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Viewing 271 to 300 of 16239
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1959
Xiaomin Xie, Zhen Huang
This study provides an LCA of coal derived DME vehicle fuel cycle. Two DME production systems were evaluated, one is single DME production system, and the other is DME/IGCC cogeneration (polygeneration) system. The effects of CCS technology on energy use and GHG emissions were analyzed. For single DME production design, WTW total energy use and fossil energy is about 80% larger than that for petroleum diesel production, and increases life-cycle GHG emissions by more 200% relative to petroleum diesel. Results for DME/IGCC production design pathway from displacement method are almost the same with the petroleum diesel pathway. CCS incurs an energy penalty of 7-16%.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1965
Reijo Makinen, Nils-Olof Nylund, Kimmo Erkkilä lng, Pirjo Saikkonen, Arno Amberla
Helsinki Region Transport, Neste Oil, Proventia Emission Control and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland carried out a 3.5 year PPP venture “OPTIBIO” to demonstrate the use of paraffinic renewable diesel (hydrotreated vegetable oil HVO) in city buses. The fleet test in Metropolitan Helsinki involving some 300 buses is the largest one in the world to demonstrate this new fuel. The fuels were a 30 % blend of renewable diesel and 100 % renewable diesel. This paper describes the overall set-up of the project, gives an overview of the emission results as well as presents experience from the field.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1966
Kimmo Erkkilä, Nils-Olof Nylund, Tuomo Hulkkonen, Aki Tilli, Seppo Mikkonen, Pirjo Saikkonen, Reijo Makinen, Arno Amberla
When switching from regular diesel fuel (sulfur free) to paraffinic hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), the changes in fuel chemistry and physical properties will affect emission characteristics in a very positive way. The effects also depend on the technology, after-treatment and sophistication of the engine. To determine the real effects in the case of city buses, 17 typical buses, representing emission classes from Euro II to EEV, were measured with HVO, regular diesel and several blended fuels. The average reduction was 10% for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and 30% for particulate matter (PM). Also some engine tests were performed to demonstrate the potential for additional performance benefits when fuel injection timing was optimized for HVO.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1964
Toru Miyamoto, Hirokazu Hasegawa, Takashi Yagenji, Takehiko Seo, Masato Mikami, Hajime Kabashima, Tomoyuki Hashimoto
The present study experimentally investigated cyclic variation of combustion characteristics of a diesel engine with hydrogen added to the intake air in detail. As the result, there were three ignition modes: (1) hydrogen ignition mode, (2) hydrogen-assisted ignition mode, and (3) diesel-fuel ignition mode. Ignition timing fluctuated from cycle to cycle in each ignition mode and between one ignition mode and another mode. As the coolant temperature was increased, the number of cycles in diesel-fuel ignition mode decreased, and indicated thermal efficiency and cyclic variation was improved. In the case with the blow-by gas introduced to intake port, preflame reaction of blow-by gas first occurred, ignited hydrogen, and then diesel-fuel was ignited by hydrogen combustion in hydrogen ignition mode and hydrogen-assisted ignition mode.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2022
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Stoichiometric operation of Spark Ignited (SI) Heavy Duty Natural Gas (HDNG) engines with a three way catalyst results in very low emissions however they suffer from bad gas-exchange efficiency due to use of throttle which results in high throttling losses. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) is a good practice to reduce throttling losses in a certain operating region of the engine. VTG technology is extensively used in diesel engines; it is very much ignored in gasoline engines however it is possible and advantageous to be used on HDNG engine due to their relatively low exhaust gas temperature. Exhaust gas temperatures in HDNG engines are low enough (lower than 760 degree Celsius) and tolerable for VGT material. Traditionally HDNG are equipped with a turbocharger with waste-gate but it is easy and simple to replace the by-pass turbocharger with a well-matched VGT.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2302
Jude Liu, Benjamin Kemmerer
Methods of estimating tractor performance including power efficiency and fuel consumption under field operational conditions were discussed based on a tractor and a large square baler. Methods recommended by ASAE standards were used and results indicated that ASAE standards predicted 15% higher fuel consumption compared to that tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Field trials were conducted in switchgrass fields to verify and demonstrate these methods. Fuel consumption and the material capacity of the tractor-baler system were measured and also estimated using ASAE standards and Nebraska tractor test results. Field test results indicated that the fuel consumption of baling switchgrass was approximately 60% of the fuel consumption estimated with ASAE standards and tested by Nebraska tractor test center. Measured material capacity of the large square baler was approximately 40% of its theoretical capacity.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2300
Kevin King, Bryan Roy, Thomas Perrot, Joseph Tario
As commercial fleets adopt more electrically-powered hardware, including vehicles and transportation equipment, new demands are being placed on the existing electrical infrastructure. Demand management is critical as facilities reach their electrical capacity through growing electric energy demands or come under electricity use restrictions through banding and time-of-day use agreements (which incentivize reduced demand on electrical resources). Most current demand management systems focus on reactive actions such as denying availability (e.g. rolling brown out) during peaking events. In many situations, this denial of service may be highly undesirable, as is the case with electric-powered transport refrigeration units (eTRUs), which must maintain a narrow temperature band to protect perishable products.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2306
