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Viewing 92341 to 92370 of 108181
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2217
Alex K. Gibson, John Corn, Jeremy Walker
Abstract This paper describes the bench testing procedures for a series-parallel, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architecture used in its charge depleting mode. This architecture will be integrated into a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro by the Mississippi State University EcoCAR 3 Team. Our bench testing goals are to determine the accuracy of our current vehicle model components, if our current controller algorithms are efficient, and if our powertrain is properly integrated. Three torque control strategies using two UQM motors will be evaluated. Initial findings in this paper will be used to prepare the MSU EcoCAR 3 team for vehicle optimization and further integration work during the year three portion of the EcoCAR 3 competition. Three charge depleting motor control strategies are evaluated for drivetrain torque loss and energy consumption. The control strategies were tested using a Nissan Frontier chassis as the bench testing frame (or mule) on a chassis dynamometer.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2211
Peter Larsson, Will Lennard, Oivind Andersson, Per Tunestal
Abstract Increased research is being driven by the automotive industry facing challenges, requiring to comply with both current and future emissions legislation, and to lower the fuel consumption. The reason for this legislation is to restrict the harmful pollution which every year causes 3.3 million premature deaths worldwide [1]. One factor that causes this pollution is NOx emissions. NOx emission legislation has been reduced from 8 g/kWh (Euro I) down to 0.4 g/kWh (Euro VI) and recently new legislation for ammonia slip which increase the challenge of exhaust aftertreatment with a SCR system. In order to achieve a good NOx conversion together with a low slip of ammonia, small droplets of Urea solution needs to be injected which can be rapidly evaporated and mixed into the flow of exhaust gases.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2207
Elizabeth Schiferl, Timothy N. Hunt, Robert Slocum
Abstract With government mandates, original equipment manufacturers are increasingly focusing on fuel economy and finding efficiency gains throughout the vehicle. Lubricant companies have been asked to design fluids that aid in this effort. Demonstrating real gains becomes complex given the intricacies of these systems and methods range from bench top screen tests to component test stands to full vehicle testing. This paper addresses the variation that was encountered when testing automatic transmission fluid efficiency within a full vehicle test. While it is well known that variability in testing conditions such as engine load or vehicle speed will lead to variability in results, the magnitude of their impact on average throughout the test cycle suggests that repeat testing may not be sufficient to guard against improper conclusions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2272
Carl Bennett, Jason Bell, Jeffrey Guevremont
Abstract Elastomer compatibility is an important property of lubricants. When seals degrade oil leakages may occur, which is a cause of concern for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) because of warranty claims. Leakage is also a concern for environmental reasons. Most often, the mechanical properties and fitting of the oil seals is identified as the source of failure, but there are cases where the interaction between the lubricant and the seal material can be implicated. The performance of seal materials in tensile testing is a required method that must be passed in order to qualify lubricant additive packages. We conducted an extensive study of the interactions between these elastomeric materials and lubricant additive components, and their behavior over time. The physicochemical mechanisms that occur to cause seal failures will be discussed.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2265
Ashraya Gupta, Dhruv Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Abstract The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2263
Joonsik Hwang, Choongsik Bae, Chetankumar Patel, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Tarun Gupta
Abstract In this study, macroscopic spray characteristics of Waste cooking oil (WCO), Jatropha oil, Karanja oil based biodiesels and baseline diesel were compared under simulated engine operating condition in a constant volume spray chamber (CVSC). The high pressure and high temperature ambient conditions of a typical diesel engine were simulated in the CVSC by performing pre-ignition before the fuel injection. The spray imaging was conducted under absence of oxygen in order to prevent the fuels from igniting. The ambient pressure and temperature for non-evaporating condition were 3 MPa and 300 K. Meanwhile, the spray tests were performed under the ambient pressure and temperature of 4.17 MPa and 804 K under evaporating condition. The fuels were injected by a common-rail injection system with injection pressure of 80 MPa. High speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the evaporating sprays.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2260
Mitsuharu Oguma, Mayumi Matsuno, Masayoshi Kaitsuka, Kazuaki Higurashi
