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Viewing 91 to 120 of 16239
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2395
Mohamed H. Zaher, Sabri Cetinkunt
This paper focuses on comparing the performance of the embedded control of a hybrid powertrain with the original and downsized engine. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demands from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system is completely disabled.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2396
Mohamed H. Zaher, Sabri Cetinkunt
This paper focuses on embedded control of a hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in the opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. A rule based control algorithm is developed and is tuned for different work cycles and might be linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the work-machine and its position via GPS, and maps both of them to the gains.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2404
Mahendra Muli, Joe Cassar
It is not news anymore when somebody talks about increasing software content in today's vehicles, transportation systems and machinery. The software content and complexity has grown so tremendously and rapidly that even the most advanced product/software development techniques leave more to desire in view of evolving product life-cycles, feature content and need for development efficiency. Model-Based Design (MBD) techniques and V-Cycle based development processes address the significant need for managing complexity, and to some extent, efficiency in product development. Further efficiency in the development process can be achieved by enabling virtual validation of software components. The virtual validation environment for software not only has the ability to run the software component as a standalone unit for performance validation, but is also extended to the validation of the performance of the entire embedded software of an ECU, multiple ECUs and the entire system.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2406
Vijay Janardan Warade, Gopal Krishna Dalvi, Rakesh Rameshchandra Sharma
In the pursuit of Manufacturing Excellence, DivgiWarner follows Quality System Basics which includes operator training as one of the key elements. Any manufacturing process consists of 5M's. Out of these 5M's, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement can be engineered to get the desired output. Required control is possible with the fifth ‘M’ i.e. Man by providing Standardized Training, resulting in Repeatability & Reproducibility from each process. DivgiWarner has designed, developed and been practicing the unique process of Operator Training and Licensing. This paper describes the Operator Licensing process. The process is divided into seven subsections inclusive of: 1 Induction Training2 Classroom Training3 On-Job Training4 Written Test and Evaluation5 Issue Operator License i.e.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2391
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Paul A. Green, Shan Bao
This paper explores the potential safety performance of “Future Generation” automated speed control crash avoidance systems for Commercial Vehicles. The technologies discussed in this paper include Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), second and third generation Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) comprised of Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The research [1[ discussed in this paper is from a study conducted by UMTRI which estimated the safety benefits of current and future F-CAM systems and the comparative efficacy of adaptive cruise control. The future generation systems which are the focus of this paper were evaluated at two separate levels of product refinement, “second generation” and “third generation” systems.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2390
Aravindan V, Rejith Raj, Prashanth Moni, Gopisankar T, Vinamra Jain
The present invention relates to automobile headlamps, to be more precise static bending lamps. It is well experienced that driving at night times can be quite hectic as the ordinary headlamps do not trace the trajectory of the vehicle. This brought the idea of bending lamps; two different approaches have evolved for the same functionality, either to turn the light source or a projector, called dynamic bending and the second approach is to provide a secondary lamp at the corner focusing location for fulfilling the purpose. The present systems rely on the steering wheel sensor and the vehicle speed data for control. This requires the system to have a CAN transceiver module adding to the cost. In this paper, we will be focusing on static bending lamp in which the fixed-focus positioned lamp will be used for lighting the required area, moreover this gives design a more robustness and cost beneficial control system for the static bending lamp.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2394
John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao
This paper focuses on the safety performance of Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) that include Forward Collision Warning (FCW) with Collision Mitigation Braking (CMB) technology as applied to heavy trucks, including single unit and tractor semitrailers. The study estimated the safety benefits of a commercially available F-CAM system considered to be representative of products currently in service. The functional characteristics were evaluated and its performance generically modeled to estimate safety benefits. This was accomplished through the following steps: (1) first characterize the actual performance of these systems in various pre-crash scenarios under controlled test track conditions, and then reverse engineering the algorithms that control warnings and automatic braking actions; (2) developing a comprehensive set of simulated crash events representative of actual truck striking rear-end crashes.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2392
Daniel Blower, John Woodrooffe
