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Viewing 151 to 180 of 108180
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2092
Maya R. Desai, Monica Tutuianu, Mehrdad Ahmadinejad, Timothy C. Watling, Andrew P.E. York, Joseph W. Stevenson
The aftertreatment challenge in the non-road market is making the same system work and fit not just in one machine, but in hundreds of different machines, some of which can be used for many different purposes. This huge diversity of applications and the relatively small unit numbers for each application, coupled with the rapid introduction of new standards and the very high performance needed from the engines and machines, requires a sophisticated approach to product development. Furthermore, as emissions requirements become ever more stringent, designing a system to meet the legislation subject to packaging and cost constraints becomes progressively more difficult. This is further exacerbated by increasing system complexity, where more than one technology may be required to control all the legislated pollutants and/or an active control strategy is involved. Also a very high degree of component integration is required.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2093
Byan Wahyu Riyandwita, Myung-Whan Bae
A three-dimensional model with the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous gas at a steady-state is developed to simulate a urea-SCR system by the SIMPLE algorithm. A porous medium coated by a metal-oxide-based catalyst is considered in this study. The flow field and chemical reactions inside the reactor are calculated simultaneously by a porous medium approach. In a urea-SCR modeling, the gas transport properties exist as parameters in each of the conservation equations. The evaluations of density, diffusion coefficients, viscosities, thermal conductivities and specific heats are required to select the most suitable gas transport properties in a numerical modeling of a multi-component gaseous mixture and chemically reacting flow.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2086
Peter Grabner, Helmut Eichlseder, Gregor Eckhard
This paper presents an analysis of the potential of E85 (a mixture of 85 % (bio)ethanol and 15 % gasoline) as a fuel for spark-ignition (SI) direct-injection internal combustion engines. This involves investigation of not only application to downsizing concepts with high specific power but also behavior relating to emissions and efficiency at both part and full load. Measurements while running on gasoline were used for comparison purposes. The first stage involved analysis using 1D simulation of two different downsizing concepts with regard to turbocharging potential and performance. Following this, various influential parameters such as injector position, injection pressure, compression ratio, degree of turbocharging etc. were investigated on a single cylinder research engine. In the case of high pressure direct injection, particulate emissions also play an important role, so particulate count and particulate size distribution were also studied in detail.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2087
Adrien Halle, Alexandre Pagot
The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2089
M. P. Sturgess, S. F. Benjamin, C. A. Roberts
Modeling of SCR in diesel exhaust systems with injection of urea spray is complex and challenging but many models use only the conversion observed at the brick exit as a test of the model. In this study, the case modeled is simplified by injecting ammonia gas in nitrogen in place of urea, but the spatial conversion profiles along the SCR brick length at steady state are investigated. This is a more rigorous way of assessing the ability of the model to simulate observations made on a test exhaust system. The data have been collected by repeated engine tests on eight different brick lengths, all which were shorter than a standard-sized SCR. The tests have been carried out for supplied NH₃ /NOx ratios of a 1.5, excess ammonia, a 1.0, balanced ammonia, and a 0.5, deficient ammonia. Levels of NO, NO₂ and NH₃ have been measured both upstream and downstream of the SCR using a gas analyzer fitted with ammonia scrubbers to give reliable NOx measurements.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2043
Satya Panigrahi
The ethanol industry is established mainly in the United States and Europe. In the US, over 95 percent of ethanol is corn-based. This ethanol production pathway has been criticized for having an unfavourable net energy balance and significant arable land and water requirements, as well as environmental impacts such as soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and higher volatile organic compound and NOx pollution. The legislation to limit green house gas (GHG) emissions is a key driver of lignocellulosic ethanol which has been shown to reduce GHG emissions drastically (88%). The feed versus fuel debate is also driving lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues (canola straw), herbaceous (alfalfa, switch grass) and woody crops. For this reason, major ethanol producers such as the US have identified agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid wastes, herbaceous and woody crops as feedstocks for the production of transportation fuel.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2041
Bernard J. Simon
The transition towards a ‘Green Economy’ puts pressure on automakers to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles. Fuel economy is complicated vehicle attribute impacted by a large number of factors, not limited to vehicle weight, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, engine efficiency, drive train losses, accessory loading, and performance targets embodied in the controls strategy. Due to the number and complexity of contributing factors, fuel economy benchmarking, target setting and technology evaluation can be difficult. This paper introduces two new vehicle attributes: miles per kilowatt-hour (mpk) and kilowatt-hours per gallon (kpg) which, when multiplied together, calculate mpg. These parameters are derived from emissions and fuel economy certification data posted by the EPA on their website. This paper then shows how these parameters can be used to characterize and benchmark vehicles, set targets for new vehicles, and project future technology trends.