Abstract Improvement of thermal efficiency is an important problem for internal combustion engines. Fuel reforming with dehydrogenation reaction by exhaust heat is one of the measures to increase thermal efficiency using hydrogen mixed SI combustion. For this kind engine system, hydrous ethanol has a good potential. Furthermore, when the hydrous ethanol inject to combustion chamber directory, high compression combustion can be achieved by its large amount of latent heat. Therefore, fuel lubricity is an important check point for the hydrous ethanol reforming engine systems. In this study, effect of water concentrations within ethanol on the hydrous ethanol fuel lubricity has been evaluated using HFRR (High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig) test method. Wear scar diameter on 100 % of ethanol was around 700 μm which was a little better than gasoline lubricity. When the water concentration within ethanol was increased, the wear scar diameters were decreasing around 330 μm.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2258
Yoshihiro Okoshi, Shinsuke Kikuchi, Yuta Mitsugi, Kotaro Tanaka, Masaaki Kato, Tomoya Tsuji, Mitsuru Konno
Abstract Dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. DME features good auto ignition characteristics and soot-free combustion. In order to develop an injection system suitable for DME, it is necessary to understand its fuel properties. Sound speed is an important fuel property that affects the injection characteristics. However, the measurement data under high-pressures corresponding to those in fuel injection systems are lacking. The critical temperature of DME is lower than that of diesel fuel, and is close to the injection condition. It is important to understand the behavior of the sound speed around the critical point, since the sound speed at critical point is extremely low. In this study, sound speed in DME in a wide pressure and temperature range of 1 MPa to 80 MPa, 298.15 K to 413.15 K, including the vicinity of the critical point, was measured.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2256
Kristin Götz, Barbara Fey, Anja Singer, Juergen Krahl, Jürgen Bünger, Markus Knorr, Olaf Schröder
Abstract The target of the European Union (EU) from the 1990s has been to reduce the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) in the climate by 40 % by 2030 [1]. Currently the transport sector is one of the biggest greenhouse gas emission producer in the EU [2]. Drop-in biofuels can contribute to the reduction of GHG emissions in the transport sector. Diesel R33, a newly developed biofuel enables sustainable mobility fulfilling the European diesel fuel specification and reduces the GHG emissions by about 18.2 % against fossil diesel fuel. Diesel R33 is made of 7 % used cooking oil methyl ester, 26 % hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and 67 % high quality diesel fuel. HVO was produced from rapeseed and palm oil. This new biofuel was tested in a fleet of 280 vehicles (passenger cars, light duty vehicles, off-road vehicles and urban buses) covering all emission classes. The impact of the new fuel on the vehicles, their emissions and the engine oil aging was investigated.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2254
Karin Munch, Tankai Zhang
Abstract Heavy alcohols can be mixed with fossil diesel to produce blended fuels that can be used in diesel engines. Alcohols can be obtained from fossil resources, but can also be produced more sustainably from renewable raw materials. The use of such biofuels can help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study examines four alcohol/diesel blends each containing one heavy alcohol: n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All of the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. To compensate for the alcohols′ low cetane numbers (CN), a third component with high CN was added to each blend, namely hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The composition of each mixture was selected to give an overall CN equal to that of fossil diesel fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2242
Dimitris Assanis, Nayan Engineer, Paul Neuman, Margaret Wooldridge
Abstract Pre-chambers are a means to enable lean burn combustion strategies which can increase the thermal efficiency of gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engines. A new engine concept is evaluated in this work using computational simulations of non-reacting flow. The objective of the computational study was to evaluate the feasibility of several engine design configurations combined with fuel injection strategies to create local fuel/air mixtures in the pre-chambers above the ignition and flammability limits, while maintaining lean conditions in the main combustion chamber. The current work used computational fluid dynamics to develop a novel combustion chamber geometry where the flow was evaluated through a series of six design iterations to create ignitable mixtures (based on fuel-to-air equivalence ratio, ϕ) using fuel injection profiles and flow control via the piston, cylinder head, and pre-chamber geometry.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1951
Björn Dingwerth
Abstract Caused by a number of beneficial properties inherently from the zinc-nickel material, this electrodeposited alloy is used more and more for cathodically protecting layers on ferrous components like cast iron brake calipers. Direct plating from acidic solutions is the state-of-the-art solution for zinc-nickel surface finishing of these components. To contribute to the continuous improvement of the final component and reduce the finishing cost, areas for improvement have been scrutinized in a current finishing system. Areas for improvement have been identified in the uniformity of the nickel distribution within different current densities and in the handling and economy of the metallic zinc anodes used for zinc metal replenishment. While today’s acidic zinc-nickel electrolytes suit and usually exceed the requirements for an alloy containing 10-15% nickel, nickel incorporation may drop just below 12% incorporation rate in areas which are plated at high current densities.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1953