Heavy truck rollover remains a primary factor in truck driver fatalities and injury. Roll stability control (RSC) and electronic stability control (ESC) are technologies that have been introduced to reduce the incidence of rollover in heavy truck crashes. This report provides an analysis of the real-world experience of a large for-hire company that introduced RSC into its fleet starting in 2004. The carrier provided a well-documented set of data on the operations of its truck-tractors, including both those equipped with RSC and those that did not have RSC installed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the effect of RSC on the probability of rollover, as well as to identify other factors that either contribute to rollover or help reduce its incidence. This study presents results on the incidence of rollover both in terms of rollovers per 100 million miles traveled and the percentage of crashes that resulted in rollover.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2387
Giorgio Malaguti, Massimo Dian, Massimiliano Ruggeri
Ethernet is by now the most adopted bus for fast digital communications in many environments, from household entertainment, to PLC robotics in industrial assembly lines. Even in avionic applications, new standards are fixing research results. In a similar way in automotive industry, the interest in this technology is increasingly growing, pushed forward by much research and basically by the need of high throughput, that high dynamics distributed control requests. In the world of heavy-duty machines various needs suggest to investigate for a possible Ethernet Network implementation for both real time control and services. On the other hand Bosch proposes the FlexCAN, CAN Flexible rate, but it seems a short term solution for today's congested networks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2386
Otso Karhu, Kalevi Huhtala
The level of automation, including operator assisting functions, is becoming more sophisticated in heavy machinery. This involves using new types of sensors and embedded computers. However, considering the long life cycles of heavy machinery, the electronic control systems should be modular and flexible. A modular control system of an automated machine is often distributed over CAN and Ethernet. However, many interesting sensor and actuator types do not have these interfaces. In this paper, a generic microcontroller board with analogous and digital communication is presented. With this board, CAN communications can be added to many sensors. The board can also perform sensor-related data processing. The microcontroller board is tested in several applications. In an automated wheel loader, the board is used in control of the work hydraulics circuit that is based on digital hydraulics.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2382
Venkatesh Narayanan, Karalmarx R, Sai Sankaranarayana, Kalyankumar Hatti
The Bogie suspensions ensure better stability at higher loads and also give the utmost reliability under extreme climatic conditions with minimum maintenance. Many vehicle manufactures have adopted for the bogie suspension at rear based on its advantages. The noises generated from the vehicle in the field includes engine noises and flow noises and hence it is very difficult to clearly discern the noise generated from suspension system of the vehicle [1]. Most suspension system noises do not come from a single part but they are caused by the coupling action between related parts, making it difficult to clearly identify the exact cases. This paper details the overall approach to identify the bogie suspension noise on a commercial vehicle and countermeasures to reduce the same.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2385
N. Santosh Datta
With evolution of emission norms in diesel engines, NOx emission limits became more stringent and can be met only with specific NOx emission control systems. The NOx control systems in heavy duty diesel engines are monitored for OBD regulations in on-highway applications. Additionally driver warning and inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems are to be complied in both on-highway and off-highway applications. The driver inducement requirements are defined with intent to enforce and ensure correct operation of NOx control system. The NOx control systems and inducement measures are implemented in engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software to be compliant to legislation. The paper focuses on driver inducement requirements for NOx emission control systems. The paper summarizes the inducement requirements with a system overview and software design to meet driver inducement requirements for EUVI legislation and CARB/EPA compliance.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2379
Zhigang Wei, Shengbin Lin, Limin Luo, Fulun Yang, Dmitri Konson, Bala Gurusamy
Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2381
Shannon K. Sweeney
This paper presents a simple method of estimating steady-state diesel engine disturbance amplitudes that can be used in rigid-body, low frequency vibration modeling to predict the performance of an engine's isolation suspension and its components. The internal disturbances occurring at each cylinder and crank throw are determined and combined to provide the net disturbances for several common four-stroke diesel engine configurations. The method utilizes a simplified Fourier decomposition of diesel combustion and the predominant inertia disturbances from within the engine. With a few pieces of information from the engine maker, actual disturbance amplitudes and phases can be estimated. Conditions and simplifying assumptions are discussed. The estimated disturbance amplitudes can also be used in torsional vibration modeling of the drivetrain.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2378
Manimaran Krishnamoorthy, Mathew Sam Paul Albert
In this work, durability of the bus structure is evaluated with a Virtual Test Model (VTM).Full vehicle Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) model of the bus is built, with inclusion of flexibility of the bus structure to capture structural modes. Component mode synthesis method is used for creation of flexible model for use in MBD. Load extraction is done by performing MBD analysis with measured wheel inputs. Modal Superposition Method (MSM) is employed in FE along with these extracted loads for calculation of modal transient dynamic stress response of the structure. e-N based fatigue life is estimated. The estimated fatigue life from the modal superposition method show good correlation with the physical test results done in 6-poster test rig.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2380