Xin Lei, Antoun Calash, John Cagney
A cyclically pressurized hydraulic component made of compacted graphite iron (CGI) is examined in fatigue design. This CGI component has a notch, formed at the intersection of two drilling channels. This notch causes the stress to be locally elevated and may potentially serve as a fatigue initiation site. Traditional fatigue design approaches calculate the maximum stress/strain range acting at the notch and apply the Neuber correction when calculating fatigue life. It is, however, found that the fatigue life is dramatically underestimated by this method. This prompts the use of the critical distance method because the stresses are concentrated in a relatively small volume. When using the critical distance method, the fatigue life is correctly predicted. Finally, a fracture mechanics model of the crack check the reasonableness of the critical distance method results.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2295
Keith Friedman, John Hutchinson, Dennis Mihora, Sri Kumar, Daniel Strickland
More than 900,000 long-haul sleeper cabs are projected to be on the road by 2030. About half of heavy truck occupant fatalities occur in rollovers. This paper discusses the current status of rollover protection systems for occupants in sleeper cabs and describes the outcomes from example crashes with sleeper cab occupants. A virtual testing methodology for evaluation of current designs under rollover conditions and restraint tests utilizing dummies and humans also are described. The paper includes discussion of finite element models used and their validation. Examples of results associated with various restraint system configurations are presented. The results show that incorporating effective lateral restraint is important in providing protection to sleeper cab occupants under rollover conditions.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2294
Thomas Klena II, Daniel Blower PhD, Kurt Fischer P.E., John Woodrooffe
About 360,000 commercial trucks are involved in traffic accidents in the United States per year. Approximately 20,000 truck drivers are injured in those crashes. This study examines traffic crashes of the commercial truck fleet for model years 2000 to 2008 contained in the Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) and General Estimates System (GES) databases. Specifically, driver injuries, using the KABCO scale (injury severity), were analyzed to determine the association with crash type as well as with the truck configuration. A crash typology was developed to identify crash types, including the type of other vehicle or object struck as well as the impact point on the truck, associated with the most serious injuries. This research focuses on the frequency of commercial vehicle accidents and driver injury levels rather than the cause of the vehicle crash. Based on these findings, example cases from LTCCS were selected. These examples typify the most frequent crashes and injuries.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2299
Steven Eick, Rene Parker, Greg Whiting
The U. S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) National Automotive Center (NAC) owns a fleet of ten Hydrogen Hybrid Internal Combustion Engine (H2ICE) vehicles that have been demonstrated in various climates from 2008 through 2010. This included demonstrations in Michigan, Georgia, California and Hawaii. The fleet was consolidated into a single location between July 2009 and April 2010. Between July of 2009 and January of 2011, data collection was completed on the fleet of H2ICE vehicles deployed to Oahu, Hawaii for long-term duration testing. The operation of the H2ICE vehicles in Hawaii utilized standard operation of a non-tactical vehicle at a real-world military installation. The vehicles were fitted with data acquisition equipment to record the operation and performance of the H2ICE vehicles; maintenance and repair data was also recorded for the fleet of vehicles.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2291
Marius-Dorin Surcel, Jan Michaelsen, Yves Provencher
This project's objective was the development of an on-road vehicle fuel consumption test procedure for representative stop-and-go urban duty cycles. The scope of the project included a review of existing stop-and-go urban duty cycles, the development of a track testing methodology for measuring the fuel consumption on stop-and-go urban duty cycles, and testing with a view to the validation of the methodology. Literature review analyzed several transport activities to determine specific stop-and-go urban duty cycles, such as pick-up and delivery operations, refuse collection, bus transport, and utility and service operation. It was found that driving cycles should be easy enough to recreate and replicate on the test track and should be representative of application driving patterns. The cycles should be adapted for fuel economy testing, and geometric cycles are easier to follow than the cycles based on actual drive traces.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2293
Darrell Bowman, William Schaudt
The mission of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving commercial vehicles [1]. According to the FMCSA, the development, evaluation, and deployment of advanced safety technology will be a key to realizing this goal. Currently, there are many safety systems in development that have the potential to significantly reduce crashes on our nation's roadways. For a variety of reasons, the potential benefits that these systems may provide in reducing crashes may never be realized. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), in cooperation with FMCSA, has developed a program to evaluate promising safety technologies aimed at commercial vehicle operations (CVO). The objective of FMCSA's Advanced System Testing Utilizing a Data Acquisition System on the Highway (FAST DASH) program is to perform quick turnaround and independent evaluations of promising CVO safety technologies.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2292
Tianlei Zheng, Yuefu Jin, Zhao Wang, Michael Wang, Freda Fung, Fatumata Kamakate, Huiming Gong