Michael Herbert Putz, Harald Seifert, Maximilian Zach, Jure Peternel
Abstract Since more than eight years Vienna Engineering (VE) is working on an electro-mechanical brake (EMB) actuated by eccentrics and a highly non-linear actuation mechanism. The principle allows full braking in approx. 70 milliseconds (including air gap) and only approx. 3 A RMS actuator current at 12 V for classical ABS with oscillations. This EMB reached an elaborated state. Versions for passenger cars, elevators, railway and commercial vehicles (CVs) were derived. Now, as the EMB is going to road tests, it is necessary to fulfill safety requirements closely. What are these safety requirements and how can they be fulfilled? The properties of the overall system, of the mechanics and electronics of the single brake are discussed in this paper. The overall brake system for EMBs needs a truly redundant power supply, a safe control bus and a safe brake pedal. The mechanics of a single brake can be required to release when power is off and it must not get mechanically stuck.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1957
Seonho Lee, Heejae Kang, Ohchul Kwon, Chirl Soo Shin
Abstract A trend in automotive parts development is the pursuit of long life, high quality and reliability. The increase in service life of automotive wheel bearings, by improving the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of bearing steels, was investigated. Conventional studies of bearing steels and heat treatments have dealt with quenching and tempering (Q/T) in 52100 steel. This study is a new trial to increase the strength of bearing steels by special austempering in phases after general Q/T heat treatments.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1955
Liangyao Yu, Xiaohui Liu, Xiaoxue Liu
Abstract The traditional vacuum booster is gradually replaced by Brake-by-Wire system (BBW) in modern passenger car, especially Electric Vehicle (EV). Some mechanical and hydraulic components are replaced by electronic components in Brake-by-Wire system. Using BBW system in modern passenger vehicles can not only improve the automotive safety performance, reliability and stability, but also promote vehicle maneuverability, comfort, fuel economy and environmental protection. Although vehicle's braking performance is greatly improved by using BBW, the system will inevitably consume some energy of the vehicle power supply, thus introducing unexpected drawback in comparison with the traditional vacuum assist braking system, since it doesn't need any electric power. Therefore, the analysis of energy consumption on typical main cylinder booster based BBW system under typical driving cycles will contribute to advanced design of current advanced braking system.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1935
Binyu Mei, Xuexun Guo, Gangfeng Tan, Ming Chen, Bo Huang, Longjie Xiao
Abstract With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, the eddy current retarder (ECR) has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. ECR brakes the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional ECR and cooling performance is limited, which causes low braking torque, thermal recession, and low reliability and so on. The water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric ECR is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2282
Toru Uenishi, Eijiro Tanaka, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka, Yasuhiro Daisho
Abstract Experimental and numerical studies on the combustion of the particulate matter in the diesel particulate filter with the particulate matter loaded under different particulate matter loading condition were carried out. It was observed that the pressure losses through diesel particulate filter loaded with particulate matter having different mean aggregate particle diameters during both particulate matter loading and combustion periods. Diesel particulate filter regeneration mode was controlled with introducing a hot gas created in Diesel Oxidation Catalyst that oxidized hydrocarbon injected by a fuel injector placed on an exhaust gas pipe. The combustion amount was calculated with using a total diesel particulate filter weight measured by the weight meter both before and after the particulate matter regeneration event.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1941
Tie Wang, Gangfeng Tan, Xuexun Guo, Shengguang Xiong, Zhiwei Zhang, Xin Gao
Abstract Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1947
Albert Boretti, Sarim Al-Zubaidy
Abstract The operation of a conventional passenger car is characterised by increasing or maintaining the kinetic energy, when accelerating or cruising the vehicle, and reducing the kinetic energy by using the brakes. While the energy taken by the friction brakes to slow the vehicle is dissipated into heat, the introduction of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) has permitted the recovery of part of the braking energy. This reduces the amount of energy needed from the internal combustion engine (ICE). The contribution reviews the latest developments in electric KERS (E-KERS), with emphasis to round trip efficiency wheels to wheels and electrification of the powertrain. The contribution considers the opportunity to connect the E-KERS traction battery to other electric machines, such as an electrically assisted turbocharger (E-TC) connected to a motor/generator unit, or an electric water pump (EWP), to further optimise the vehicle operation.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2296