Anandan Sivakumar, Sachin Wagh, G. Raghavendra, Chaitanya Govind Kulkarni, Hemant Malekar
Success of the vehicle in the market depends on comfort provided while usage, which also includes noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In order to achieve comfort level, the NVH levels have to be as low as possible. Powertrain is the main source of NVH, in which internal combustion engine consists of crank shaft and balancer shaft. Crank shaft gear is connected and driven by crank shaft and balanced by integral eccentric mass coupled with gear. Balancer shaft is used for additional balancing of rotating masses. Pair of crank shaft and balancer shaft gears generates noise and vibration when unbalance in the system and backlash in the gears increase while usage. The practice of interposing a vibration isolator on the surface of gear has been so far resorted for preventing transmission of vibration, therefore reduction in noise. In the work presented, balancer gear was made with sandwich design to reduce noise. Sandwich design comprises of Inner hub and outer ring with lug projections.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2377
Sivashankar S, Sudarsanam S, N. Saravanan
Based on customer application and loading condition, each Commercial Vehicle model has an entirely different usage pattern. To perform accurate durability validation, each vehicle model prototype should run on actual customer usage locations and loading conditions for the durability target kilometers. But it is time consuming and not practical. So a statistical approach is followed to generate the accelerated durability test sequence and target on in-house Proving Ground tracks to match the real customer usage for the durability target kilometers. Again a single durability test sequence and target cannot be followed for all vehicle models due to the variability in customer usage. For that, specific durability test sequence and target need to be established for every class of commercial vehicle. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability test sequence and target for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on variants of medium and heavy duty trucks.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2368
Harish Harinarayanan
Commercial vehicle payload depends on the client for which the vehicle fleet owner is operating. Load carriers like flatbed trailer offer the flexibility to be loaded with a large number of light payloads or a few numbers of massive payloads. Such load carriers have to be evaluated for various possibilities of loading patterns that could happen in the market. The objective of this work is to evaluate flatbed trailer for its structural strength for different customer application cases, using computer simulation. Structural load cases due to payloads like containers, steel coils and cement bags are arrived at. Static structural analysis using MSC Nastran is performed to evaluate for the worst customer loading pattern from structural stress point of view. This paper also describes a simplified method for simulating the effect of trailer suspension, tractor suspension and the fifth-wheel coupling in the analysis whose detailed modeling is not possible at the concept level.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2360
G. Balaji, Ashwini Agarwal, Mahesh Mungi, Ranjit Babar, Vidyadhar Katkar PE
In automotive design and development, there are different stages for product design. In this fast changing scenario product design, digital verification of design (CAE), physical validation of the product and launching of the same in short time is important in product development life cycle of any new generation vehicle. This paper proposes a new approach towards development of a green-field platform for commercial vehicles by improving reliability of CAE and thereby reducing the need for prototype testing and hence shortening development cycle and costs - we call it “Hybrid Mule”. This Hybrid Mule has complete design intent under-body and engine-house while upper-body is made of simple representative tubular space frame. FRP skin panels are attached to this space frame to create a safe environment for test-driver. FRP skin also provides early feel of styling in running condition and evaluates basic ergonomics and visibility.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2356
Boris Beloousov, Tatiana I. Ksenevich, Vladimir Vantsevich, Dmitry Komissarov
Two characteristics of terrain mobility are essential in designing an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV): (i) the ability of a vehicle to move through terrain of a given trafficability and (ii) the obstacle performance, i.e., the ability to avoid, interact with and overcome obstacles encountered on a preset route of a vehicle. More attention has been given to the vehicle geometry including selection of the angles of approach and departure, radii of longitudinal and lateral terrain mobility, and the steering system configuration. An essential effect is exhibited by the tire properties in their interaction with the support surface; this, in turn, affects traction properties of the wheel and, thus, vehicle terrain mobility. However, the influence of power distribution between the driving wheels together with vehicle steering system on the two above-listed characteristics of terrain mobility has not been considered in depth.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2354
Gediz Kulac, Berzah Ozan, Yahya Oz
Steering performance as a vehicle dynamics attribute of a heavy commercial vehicle is dependent on series of design and tunable steering system parameters. The driver steering input as angle and torque is transmitted through steering column to the steering box with a combined function created by the steering column angles and orientations. In case the angle and torque transmission from steering wheel to steering box through steering column cannot be linearized because of the design constraints, the steering column input and output torque, angle and angular speed relations should be optimized for a good vehicle dynamics performance and in compliance with the OEM brand DNA This paper represents series of CAE analyses, optimization studies, verification tests and subjective evaluations related to the tunable parameters of the steering column.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2351