To restrain the environmental and energy problems caused by oil consumption and improve fuel economy of heavy-duty commercial vehicles, China started developing relevant standards from 2008. This paper introduces the background and development of China's national standard “Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles”, and mainly describes the test method schemes, driving cycle and weighting factors for calculating average fuel consumption of various vehicle categories. The standard applies to heavy-duty vehicles with the maximum design gross mass greater than 3500 kg, including semi-trailer tractors, common trucks, dump trucks, city buses and common buses. The standard adopts the C-WTVC driving cycle which is adjusted on the basis of the World Transient Vehicle Cycle[1, 2] and specifies weighting factors of urban, rural and motorway segments for different vehicle categories.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2284
Helena Martini, Björn Bergqvist, Linus Hjelm, Lennart Löfdahl
Today there are a large variety of drag-reducing devices for heavy trucks that are commonly used, for example, roof deflectors, cab side extenders and chassis fairings. These devices are often proven to be efficient, reducing the total aerodynamic resistance for the vehicle. However, the drag-reducing devices are usually identical for a specific pulling vehicle, independent of the layout of the vehicle combination. In this study, three vehicle combinations were analyzed. The total length of the vehicles varied between 10.10 m and 25.25 m. The combinations consisted of a rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. The size of the gap between the cargo units differed between the vehicle combinations. There were also three configurations of each vehicle combination with different combinations of roof deflector and cab side extenders, yielding a total number of nine configurations.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2285
Lisa Larsson, Lennart Löfdahl, Erik Dahl, Torbjörn Wiklund
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2286
Song Li
With the crisis of energy becoming more severity, the research of cutting down the drag of commercial vehicles is more and more important. In this work, to reduce the drag of a van body truck, aerodynamic drag reduction designs are carried out by the method of numerical simulation. Plates are fixed on the aft-body with different angle of declination. The effects of reducing drag are studied and the mechanism is discussed. The paper selects four rear add-on devices with different obliquity by 5deg, 10deg, 15deg and 20deg. Seen from the results of numerical simulation, the rear add-on device can reduce the drag effectively. The CFD simulations indicate that addition of the flat plates reduces the drag about 5∼8%. When the declination angle is 15deg, the effect is the best and the drag of the truck model is reduced by 8.9% comparing with the configuration without add-on device. This work can offer important references for the optimize design of van body truck.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2287
Gergis William, Mark S. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2275
Fernando Tavares, Rajit Johri, Ashwin Salvi, Simon Baseley, Zoran Filipi
The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2270
Andres Font
The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2272
Wolfgang Schweiger, Werner Schoefmann, Andrea Vacca
This paper presents a simulation model for the analysis of internal gear ring pumps. The model follows a multi domain simulation approach comprising sub-models for parametric geometry generation, fluid dynamic simulation, numerical calculation of characteristic geometry data and CAD/FEM integration. The sub-models are interacting in different domains and relevant design and simulation parameters are accessible in a central, easy to handle graphical user interface. The potentials of the described tool are represented by simulation results for both steady state and transient pump operating conditions and by their correlation with measured data. Although the presented approach is suitable to all applications of gear ring pumps, a particular focus is given to hydraulic actuation systems used in automotive drivetrain applications.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2273
Rohit Hippalgaonkar, Joshua Zimmerman, Monika Ivantysynova
This paper compares two different rule-based power management (PM) strategies, in terms of their resultant fuel consumptions, through a simulation study as applied to a hybrid hydraulic multi-actuator displacement controlled (DC) system. Specifically, the system analyzed is a mini-excavator, wherein the digging functions are powered using four variable displacement pump/motors - these units are also shared by the auxiliary functions. In addition, the on-board hydraulic energy storage device, or accumulator, is charged or discharged using an additional pump/motor, called the storage unit. A parallel architecture is used for the hybrid system wherein the additional pump/motor is on the engine shaft, running at the same speed as the engine (and the other four pumps). An aggressive and fast, digging cycle was used to size the storage unit and accumulator, as well as to compare the performance of the two different strategies.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2274
Chinmaya Patil, Michael olson, Benjamin Morris, Clark Fortune, Bapiraju Surampudi, Joe Redfield, Heather Gruenewald
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2265
Christina Perdikoulias, Brad Sommerfeld
Model-Based Development (MBD) has become increasingly important in the development of embedded software for commercial vehicles. For MBD to be most effective, modeling must be a unified part of the system and software lifecycle. System and software lifecycle management processes and tools that encompass all phases of the product, from concept to end-of-life, are essential to meet today's business innovation and quality demands. In a typical MBD environment, changes to requirements, test cases, configurations, calibrations or the actual models aren't automatically and interactively linked to one another. Significant manual effort goes into tracking changes that affect engineering artifacts. The downstream effect of one seemingly small change has the potential to affect thousands of artifacts across a product's lifecycle, including model elements.