David Emberson, Terese Lovas, Mateusz Szczeciński, Paweł Mazuro
Abstract A stochastic reactor model has been employed to aid the development of a new highly efficient and compact opposing piston, barrel engine. It is desirable to utilize the engine across a broad range of applications and the designers have identified the use of low calorific value fuels derived from low grade biomass gasification in HCCI mode as one possible end use. Biogas from solid fuel gasification can vary largely in composition of main components depending on feedstock and gasification method. Hence, in order to address the engines applicability to run on biogas in general terms, identifying a simple two-component surrogate fuel which can be varied under testing is of great importance. A stochastic reactor model in the form of a commercially available software, LOGEsoft, has been used to examine suitable surrogate gas mixtures which could be used to best simulate the biogas during initial engine testing and development.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2294
Hwasup Song, Han Ho Song
Abstract Livengood-Wu integration model is acknowledged as a relatively simple but fairly accurate autoignition prediction method which has been widely recognized as a methodology predicting knock occurrence of a spark-ignition (SI) engine over years. Fundamental idea of the model is that the chemical reactivity of fuel under a certain thermodynamic test condition can be represented by inverse of the acquired ignition delay. However, recent studies show that the predictability of the model seems to deteriorate if the tested fuel exhibits negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior which is primarily caused by two-stage ignition characteristics. It is convincing that the cool flame exothermicity during the first ignition stage is a major cause that limits the prediction capability of the integration model, therefore a new ignition delay concept based on cool flame elimination is introduced in order to minimize the thermal effect of the cool flame.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1920
Deaglan O'Meachair, Stamatis Angelinas, Matthew Crumpton, Antonio Rubio Flores, Juan Garcia, Pablo Barles
Abstract Bentley Motors Ltd. has developed a Carbon Silicon Carbide (CSiC) brake system for its Mulsanne product, introduced at 17MY. The CSiC brake system is conceived as a performance brake system, and as such offers notable improvements in brake performance. In developing the brake system, particular focus was placed on meeting the refinement levels required for a premium product, and indeed as the flagship model for Bentley Motors, NVH refinement of the brake system was of particular concern. This paper intends to discuss the technical performance of the brake system and review the NVH performance of the brakes. Particular attention is given to the methodology employed by Bentley Motors Ltd. and IDIADA Automotive Technology S.A. in identifying NVH concerns, and proposing and validating solutions in the field, through extensive NVH endurance runs. The performance of the system is benchmarked against similar systems offered by Bentley Motors.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2300
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestal, Joakim Pagels
Abstract In order to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency, more advanced combustion concepts have been developed over the years, such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), as possible combustion processes in commercial engines. Compared to HCCI, PPC has advantages of lower unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions; however, due to increased fuel stratifications, soot emissions can be a challenge when adding Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas. The current work presents particle size distribution measurements performed from HCCI-like combustion with very early (120 CAD BTDC) to PPC combustion with late injection timing (11 CAD BTDC) at two intake oxygen rates, 21% and 15% respectively. Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility spectrometer DMS500.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2302
Hyun Woo Won, Alexandre Bouet, Florence Duffour, Loic Francqueville
Abstract Gasoline-like fuels have been recently identified as good candidates to reduce NOX and particulate emissions when used in compression-ignition (CI) engines. In this context, straight-run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, was identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content (LHV) compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when using naphtha in such engines. In a previous study, wide ranges of Cetane Number naphtha fuels (CN 20 to 35) were evaluated to optimize CI combustion, with different bowls and nozzle designs. CN 35 naphtha fuel has been selected for its better robustness and lower HC and CO emissions. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the potential of CN 35 naphtha fuel on a light duty single-cylinder compression-ignition engine as well as the minimum required hardware modifications needed to properly run this fuel.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2301
Xiaoye Han, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