2010-10-05
Technical Paper
2010-01-2054
Cenk Dinc, Ozgur Arslan, Tolga Akgun, Roger Almenar
The purpose of this study is to present the effects of several design actions on engine cooling performance of a heavy duty construction truck, with the aid of numerical and experimental investigations. The design actions involve the modifications of the front end geometry and implementation of different heat exchangers and fans. The sensitivity of engine cooling performance related to the concerned design changes is monitored with the variation in the engine coolant temperature. Numerical investigations are carried out with the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes Equations based CFD solver, UH3D, and the results are validated with the experiments conducted at Behr wind tunnel facilities in Stuttgart. It is seen that the experimental results show good correlation with the CFD simulations.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2154
Alberto Boretti
Current flexi fuel gasoline and ethanol engines have brake efficiencies generally lower than a dedicated gasoline engines because of the constraints to accommodate a variable mixture of the two fuels. Considering ethanol has a few advantages with reference to gasoline, namely the higher octane number and the larger heat of vaporization, the paper explores the potentials of dedicated pure ethanol engines using the most advanced techniques available for gasoline engines, specifically direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve actuation. Computations are performed with state-of-the-art, well validated, engine and vehicle performance simulations packages, generally accepted to produce accurate results targeting major trends in engine developments. The higher compression ratio and the higher boost permitted by ethanol allows larger top brake efficiencies than gasoline, while variable valve actuation produces small penalties in efficiency changing the load.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2155
Stefan de Goede, Tiaan Rabe, Riaan Bekker, Sibusiso Mtongana, John Edwards
Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine technology is becoming increasingly common in the South African and global vehicle parcs. South Africa is in a unique position because a significant portion of all liquid fuels consumed are synthetically produced from coal and gas. These fuels are mainly supplied into the inland regions, particularly the Gauteng province, the economic heartland of South Africa and the most densely populated area in the country. It is important to understand the performance of synthetic fuels in the latest generation engines, in order to ensure that these fuels are fit for use in these new applications. The latest generation DISI gasoline engines (also known as Gasoline Direct Injection™ and Fuel Stratified Injection™) differ significantly in operation to older Port-Fuel-Injected (PFI) engines.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2152
Heechang Oh, Choongsik Bae, Kyoungdoug Min
An experimental study was performed to evaluate the effects of ethanol blending on to gasoline spray and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine under lean stratified operation. The spray characteristics, including local homogeneity and phase distribution, were investigated by the planar laser-induced fluorescence and the planar Mie scattering method in a constant volume chamber. Therefore, the single cylinder engine was operated with pure gasoline, 85 %vol, 50 %vol and 25vol % ethanol blended with gasoline (E85, E50, E25) to investigate the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics. Ethanol was identified to have the potential of generating a more appropriate spray for internal combustion due to a higher vapor pressure at high temperature conditions. The planar laser-induced fluorescence image demonstrated that ethanol spray has a faster diffusion velocity and an enhanced local homogeneity.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2153
Mayank Mittal, David L.S. Hung, Guoming Zhu, Harold Schock
An experimental study is performed to investigate the fuel impingement on cylinder walls and piston top inside a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with optical access to the cylinder. Three different fuels, namely, E85, E50 and gasoline are used in this work. E85 represents a blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline by volume. Experiments are performed at different load conditions with the engine speeds of 1500 and 2000 rpm. Two types of fuel injectors are used; (i) High-pressure production injector with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa, and (ii) Low-pressure production-intent injector with fuel pressure of 3 MPa. In addition, the effects of split injection are also presented and compared with the similar cases of single injection by maintaining the same amount of fuel for the stoichiometric condition. Novel image processing algorithms are developed to analyze the fuel impingement quantitatively on cylinder walls and piston top inside the engine cylinder.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2149
Zhao Zhenfeng, Ying Huang, Fujun Zhang, Changlu Zhao, Kai Han
