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Viewing 121 to 150 of 16243
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2342
Ravindran V, B. Prakash
This paper deals with the techniques of reducing noise in agricultural tractors. Noise reduction in agricultural tractors is an emerging concern and apart from meeting the noise norms it helps in increasing the productivity of farmers. Noise is also a factor affecting the health of the farmers. Two major European regulatory requirements are driver ear noise level and passer by noise level. Of the two regulatory requirement, driver ear noise is critical, since the limit is 86 dB (A) compared to 89 dB (A) of passer by noise limit which is measured at 7.5 meters from tractor. Various strategies for noise reduction are discussed in this paper including reduction at source level and passive solutions. Passive solutions are used where the timeline for development is short. Various passive solutions like acoustic foam design are discussed. Finally with the combination of active and passive solutions, driver ear noise target was met successfully.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1588
Adam B. Cooper, Michael Kokkolaras, Panos Y. Papalambros
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1342
Luo Yan, Cheng Zhibin, Su Qingzu, Tian Xin, Cheng Xiaodong
In China, although overload phenomena are serious and effective transportation management is urgently demanded, equipment mainly used to check overloads is platform scales for static weighing. To develop an effective and economical Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system is imperative in China. With this awareness, we presented a new technology, using high-pressure oil pipe as the sensor of the WIM system. By acquiring and analyzing the pressure signals when vehicles run over the pipe, the wheel loads, axel loads and gross weight can be got. In this paper, the static characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the oil pipe have been researched, and the system's hardware and software were developed. Considering complicated characteristic of the oil pipe and other factors effecting WIM precision, we used neural networks to scale the WIM system dynamically. Test results showed that precision can satisfy the requirement of actual application.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1690
Michael Temkin, David Santi, Lawrence Black, James Tindall
During the initial vehicle design phase and as the first prototypes are built, extensive on-board instrumentation and data acquisition is required at the proving grounds (PG). The data is used for various types of testing and analysis. During this phase of development very few parts and assembly components are available for physical test. The objective is to develop a component test for the truck box. This test can be run without suspension parts during the early stages of the vehicle development. A further objective is to correlate the test to FEA models and actual Proving Ground full vehicle test results.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1939
Paul Richards, B. Terry, J. Chadderton, M. W. Vincent
In an attempt to improve ambient air quality, retrofit programmes have been encouraged; targeting reductions in PM emissions by means of diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However depending on the DPF design and operating conditions increased nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions have been observed, which is causing concern. Previous work showed that retrofitting a DPF system employing a fuel borne catalyst (FBC) to facilitate regeneration, reduced NO2 emissions. This paper outlines the investigation of a base metal coated DPF to enhance the reduction of NO2. Such a DPF system has been fitted to older technology buses and has demonstrated reliable field performance.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1007
M. Pasquali, G. Pede, M. P. Valentini, M. Gallori, G. P. Raimondi
A feasibility study related to the realization of a fuel-cell medium-size bus, has been committed by the Tuscany Region with the support of the municipality of Florence and Bologna, and realized by the association ONLUS I2T3 (Industrial Innovation Through Technological Transfer), ENEA, the Italian National Agency for Energy and Environment, and CAM, Carrozzeria Autodromo Modena, an Italian company leader in the field of eco-compatible solutions in the public transport sector. A hybrid traction system has been chosen, to reduce costs and to boost the vehicle efficiency thanks to regenerated energy during deceleration. The paper deals with the general strategic framework, the mission, the vehicle design and, finally, costs and benefits of FCHEVs, compared to conventional buses and hybrid-electric buses with motorgenerators.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1222
Scott Kimbrough
Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the likelihoods of competing scenarios offered by opposing parties involved in a motor vehicle accident. A case study is presented in which there is a dispute among the parties about who passed who first. It is shown that even though both scenarios are possible, one of the scenarios has a much greater likelihood. Besides demonstrating how Monte Carlo simulation provides probability information that can be used to weigh the likelihood of competing scenarios, the case study also provides another example of how Monte Carlo simulation can dig information out of the evidence surrounding an accident that cannot be obtained by other methods.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1191
Marcus Hiemer, Sebastian Lehr, Uwe Kiencke, Takanori Matsunaga
The reproduction of the vehicle motion is a crucial element of accident reconstruction. Apart from the position of the center of gravity in an inertial coordinate system, the vehicle heading plays an important role. The heading is the sum of the yaw angle and the vehicle body side slip angle. In standard vehicles, the yaw angle can be determined using the yaw rate sensor and the wheel speeds. However, the yaw rate sensor is often subject to temperature drift. The wheel speed signals are forged at low speeds or due to slip. These errors result in significant deviations of reconstructed and real vehicle heading. Therefore, an intelligent combination of these signals is required. This paper describes a fuzzy system which is capable to increase the accuracy of yaw angle calculation by means of fuzzy logic. Before the data is applied to the fuzzy system, it is preprocessed to ensure the accuracy of the fuzzy system inputs.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1207
