been developed to predict the interior cabin noise levels of completed Gulfstream aircraft. These models are also used for acoustic evaluations of design changes prior to implementation as well as a diagnostic tool for investigating noise and vibration issues. Throughout the development of the SEA models, extensive experimental testing in GAC's Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) was conducted on numerous aircraft components represented in the models. This paper demonstrates the importance of using experimental data to improve the accuracy of the SEA predictions by accurately adjusting the material properties and acoustic parameters of the SEA model to better match the ATF experimental data.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1704
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Geng Zhang, Ricardo Sbragio
Vehicle design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as fatigue, strength, noise, safety, etc. Simulation models are employed for assessing and potentially improving a vehicle's performance in individual technical areas. Challenges arise when designing a vehicle for improving mutually competing objectives, satisfying constraints from multiple engineering disciplines, and determining a single set of values for the vehicle's characteristics. It is of interest to engage simulation models from the various engineering disciplines in an organized and coordinated manner for determining a design configuration that provides the best possible performance in all disciplines. The multi-discipline design process becomes streamlined when the simulation methods integrate well with finite element or computer aided design models.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1733
Kurt Veggeberg, Michael James
Military jet aircraft expose both ground maintenance personnel and the community to high levels of noise. The U.S. Department of Defense is funding research to develop advanced modeling tools for noise reduction techniques and community noise exposure. A large-scale microphone array for portable near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and data acquisition system was created for this purpose. The system was designed for measuring high-amplitude jet noise from current and next-generation military aircraft to provide model refinement and benchmarking, evaluate performance of noise control devices, and predict ground maintenance personnel and community noise exposure. The acoustical instrumentation system was designed to be easy to use with scalable data processing as the primary focus. The data acquisition system allowed up to 152 channels simultaneously sampled at a rate of 96 kHz.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0028
Luis Matallana, Luis Munoz, Juan Barreto
The development of vehicle navigation systems with low cost and medium uncertainty is necessary in order to perform an effective road vehicle fleet analysis. This work is a part of a project centered on the development of an integrated inertial - satellite navigation system which estimates in a very accurate way the kinematic variables of a vehicle during a set of different testing scenarios, including the development of driving cycles. A study for the uncertainty of the inertial navigation system is shown. The results provide criteria for the selection of the components of the system, including requirements on the satellite systems.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0243
Dorin Drignei, Zissimos Mourelatos, Michael Kokkolaras, Jing Li, Grzegorz Koscik
A common approach to the validation of simulation models focuses on validation throughout the entire design space. A more recent methodology validates designs as they are generated during a simulation-based optimization process. The latter method relies on validating the simulation model in a sequence of local domains. To improve its computational efficiency, this paper proposes an iterative process, where the size and shape of local domains at the current step are determined from a parametric bootstrap methodology involving maximum likelihood estimators of unknown model parameters from the previous step. Validation is carried out in the local domain at each step. The iterative process continues until the local domain does not change from iteration to iteration during the optimization process ensuring that a converged design optimum has been obtained.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1667
Sean F. Wu, Na Zhu
A model based approach is developed to track and trace multiple incoherent sound sources in 3D space in real time. This technology is capable of handling continuous, random, transient, impulsive, narrowband and broadband sounds over a wide frequency range (20 to 20,000 Hz). The premise of this technology is that the sound field is generated by point sources located in a free field. To locate these sound sources, iterative triangulations are used based on the signals measured by a microphone array. These signals are preprocessed through de-noising techniques to enhance signal to noise ratios (SNR). Unlike the conventional beamforming, the present technology enables one to pinpoint the exact locations of multiple incoherent sound sources simultaneously by using the Cartesian coordinates, including sources behind measurement microphones. In other words, the microphone array need not face a test object, which is required in the beamforming.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1647
Kristopher Lynch, John Maxon
Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) owns and operates an Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) in Savannah, GA. The ATF consists of a Reverberation Chamber, Hemi-Anechoic Chamber, and a Control Room. Types of testing conducted in the ATF include Transmission Loss, Sound Power, and Vibration testing. In addition to accommodating typical types of acoustic testing, the ATF has some unique capabilities. The ATF can be used to conduct testing at cold temperatures representative of up to 45,000 ft flight altitude, while simultaneously taking Transmission Loss measurements of the chilled test sample. Additionally, the ATF has the capability of conducting Transmission Loss testing of a full mockup of the aircraft sidewall, including a section of fuselage, all the thermal/acoustic materials up to and including the interior decorative panel. A sound source capable of very high amplitudes at high frequencies is required to obtain good measurements from testing multiple wall systems such as this.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1605
YongHwa Heo, Kwang-joon Kim, Shi-hwan Oh, Dae-kwan Kim, Ki-lyuk Yong, YoungMin Park
Reaction wheels are used to control the attitude of a satellite in space in an almost static manner. Excitation forces at high frequencies as well, however, due to unbalance or bearing faults, can be transmitted to the satellite structure and work badly against missions of the satellite. Hence, counteractions such as vibration isolators are often employed in practice. In this paper, procedures are presented to design and test rubber vibration isolators based on characteristics of the transmission forces without isolators obtained from a previous study. First, a system consisting of reaction wheel, bearing, rigid cover and isolators was modeled with 11 degrees of freedom. Second, stiffness and damping of the isolators were designed such that the forces transmitted onto the satellite structure might satisfy given criteria. Finally, an actual isolation system fabricated using a rubber was tested to check the transmission forces.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1617
T.S. Miller, S.W. Lee, G. Holup, J.M. Gallman, M.J. Moeller
The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) that forms on the outer skin of the aircraft in flight is a significant source of interior noise. However, the existing quiet test facilities capable of measuring the TBL wall pressure fluctuations tend to be at low Mach numbers. The objective of this study was to develop a new inlet for an existing six inch square (or 6×6) flow duct that would be adequately free from facility noise to study the TBL wall pressure fluctuations at higher, subsonic Mach numbers. First, the existing flow duct setup was used to measure the TBL wall pressure fluctuations. Then the modified inlet was successfully used to make similar measurements up to Mach number of 0.6. These measurements will be used in the future to validate wall pressure spectrum models for interior noise analysis programs such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and dynamic energy analysis (DEA).
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