In this paper the experiments of hydraulic free piston diesel engine is described. The experimental data were obtained from measurement instruments on the free piston diesel engine that has been developed by Beijing Institute of Technology [ 1 ]. This article discusses the influences of compression pressure, injection timing, and combustion process to the free piston diesel engine principle. The compression process experiment shows that the piston velocity, the compression ratio can be controlled by adjusting the compression pressure. With the increasing of the compression pressure, there is a growing a compression ratio and piston velocity. The study on injection timing shows that the injection timing impacts the cylinder pressure peak value and the pressure peak arrival time. The combustion process is quite different from the crankshaft engine because of the unique piston movement characteristics of the hydraulic free piston engine.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2151
Atsushi Matsumoto, Yi Zheng, Xing-Bin Xie, Ming-Chia Lai, Wayne Moore
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2146
Massimo Rundo
Scope of this work is the analysis of the energy consumed by lubricating gear pumps for automotive applications during a driving cycle. This paper presents the lumped parameter simulation model of gerotor lubricating pumps and the comparison between numerical outcomes and experimental results. The model evaluates the power required to drive the pump and the cumulative energy consumed in the driving cycle. The influence of temperature variations on leakage flows, viscous friction torque and lubricating circuit permeability is taken into account. The simulation model has been validated by means of a test rig for hydraulic pumps able to reproduce the typical speed, temperature and load profiles during a NEDC driving cycle. Experimental tests, performed on a crankshaft mounted pump for diesel engines, have confirmed a good matching with the simulation model predictions in terms of instantaneous quantities and overall energy consumption.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2143
Prasad Shingne, Dennis N. Assanis, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos, Philip Keller, David Roth, Michael Becker
Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2145
Asish K Sarangi, Gordon P McTaggart-Cowan, Colin P Garner
Diesel engine emissions of NOX and particulate matter (PM) can be reduced simultaneously through the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to achieve low temperature combustion (LTC). These reductions are highly dependent on the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. This paper investigates varying the intake pressure to adjust the oxygen concentration and the corresponding impacts on emissions for EGR rates up to 65%. An engine operating condition corresponding to 600 kPa gross-indicated mean effective pressure (gimep) at 2500 rpm is investigated using a 0.51-liter single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine. This facility is equipped with independent control of the intake pressure and temperature, the EGR rate and the exhaust back pressure.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2139
Istvan Barabas, Ioan-Adrian Todorut
The Department of Automotive and Agricultural Machinery of the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca has been looking for a long time for the possibilities of using alternative fuels. The target vehicle of our investigation, a flexible-fueled vehicle (FFV) has a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. Biodiesel and bioethanol are a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Our previous researches have pointed out that biodiesel-diesel fuel-ethanol blends can be used in diesel engines with little or no modification. The fuel properties of the blend are very close to those of diesel fuels at low concentrations (up to 20%) of biofuels. For example, the viscosities of the blends are the same as the viscosity of the diesel fuel because the higher viscosity of the biodiesel compensates the lower viscosity of the bioethanol. There has been made the same observation in the case of the density and of the surface tension.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2136
Marcis Jansons, Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Eric Gingrich
Under the borderline autoignition conditions experienced during cold-starting of diesel engines, the amount and composition of residual gases may play a deterministic role. Among the intermediate species produced by misfiring and partially firing cycles, formaldehyde (HCHO) is produced in significant enough amounts and is sufficiently stable to persist through the exhaust and intake strokes to kinetically affect autoignition of the following engine cycle. In this work, the effect of HCHO addition at various phases of autoignition of n-heptane-air mixtures is kinetically modeled. Results show that HCHO has a retarding effect on the earliest low-temperature heat release (LTHR) phase, largely by competition for hydroxyl (OH) radicals which inhibits fuel decomposition. Conversely, post-LTHR, the presence of HCHO accelerates the occurrence of high-temperature ignition.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2142
Rick Dehner, Ahmet Selamet, Philip Keller, Michael Becker