Abstract This research work investigates the control strategies of fuel burn rate of neat n-butanol combustion to improve the engine load capability. Engine tests of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) with neat n-butanol show promising NOx and smoke emissions; however, the rapid burn rate of n-butanol results in excessive pressure rise rates and limits the engine load capability. A multi-event combustion strategy is developed to modulate the fuel burn rate of the combustion cycle and thus to reduce the otherwise high pressure rise rates at higher engine load levels. In the multi-event combustion strategy, the first combustion event is produced near TDC by the compression ignition of the port injected butanol that resembles the HCCI combustion; the second combustion event occurs near 7~12 degrees after TDC, which is produced by butanol direct injection (DI) after the first HCCI-like combustion event.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2305
Ireneusz Pielecha, Krzysztof Wislocki, Wojciech Cieslik, Przemyslaw Borowski, Wojciech Bueschke, Maciej Skowron
Abstract The paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of the engine supplied with small and large diesel fuel doses while increasing natural gas quantity. The paper presents changes in the combustion process thermodynamic indexes and changes in the exhaust gas emissions for dynamically increased share of the gaseous fuel. The cylinder pressure history was subject to thermodynamic analysis, . based on which the mean indicated pressure, the heat release rate, the quantity of heat released as well as the pressure rate increase after self-ignition were determined. These parameters were also referred to the subsequent engine operation cycles by specifying the scope of the change per cycle. The relationship between the engine load and the start, the center and the end of combustion while increasing the gas amount supplied to the cylinder was indicated.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2304
Kohei Kuzuoka, Junichi Kamio, Kohtaro Hashimoto
Abstract Compression ignition combustion with a lean mixture has high potential in terms of high theoretical thermal efficiency and low NOx emission characteristics due to low combustion temperatures. In particular, a Dual-Fuel concept is proposed to achieve high ignition timing controllability and an extended operation range. This concept controls ignition timing by adjusting the fraction of two fuels with different ignition characteristics. However, a rapid combustion process after initial ignition cannot be avoided due to the homogenous nature of the fuel mixture, because the combustion process depends entirely on the high reaction rate of thermal ignition. In this study, the effect of mixture stratification in the cylinder on the combustion process after ignition based on the Dual-Fuel concept was investigated.
2016-09-18
Technical Paper
2016-01-1932
Niclas Strömberg
Abstract During several years a toolbox for performing virtual rig tests of disc brake systems has been developed by the author. A thermo-flexible multi-body model of a test rig is derived and implemented by coupling two types of models: a finite element model and a multi-body model. The finite element model is a thermo-mechanical model of the pad-disc system that is formulated including thermo-elasticity, frictional contact and wear. The energy balance of the contact interface is governed by contact conductance that depends linearly on the contact pressure and the frictional heat depends on a temperature dependent coefficient of friction. Instead of adopting a standard Lagrangian approach, the disc is formulated in an Eulerian frame like a fluid. This is then coupled to the pad most accurately by using Signorini’s contact conditions, Coulomb’s law of friction and Archard’s law of wear.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2307
Guillaume Bourhis, Jean-Pascal Solari, Roland DAUPHIN, Loic De Francqueville
Abstract Efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines is limited towards high loads by the occurrence of knock, which is linked to the octane number of the fuel. Running the engine at its optimal efficiency requires a high octane number at high load whereas a low octane number can be used at low load. Current project aims at developing an “Octane on Demand” (OOD) concept: the fuel octane number is adjusted “on demand” to prevent knock occurrence by adapting the fuel RON injected in the combustion chamber. Thus, the engine cycle efficiency is increased by always keeping combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON base-fuel and a high-RON octane booster. The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement function of engine operating conditions. This OOD concept requires a good characterization of the octane requirement needed to run the engine at its optimal efficiency over the entire map.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2309
Ehsan Ansari, Kamran Poorghasemi, Behrouz Khoshbakht Irdmousa, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Jeffrey Naber
Abstract Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising dual-fuel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) mode with significant potential for reducing NOx and particulate emissions while improving or maintaining thermal efficiency compared to Conventional Diesel Combustion (CDC) engines. The large reactivity difference between diesel and Natural Gas (NG) fuels provides a strong control variable for phasing and shaping combustion heat release. In this work, the Brake Thermal Efficiencies (BTE), emissions and combustion characteristics of a light duty 1.9L, four-cylinder diesel engine operating in single fuel diesel mode and in Diesel-NG RCCI mode are investigated and compared. The engine was operated at speeds of 1300 to 2500 RPM and loads of 1 to 7 bar BMEP. Operation was limited to 10 bar/deg Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) and 6% Coefficient of Variation (COV) of IMEP.

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