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Viewing 181 to 210 of 16241
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0111
Parul Goyal, Gaurav Chaudhary, Nirmal N
A two-stage spool valve system is common in the hydraulic system of an off-road vehicle and used as hydraulics control element for controlling the hydraulic cylinder. Off-road vehicle industries mostly use a fixed-gain PID based controller for the flow control of the two-stage spool valve system. A hydraulic spool valve system exhibits highly nonlinear behavior, which makes it challenging to design a PID based controller to control its dynamics. This paper presents a method for the dynamic system model development of the two-stage spool valve system. This model will be useful to study the impact on the valve dynamics due to lubricating oil properties variation to avoid the potential system hazards and machine failure scenarios. An alternative control system design approach is also proposed based on the gain-scheduled control technique, wherein the non-linear dynamics of the valve system is linearized at different equilibrium points and PID gains are scheduled at these points.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0126
Ashish Moholkar, Rizwan Khan, Jyotirmoy Barman, Sumit Arora
Increased options and flexibility in common rail direct injection provides a great opportunity for combustion optimization using fuel and air system with proper combustion chamber configuration. This paper elaborates the experimental work conducted for combustion optimization with combinations of piston bowl, intake port swirl, injector specifications and turbo charging on a 3.8 l four valve diesel engine of LDT application equipped with common rail fuel injection system and waste gate turbo charge. In meeting the target emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. Through simulations the best option had been carried out parametrically investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0133
Arvind R, Jayagopal S, Suryanarayanan V, Porpatham E, Senthil Kumar A
Brazil has implemented a new emission regulation for Light commercial vehicles named PROCONVE L6. This regulation follows Environmental Protection Act (EPA) driving cycle; FTP75. This cycle simulates an urban route of 12.07 km with frequent stops. The maximum speed is 91.2 km/h and the average speed is 31.5 km/h. The regulation has proposed that the gear shift pattern of the manual transmission vehicle can be varied according to the manufacturer's specification. This has lead to the strategy of optimizing gear shift pattern without compromising diesel combustion and engine-out emission with optimized exhaust-gas treatment-devices. The emission is demonstrated to Brazilan Authorities with good margins.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0130
Antony Smith, Saurabh Rajauria, Sachin Agarwal
In the growing automobile world, every commercial vehicle manufacturer upgrades their product from their existing product to meet world market demand for high power engine with high torque, most fuel efficient, BS-IV and BS-V emission norms and less cost. In an Engine cylinder block and cylinder head are among the critical parts need to be modified to upgrade the existing engine platform. The VE4101 Engine is a massive 3.8 l 4 Cyl 16 valve engine based on the E483 4 cyl 8 valve engine, which is currently being mass produced in VECV, India. This engine cylinder block and cylinder head are designed with key features such as capable for high peak firing pressure, rigid load structure, curvy envelope and ribs to reduce NVH, light weight 2 split top box manufacturing method. Key strategy is used such as less capital investment in purchasing machines, no/less alteration in current machining and assembly line.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0137
Sivashankar S, Hari Krishna SV, Alfred Nixon Mendez, Colin J. Dodds
Every class of commercial vehicle has an entirely different usage pattern based on customer application and needs. To perform accurate durability testing, these prototypes should run on real customer usage locations and loading conditions for the target life. However, this is time consuming and not practical, hence resulting in Proving Ground (PG) testing. It is also known that a standard PG durability cycle cannot be valid for every class of vehicle and every application. So a statistical approach was followed to develop an accelerated durability test cycle based on in-house PG test surfaces in order to match the real customer usage to the durability target life. This paper summarizes the methodology to develop Durability Validation test cycles for commercial vehicle based on the work carried out on a heavy duty tipper and an intermediate commercial vehicle.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0139
Sathish Kumar P, Vikram Suryavanshi, Manikandan M, Bollishetty Sreedhar
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0145
S. Narayanan, S. Mithun, T. Sahul Hameed
A lift axle suspension system in a heavy commercial vehicle enables raising and lowering of the lift axle depending on the vehicle load condition. The states (raising and lowering) of the axle will be in logical sequence which depends on the vehicle load, ignition state, gear state and traction requirement. To arrive this complicate logic, the Lift Axle Control valve is designed. This LACV is an intricate assembly of pneumatic 3/2 valve, 5/2 valve, relay valve and solenoid valves. To predict the performance of this valve under various vehicle conditions, the entire valve is modeled in one of the commercially available multi-domain physical modeling software employing bond graph technique and lumped system and the performance is predicted. This paper deals with the modeling of LACV, simulation of misbehavior of LACV under certain condition, and the design analysis carried out to arrive design solution.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0148
Vyankatesh Madane, Akshay Baviskar, Anil Gaikwad, S. S. Sane
Light commercial vehicles are extension of three wheelers due to their need for simplicity and load carrying capacity. Smaller vehicle being simpler, have engine mounted at the rear. This give an added advantage in term of simple and light weight design and thus cost effective and have low engine noise and vibration in cabin. In many of the light commercial vehicles, which have been downsized from the bigger vehicles like trucks, have the aggregates designs similar to those of trucks like the drive line extending from the mid engine to rear axle having integral differential. The axle carries the leaf springs for giving robust look as well the load carrying capacity. In the new rear suspension design of the light commercial vehicle, advantage of the mid position engine concept and rear engine concept have been captured. This paper is discusses the design philosophy and the packaging of the same along with criteria for design.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0146
A. N. Palkar