The behavior of the compression system in turbochargers is studied with a one-dimensional engine simulation code. The system consists of an upstream compressor duct open to ambient, a centrifugal compressor, a downstream compressor duct, a plenum, and a throttle valve exhausting to ambient. The compression system is designed such that surge is the low mass flow rate instability mode, as opposed to stall. The compressor performance is represented through an extrapolated steady-state map. Instead of incorporating a turbine into the model, a drive torque is applied to the turbocharger shaft for simplification. Unsteady compression system mild surge physics is then examined computationally by reducing the throttle valve diameter from a stable operating point. Such an increasing resistance decreases the mass flow rate through the compression system and promotes surge.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2138
Anand Kumar Pandey, Milankumar Ramakant Nandgaonkar
The depleting fossil fuel resources and stringent emission legislation due to global warming have driven the engine technology towards the search for alternative fuels for diesel engines. In the present study, a military 780 hp CIDI engine was fuelled with diesel, jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) biodiesel respectively. The performances of fuels were evaluated in terms of power out put, specific fuel consumption and heat release rates. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC), and oxides of nitrogen NOx with the three fuels were also compared. Both karanja and jatropha oil, after transesterification exhibit the properties within acceptable limits of ASTM standard. Performance of both KOME and JOME were slightly lower than diesel. Emissions of CO, and UHC were found lower with both KOME and JOME as compared to diesel fuel, but with slightly higher NOx emission.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2134
Xin Yue, Xiaofeng Bao, Xianjiang Huang, Jiming Hao, Ye Wu, Tingting Yue, Yao Ma, Mingyu Wang
Gasoline detergency is related to deposits at various parts of the engine and therefore has impact on vehicle driveability and emission properties. The widely used engine tests such as CEC F-20 M111 and ASTM D6201 Ford 2.3L tests take tens of hours and thus are very expensive and time consuming to carry out. A new simulation test for gasoline detergency on intake valve cleanliness using lean-oxygen gum method was developed and the correlation of test results with M111 engine test was studied. Gasoline samples with different detergency levels were tested with both the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test. Test results of 24 gasoline samples show satisfactory correlation between the lean-oxygen gum method and the M111 engine test (R₂=0.7258).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2135
Gregory Davis, Craig Hoff
Currently, a majority of the ‘gasoline’ sold at the pumps in the United States is a nominal blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol. This mixture is commonly referred to as E10. This paper reports on a study conducted to determine the effects of E10 on the fuel system performance of vintage automobiles. The study focused on the potential degradation in performance of the carburetors and fuel pumps due to exposure to E10. Six fuel systems were selected for study including the 1948 Flathead Ford, 1958 Volkswagen Beetle, 1962 Ford Falcon, 1969 Chevrolet Bel Air and 1970 Chrysler New Yorker. The components tested were either rebuilt original equipment or new aftermarket replacement parts, depending on availability. Although the components tested were not all original equipment parts, they represent a reasonable sample of the types of parts likely to be found in vintage vehicles currently on the road. The fuel system components were tested under both dynamic and static conditions.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2133
Kapila Wadumesthrige, K. Y. Simon Ng, Steven O. Salley
The use of butanol as an alternative biofuel blend component for conventional diesel fuel has been under extensive investigation. However, some fuel properties such as cetane number and lubricity fall below the accepted values as described by the ASTM D 975 diesel specifications. Blending 10% butanol with #2 ULSD decreases the cetane number by 7% (from 41.6 to 39.0). At higher butanol blend levels, i.e., 20% v/v, the cetane number decrease cannot be compensated for; even with the addition of a 2000 ppm level commercial cetane improver. The decreased cetane number, or in other words, increased ignition delay, can be attributed to the increased blend level of low cetane butanol as well as the critical physical properties for better atomization of fuels during auto ignition such as viscosity. The kinematic viscosity dropped sharply with increasing butanol blend level up to 25 % v/v, then increased with further increase of butanol blend level.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2132
Thummarat Thummadetsak, Chonchada Tipdecho, Umaporn Wongjareonpanit, Pakasit Monnum
To promote utilization of renewable fuels in transportation sector, the Thai government has actively sought to obtain higher-ratio ethanol blends in gasoline as early as 2007, at which time E85 was introduced and fuel specifications were determined. The purpose of this study is to evaluate E85 fuel performance in flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) with considerations for tailpipe emissions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde emissions, evaporative emission and vehicle performance. These findings will aid future research in ethanol blends. All tests were conducted utilizing three Volvo S40 FFVs and four specific ethanol blend fuels: E10, E20, E50 and E85 (E-Fuels, collectively). Tailpipe emission tests were conducted in full compliance with Thailand Industrial Standard Institute; TIS 2160 - 2546 (Euro 3 legislation).