Vijay Antony John Britto, Ekambaram Loganathan, Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Kalyankumar Hatti, Sai Sankaranarayana
Driver fatigue is one among the important factors for accidents, causing loss of precious life and property. Apart from long driving hours, driver fatigue can be due to poor ride quality, cabin noise, high vibration levels and poor ergonomics. In last few years, there has been enough emphasis to improve the noise and vibration comfort of commercial vehicles, which is governed by vibration levels at tactile points such as steering wheel, gear lever, pedal and seat. Steering wheel vibration is an important element which driver uses to express about the vehicle vibration quality. Design of steering system is driven by ergonomics, packaging, durability, safety, vibration & ride and handling requirements. This paper discusses about methodology of steering assembly development for Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of commercial vehicle.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2352
Paul C. Niglas
The new RSDII (Reduced Stopping Distance, phase 2) regulation creates an increased emphasis by the heavy truck industry to ensure that brake systems are properly chosen and optimized. This regulation has led to vehicles being fitted with much more powerful brakes. However, despite the intent of these new brakes to provide larger braking forces for shorter stopping distances, the performance of vehicles is still limited by the maximum friction coefficient between the vehicle's tires and the road. In order to get the most out of these new brakes, it is essential that the entirety of the vehicle be taken into account. With the use of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation tool, this paper will present stopping data predictions from a variety of vehicles of varying brake torque and wheelbase. It will be shown how these factors change the way a vehicle behaves under panicked stopping situations.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2350
Matt Kero
The commercial vehicle industry has seen regulations create new requirements over the last few years. Reductions to stopping distance, improvements to vehicle emissions, and the overall need for lighter weight vehicles has caused the commercial vehicle industry to look for new solutions to meet these needs. One such solution is light-weight aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) brake drums. Aluminum MMC brake drums create the opportunity to reduce weight, lower brake temperatures, improve brake life cycle, and improve brake performance. During the evaluation of these aluminum MMC components it has been seen that existing procedures do not create accurate comparisons for this new material. Current procedures were designed and implemented for cast iron braking solutions. This paper will outline two procedures; FMVSS121 dynamometer burnishing and SAE J2115 wear performance testing, that do not allow direct comparisons from brake system to brake system to be made.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2349
Naseem A. Daher, Monika Ivantysynova
Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2347
Mikko Huova, Matti Linjama, Kalevi Huhtala
Hydraulic systems are widely used in working actions of mobile machines. They offer good power to weight ratio, robustness and relatively good controllability. However, there has been growing interest on the energy efficiency of such machines during recent years. Load sensing proportional valve control is a typical solution for multi-actuator systems leaving a significant margin for improvement of energy efficiency. Digital hydraulic valve system enables independent metering and reduces losses significantly without a need of complete redesign of the hydraulic system of such machine. Digital hydraulic valve system consists of parallel connected on/off-valves and offers deterministic operation which is crucial for successful implementation of independent metering. Four different digital hydraulic valve control approaches are analyzed in the paper: four-edge-control, four-edge control with pressurized tank line, five-edge-control and six-edge-controlled three-chamber-cylinder.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2348
Yajun Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Wei, John Lumkes
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2343
Arunkumar Sengottuvel, Muralidharan Chennakrishnan, Kalyankumar Hatti
Transfer function measurements are the basis for construction of conventional test based source-path-receiver model of a vehicle. Interior noise of a vehicle can be synthesized using source excitation (both acceleration at source and near source sound pressure level) and its corresponding transfer function (Vibro-Acoustic Transfer Function (VATF) and Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) respectively) to the interior of vehicle. Ideally ATF should be linear and independent of sound source, dependent only on size of air cavities, body structure and its material characteristics in between receiver and source location. But practically because of the type of excitation signal used to excite the sound source and characteristics of sound source itself, there is a possibility of variations in amplitude of acoustic transfer function.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2342
Ravindran V, B. Prakash
This paper deals with the techniques of reducing noise in agricultural tractors. Noise reduction in agricultural tractors is an emerging concern and apart from meeting the noise norms it helps in increasing the productivity of farmers. Noise is also a factor affecting the health of the farmers. Two major European regulatory requirements are driver ear noise level and passer by noise level. Of the two regulatory requirement, driver ear noise is critical, since the limit is 86 dB (A) compared to 89 dB (A) of passer by noise limit which is measured at 7.5 meters from tractor. Various strategies for noise reduction are discussed in this paper including reduction at source level and passive solutions. Passive solutions are used where the timeline for development is short. Various passive solutions like acoustic foam design are discussed. Finally with the combination of active and passive solutions, driver ear noise target was met successfully.
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