2011-09-13
Journal Article
2011-01-2267
Thomas Erkkinen, Anupam Gangopadhyay, Shobhit Shanker, Seshadri Shekar, Ziaudeen Mohamed
Rapid control prototyping (RCP) is a widely used technique for verifying a controller's functional behavior. Typically, RCP uses a target processor with ample processing power and memory, which makes the technique attractive for engineers exploring new concepts. However, a large gap often exists between the RCP target and the production ECU in terms of the available code generation technology, the supporting tool chain, and I/O hardware. Consequently, significant work is required when migrating a controller from RCP to production. Furthermore, due to cost constraints, RCP systems are difficult to deploy in large numbers for fleet testing or preproduction trials. In response to the challenges associated with RCP, automotive engineers are moving towards a technique called on-target rapid prototyping (OTRP).
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2268
Nagesh Belludi, Joshua Receveur, Jeremy Raymond
This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2263
Thomas Bardelang
Driver assistance systems (e.g. the emergency brake assist Active Brake Assist2, or ABA2 for short, in the Mercedes-Benz Actros) are becoming increasingly common in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. Due to the close interconnection with drivetrain and suspension control systems, the integration and validation of the functions make the most exacting demands on processes and tools involved in mechatronics development. In addition to a multi-stage test process focusing on the functions of the driver assistance systems (software), the “electrical” aspects (hardware) also form part of holistic maturity level validation. The test process is supported by state-of-the-art, high-performance tools (e.g. automatable component test benches and overall vehicle HiL systems) which, in particular, allow quick and accurate configuration in line with different vehicle variants.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2262
Vijay Kumar Kalia, Yogesh Pawar
The amount of software, computation and logic embedded into the vehicle systems is increasing. Testing of complex real time embedded systems using Hardware in Loop (HIL) simulations across different vehicle platforms has been a challenge. Data driven testing enables a qualitative approach to test these complex vehicle systems. It consists of a test framework wherein the test logic and data are independent of the HIL test environment. The data comprises variables used for both input values and output verification values. This data is maintained in a database or in the form of tables. Each row defines an independent test scenario. The entire test data is divided into three categories, High, Medium and Low. This feature gives the advantage of leveraging the same set of test data from Unit Level Testing phases to the Integration Test phase in the V-Cycle of software development. A data driven test approach helps the reuse of tests across vehicle platforms.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2261
Jace Allen, Amanjot Dhaliwal, Jeff Warra
Currently, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing is the defacto standard for ECU verification and validation at the majority of the Commercial Vehicle OEMs and Tier1 suppliers. HIL Testing is used to shorten development and testing time for both engine and machine control systems. In order to use this process, many of these companies have to develop and maintain expertise in the area of Model-based development (MBD). This paper introduces an approach which allows for the effective use of HIL systems without having to directly work in a MBD environment. Many HIL tests can be done with stimulus and response analysis of the ECUs, given core knowledge of the expected behavior of its control software and I/O subsystems. For hardware interface and diagnostics validation, this open-loop testing of the controller may suffice. It is important to provide the tester with capabilities to easily modify these stimuli and evaluate the responses.
2011-09-13
Technical Paper
2011-01-2256
William H. Havins, Ph.D.
The present paper provides a general review of trends in vehicle information display designs, specifically “dashboards,” noting that the purpose of those dashboard displays is to provide information that allows for safe and lawful operation of those vehicles. The author describes how these trends appear to have been driven by a combination of historical precedents including vehicle interior design, available vehicle display technology, and, later, by development of vehicle data busses. The paper describes human factors and cognitive neuroscience issues that affect an operator's ability to read gauges in a dashboard display. The paper reports the results of the author's 2008 research where 71 of 101 survey respondents indicated that they find it hard to read their recreational vehicle gauges. It describes participants' significantly positive responses to the author's dashboard display prototype developed using human factors and cognitive neuroscience principles.
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