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2130
Md. Nurun Nabi, Johan Einar Hustad
In this study, experiments were performed on a 4-stroke, 6-cylinder turbocharged, direct injection (DI) diesel engine using two oxygenated fuels blended with European auto diesel fuel (DF) to investigate the engine performance and exhaust emissions with special interest in fine particles. In the investigation, 20 vol% jatropha biodiesel was added to the DF; while 6.31 vol% diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM) was added to the DF to maintain same oxygen percentage (2.26 wt%) in the blended fuels. The fuel is designated as DDGM for the DF-DGM blend and DB20 for the DF-biodiesel blend. The fine particle number was determined with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Carbon monoxide (CO), total unburnt hydrocarbon (THC), smoke, total particulate matter (TPM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were also measured.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2128
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
An estimation model which uses the gross heat release data and the fuel energy to estimate the total amount of emissions and unburned Hydro Carbon (HC) is developed. Gross heat release data is calculated from a self-tuned heat release method which uses in-cylinder pressure data for computing the energy released during combustion. The method takes all heat and mass losses into account. The method estimates the polytropic exponent and pressure offset during compression and expansion using a nonlinear least square method. Linear interpolation of polytropic exponent and pressure offset is then performed during combustion to calculate the gross heat release during combustion. Moreover the relations between the emissions specifically HC and Carbon Monoxide (CO) are investigated. The model was validated with experimental data and promising results were achieved.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2127
Andrea Strzelec, Todd Toops, Charles Daw, David E. Foster, Christopher Rutland
Diesel particulate samples were collected from a light duty engine operated at a single speed-load point with a range of biodiesel and conventional fuel blends. The oxidation reactivity of the samples was characterized in a laboratory reactor, and BET surface area measurements were made at several points during oxidation of the fixed carbon component of both types of particulate. The fixed carbon component of biodiesel particulate has a significantly higher surface area for the initial stages of oxidation, but the surface areas for the two particulates become similar as fixed carbon oxidation proceeds beyond 40%. When fixed carbon oxidation rates are normalized to total surface area, it is possible to describe the oxidation rates of the fixed carbon portion of both types of particulates with a single set of Arrhenius parameters. The measured surface area evolution during particle oxidation was found to be inconsistent with shrinking sphere oxidation.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2126
Alexander Sappok, Leslie Bromberg, James E. Parks, Vitaly Prikhodko
Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) particulate matter (PM) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) - based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF particulate matter levels. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with a mass-based total PM emission measurement instrument (TEOM) and DPF gravimetric measurements.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2125
Xin He, John C. Ireland, Bradley T. Zigler, Matthew A. Ratcliff, Keith E. Knoll, Teresa L. Alleman, John T. Tester
In this work, the influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post three-way catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a General Motors (GM) 2.0L turbocharged spark ignition direct injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production engine control unit (ECU) with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. U.S. federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at 10 selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm.
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