Terry D. Day
SIMON is a new 3-dimensional vehicle dynamic simulation model. The capabilities of the model include non-linear handling maneuvers and collision simulation for one or more vehicles. As a new model, SIMON must be validated by comparison against actual handling and collision experiments. This paper provided that comparison. Included in the validation were lane-change maneuvers, alternate ramp traversals, limit maneuvers with combined braking and steering, vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests and articulated vehicle handling tests. Comparison against other models were included. No metric was provided for handling test comparisons. However, statistical analysis of the collision test results revealed the average path range error was 6.2 to 14.8 percent. The average heading error was -4.7 to 0.7 percent. Delta-V error was -1.6 to 7.5 percent. VEHICLE SIMULATION has many uses in the vehicle design and safety industries.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0923
E. G. Pariotis, D. T. Hountalas
This work is a part of an extended investigation conducted by the authors to validate and improve a newly developed quasi-dimensional combustion model. The model has been initially applied on an old technology, naturally aspirated HSDI Diesel engine and the results were satisfying as far as performance and pollutant emissions (Soot and NO) are concerned. But since obviously further and more extended validation is required, in the present study the model is applied on a new technology, heavy-duty turbocharged DI Diesel engine equipped with a high pressure PLN fuel injection system. The main feature of the model is that it describes the air-fuel mixing mechanism in a more fundamental way compared to existing multi-zone phenomenological combustion models, while being less time consuming and complicated compared to the more accurate CFD models. The finite volume method is used to solve the conservation equations of mass, energy and species concentration.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2717
Wei Liang, Jure Medanic, Roland Ruhl
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2677
David Milligan, Ulf Engström, Ryu Goto
Powder Metallurgy (P/M) is an increasingly viable alternative for applications requiring high material performance. Continuous advances in alloy systems and processing techniques, combined with powder metallurgy's ability to produce complex net shapes, have made it possible for powder metallurgy to compete with other technologies in engine and transmission applications. This paper will focus on new alloy systems and advanced processing techniques. The properties achievable with currently available materials, such as chromium containing materials, combined with advanced processing techniques, such as warm compaction and surface densification, will be presented. Additionally, a case study where a warm compacted synchronizing latch cone in a heavy duty truck transmission was found to have equal or superior performance to precision forged and powder forged latch cones.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2679
Richard L. Wurst
This paper describes equipment developed to measure engine output torque. Several vehicle flexplates were modified and strain gauges were applied to measure torque. Special attention was paid to minimize or eliminate any changes in flexplate torsional stiffness. Torque signals are transmitted from the rotating flexplate to a stationary receiver via RF telemetry. The electronics on the rotating flexplate are powered using an induction power technique. This method was developed as a less invasive and less costly alternative to strain gauging a crankshaft.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2722
Klaus Steinel, Gerhard Tebbe
Comfort requirements have significantly increased in recent years, even in the commercial vehicle sector. Transmission noise, caused by higher engine excitation (due to emission changes), can be reduced with a new torsional damper in the clutch disc, with a special idle damper. Up until now, free play (sometimes referred to as backlash) in the clutch or transmission helped reduce idle rattle. In many cases this simple solution is no longer adequate. This paper explains dynamic behavior during idling and provides the background for understanding the causes of rattle noise.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2680
Steve Rogers
Conventional fixed controllers in combination with adaptive neural networks provide a powerful controller architecture. By utilizing the existing controller designs and augmenting them with adaptive neural networks engineers may exploit the merits of both control approaches. By adding on an adaptive component to the existing controller the range of operating conditions is increased and robustness to system degradation is improved. One of the simplest neural network controllers is the adaptive linear combiner. In this paper the adaptive linear combiner is described and the controller architecture is applied to an engine rpm controller. Results are given.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2669
Steve Rogers, Brian Birge
Optimization for control system design or testing is commonly used. Most of the optimization approaches are based on simplex or gradient descent. If the system is complex these approaches are susceptible to being caught in local minimums. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a subset of evolutionary computation, which includes genetic algorithms. Evolutionary search techniques have been introduced as a means of detecting global minimums within a parameter range. PSO has been presented by a number of researchers, with applications in function optimization and neural network training. In this study PSO theory and equations will be detailed. The procedure will be applied to an engine rpm control system and results will be presented. The optimization procedure is used to minimize cumulative error and select parameters for a lead-lag plus integral control system. The simulation was coded in simulink and is shown in the figures.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2712
Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dennis Dauber
Traditional methods often lead to truck component designs that are overly conservative. The ever-increasing need to reduce operational costs demands innovative means for producing parts that are light, durable and capable of carrying more loads. This paper discusses the far-reaching advantages of shape-optimization, beyond the fundamental stipulation of weight reduction. A suspension link is considered to demonstrate the benefits of an optimally shaped component.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2673
Jean-Claude Ossyra, Monika Ivantysynova
A new control concept was developed to minimize the power losses of a hydrostatic drive line for off-road vehicles. The drive line control concept is based on two separate closed loop controls, one for the hydrostatic transmission and another for the combustion engine. The command values for both control loops are calculated under consideration of the characteristic curves of the combustion engine and the losses within the hydrostatic transmission, using an on-line optimization procedure. This paper discusses the benefits of this control concept based on a comparison of typical realistic driving manoeuvres. Objective of the investigations for different output powers is the potential of fuel savings under different operating conditions. A hardware-in-the-loop test rig for the investigated hydrostatic propel drive is used for the experimental validation.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2674
Hiroki Matsuyama, Hirofumi Dodoro, Kiyoshi Ogino, Hiroyuki Ohshima, Kazutoshi Toda
To achieve high efficiency in rear axle differentials, the reduction in friction torque of the tapered roller bearings supporting the pinion was investigated. The effects of internal geometry, and oil flow within the bearing, on friction torque were clarified. The friction torque of a newly developed bearing optimized considering various performance characteristics was 70-75% lower than that of a conventional bearing. This is equivalent to a friction torque reduction of about 80% from that of a standard bearing. This is expected to have a remarkable effect on vehicle fuel efficiency.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2714
Katrin Strandemar, Boris Thorvald
This paper presents the ride diagram, a new way of evaluating and presenting ride comfort Furthermore, a simplified methodology is suggested to test and correlate objective measures of vehicle ride with subjective driver impressions. The ride diagram is calculated from measured cab accelerations resulting from increased levels of excitation. The basic idea is to graphically visualize how ride comfort changes with excitation. Test drivers are then asked to pair the set of tested vehicles with corresponding curves in the ride diagram. This step assures that the selected measure captures how drivers apprehend changes in vehicle ride. The suggested methodology is illustrated on trucks with different cab suspension settings. For a given test track increased vehicle speed is used to increase the excitation level. The trucks are also placed in a road simulator to enable easy variation of both excitation type and level.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2688
Dogan San, Ergun Guraslan, Omer Rustu Ergen, Korhan Kanar
FORD OTOSAN has developed a new heavy-duty diesel engine, ECOTORQ, for the new Ford Cargo Trucks whose production started in September 2003. The engine is 7.3 liters, 6-cylinder in-line, with common rail fuel injection system and overhead camshaft design having 4 valves per cylinder. The engine meets the Euro-III exhaust emissions limits, which were in effect when it was introduced, and the engine incorporates the potential to meet Euro-IV. Modern computation and simulation methods were used and extensive experimental studies were made during the design and development stages, which helped reach the targets of compactness, modular structure, low fuel consumption, low noise level and low emissions.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2733
William P. Fornof
A coalescing filter is typically used in a compressed air system to remove liquid and oil aerosols. A coalescing filter is most efficient when located downstream of an air dryer. The air dryer removes most of the liquid oil condensed in the compressor discharge line. Measuring the percent of oil removed by a coalescing filter is useful for determining efficiency. This paper covers a laboratory method to reproduce oil aerosols much like the filter will see in an actual application. High duty cycles produce the maximum amount of oil from the compressor. The air dryer acts as pre-filter for the coalescing filter. The coalescing filter element and its associated housing should be tested as a unit since the element's inherent efficiency is effected by the design of the housing.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2681
Z. Rahman
A complete analytical design and analysis procedure of permanent magnet motors for ‘in-wheel’ traction application system is developed. Method to obtain minimum power requirement and optimal torque-speed profile to meet acceleration performance is explained. Analytical design procedure to optimize electric motor parameters, such as, back emf and torque constants, inductance and magnet thickness is developed that are based on the torque-speed requirement of the system. The optimization technique focuses on minimizing the power and volt-ampere rating of the entire electrical system. The design process is validated through experiment and field-testing. Although the paper is focused on electric bicycle system, the approach is also applicable to electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2724
Murali M. R. Krishna, Jun Yoshioka, Manish Sharma
A web based software program has been developed to do a Finite Element (FE) analysis of a simplified driveline system. In the past, an expert analyst had to make a Finite Element Model, analyze and then report results. It has been observed that this process is time consuming besides the difficulties of doing quick parametric studies, geographical location of designers, analysts, etc. The web-based software program aims to solve these issues. The designer could get analytical & Finite element results anywhere around the world (where the designer has access to the web) without any expertise in FE modeling. This software is a joint effort of Engineering and Information Technology (IT) software groups. It is based on Active Server Page (ASP) technology and MSC/NASTRAN technologies combined. Input data deck is prepared from user inputs and submitted over the internet to a remote system, solved and results are retrieved and plots shown in minutes, instead of days earlier.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2687
Paul G. Evans, Kevin Johanson
This paper describes a radical new approach to variable flow oil pump design, which addresses some concerns of earlier designs and also conventional fixed displacement pumps. Detailed here are the testing and results to date, the potential areas for the future work, together with the reduction in parasitic power loss and potential fuel consumption savings. Also discussed are the benefits that can be realised by using this product as a tool for radically changing current automotive lubrication systems.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2649
Dave Hansen, John Washeleski
The ClearFast™ heated fluid washer system provides 700% more heated fluid than other systems. The ClearFast’s unique dual heating elements provides instant (<12 seconds) and stored heated fluid. The efficient heating configuration uses the minimum electrical energy from the vehicles charging system. The first heated chamber (instant) quickly clears frost during initial vehicle start-up. The second heated chamber (stored fluid) provides quick windshield cleaning for snow/ice, dirt and bug residue while driving. The dual heating element allows the system to maintain a reservoir of heated fluid, but maximizes heating efficiency when the reservoir is depleted. The system requires only three simple electrical connections to the vehicle and is plumbed in-line between the washer pump and spray nozzles. The adaptive control software monitors not only the operating parameters of the system, but the health of the vehicle charging system to ensure undue strain is not placed upon it.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2694
Stefano J. Cassara, David C. Anderson, J. Magnus Olofsson
The accurate prediction of commercial-vehicle ride and handling performance with computer simulation tools is dependent on the level of correlation between the computer model and experimental data. Correlating vehicle attributes to physical test data is often challenging due to the large number of degrees of freedom - and, correspondingly, the large number of tunable parameters - typically required to accurately model vehicle behavior. A high level of interaction between input parameters and vehicle attributes further complicates the task. As a result, this type of correlation is a multi-objective optimization exercise in which the judicious planning of supporting test activity is critical to achieving the right level of model accuracy with an acceptable amount of resource investment. This paper discusses the methodology implemented in the validation of a tractor-semitrailer ADAMS model for both ride and handling simulations and presents the results obtained.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2648
Christopher W. Ferrrone
Current regulations (49 CFR Part 396.11 and 396.13) mandate that a commercial driver inspect the vehicle at the conclusion of the duty shift. This inspection should note any defects which were noticed during use. This report must be in writing. Unfortunately, many drivers have chosen not to do the inspection, but falsely fill out the report form or simply do nothing at all. A 2002 study shows that as many as 23.7% of all commercial vehicles inspected (levels 1, 2, 5) were found to be defective1. A 2003 study showed that as many as 23.2% of large trucks and 10.3% of commercial buses were deemed out of service2. This poor behavior has a direct effect on safety. Specifically an increased number of accidents related to maintenance defects. In fact, as much as a 5% increase in fatal accidents can be attributed to mechanical defects3. A product has been developed which forces the driver to go to each of the legally prescribed areas of the inspection.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2697
Leonard Kuo-Liang Shih, Tien-Chou Hsu
In the past decades, the diesel engines are considered as the major power source, not only because of their high thermal efficiency, high torque output, and easy maintenance; but also due to the improved exhaust emissions reduction technology. In order to increase the thermal efficiency, the low heat rejection ceramic coating engine is one of the possible solutions for future engine manufacturing. Due to the thermal insulating effects of the ceramic material (low thermal conductivity), the cylinder charge and engine components' temperatures are substantially increased. However, the thermal impact problem and the possible high friction characteristics of the new coating material can be deadly to the engine's lifetime. Various non-ceramic and ceramic materials are tested in this research to decide their thermal insulating effects on the engine performance and their downside on the friction and thermal impact problems.
2004-10-26
Technical Paper
2004-01-2647
Douglas A. Swift, Carl Talaski
A sensor system was developed to measure loads in truck wheels. The system has the unique capability to measure each individual wheel in a dual set. This paper covers the development and testing of the system. Sample data from road tests is also presented.
Viewing 121 to 150 of 16243

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