Transport plays major a role in the economic growth of the Nation and social welfare of the community. Wrong practices followed by Transport Operators result in environmental degradation and damage to Transport Infrastructure. To improve productivity and Safety of commercial transport sector in India, it is necessary for all transportation users to calculate, analyze and control the internal and external expenses. Dynamic weight of the moving truck is one of the methods which help to improve environmental quality, increase life of roads and bridges, increase life of the vehicle, enhance productivity and ensures high amount of safety. This paper describes System involving sensing techniques, design and integration, operational and feasibility analysis towards making it affordable, accurate and adaptable. This includes a proposal for regulatory bodies to respond to the challenge of implementation of rules for the productivity and safety of commercial road transport.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0154
Vyankatesh Madane, Abhijit Swami, Mihir Shah, S. S. Sane
Products from the developed western countries are brought to India by different manufacturers. It is needed to look at the different aspects of the vehicles like performance parameters, structural stability, serviceability etc, as the requirement of the local market differ vastly from those requirement of the original markets. Indian market condition demands the vehicle suitable for taking the abuse load on the rough roads as the road conditions in the mofussil area and country side are bad. This paper describes the definition and validation of the carryover products, to suit the Indian conditions by using different techniques, to reduce time to market. This paper describes the creation of accelerated endurance test cycle for a mini truck which is representative of Indian customer usage of 120,000 km. Relative damage method is used for correlation of proving ground (track) with customer usage pattern on selected channels.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0150
Jeevan N. Patil, Sivakumar Palanivelu, Ajit Kumar Jindal
Air brake system is widely used in heavy duty trucks and buses due to its great performance and efficiency. Dual brake valve (DBV) is one the of major and crucial component of an air brake system as it is controlling the air flow from reservoir to brake chamber during braking operation. Currently, due to its own complexity, it is very difficult for designer to optimize different parameters. As experimentation is tedious and time consuming task, hence it is very important to have mathematical model of DBV during in early design stage. Differential equations have been formulated for individual component of DBV such as primary piston, primary valve, relay piston, and relay valve etc. system level mathematical model has been formulated and implemented in Matlab/Simulink to capture the dynamic pressure characteristic of DBV. At the same time mathematical model of DBV has been created in AMESim to check the validity of approach.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0157
Bollishetty Sreedhar, Chandrakant Deshmukh
Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation software is used in product development cycle to reduce the lead time to market. These software have standard parametric templates for modeling metallic suspension systems, which can be quickly modified and used in full vehicle models for ride, handling analysis and the durability load predictions. Generally every Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) has unique air suspension arrangement and hence standard template is not available for air suspension modeling in commercial MBD software. Air suspension with self-leveling control mechanism is preferred over metallic suspension in the commercial passenger vehicle like bus for smooth ride comfort. Hence custom made templates for these systems need to be developed for use with MBD software. In this paper, a simplified model of air suspension is presented.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0151
Arvind K. Jain, Sathish Madaswamy, Sudarsanam S, Venkat Srinivas
Demand for a refined Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) is increasing due to rapid Indian economic growth, while the operating conditions and road infrastructures are still in a transition state of development. The same vehicle model will be operated in a range of operating road conditions like mining sites, construction sites, and highways with varying payloads and speeds by customers that are spread across the country. This variety of road inputs, payloads and speeds has made ride tuning as one of the major challenging process in the development process. This paper describes the attempt to assess ride comfort of HCV with fully suspended cab using numerical based simulation tools and its correlation with physical test results. The best suspension combination was finalized based on vertical and pitch acceleration at Center of Gravity (CG) of the cab. The trend of vertical acceleration obtained from the virtual model was correlated with the same obtained from physical test.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0153
Prashant R. Pawar, Yogesh V. Dhage, M. R. Saraf, Vratislav Ondrak
The demands for safe, reliable, lighter, energy efficient and competitively priced products put a new emphasis on predictability of rolling bearing performance. This has prompted designers and engineers to estimate bearing life and optimize the design by taking into account different market requirement. Estimation of actual dynamic bearing load and life for specified class of vehicle depends upon various factors such as usage pattern, vehicle Gross Vehicel Weight (GVW), type of roads, speed, driving pattern, geographical area, ambient temperature, acceleration etc. For estimation and prediction of life of the particular wheel bearing type it is required to identify and measure customer usage loads for different targeted markets. The measurement maps all the affecting parameters to arrive at a generalized duty cycle for bearings.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0313
Fernando Z. Sánchez, Carlos V. M. Braga, Leonardo C. Braga, Sergio L. Braga, Flávio G. Dias, Franck Y. Turkovics, Renata N. C. De Souza
Nowadays, many researches are being carried out to replace the diesel by alternative fuels. Biodiesel and ethanol are strong candidates for this purpose. However, the experimental study of the combustion of biofuels in engines is not an easy task. Due to the large differences between the properties of the new fuels and the conventional diesel, radical changes may be needed in current engines, developed specifically for the fossil fuel. So, the experimental study of ethanol compression ignition (CI) combustion is not simple to be obtained in conventional engines. Therefore, some experimental apparatus, such as a rapid compression machine (RCM), are useful to conduct this kind of study. This paper describes the RCM adaptations made in order to run CI combustion tests using Ethanol-Powered (ED95) and Diesel (S50) for different compression ratios and injection timing.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0252
Sergio William Botero, Marcos Fernando Mendes de Brito, Rogério Nascimento de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Scardini Villela, Tadeu Cavalcante Cordeiro de Melo
The development of new fuels involves several areas of an oil company and several tests, including vehicle emissions tests on chassis dynamometers and engine performance tests on engine bench laboratory. Particularly for diesel and blends of gasoline fuels, an important test is to evaluate the engine speed profile during the vehicle cold start. In this work, for engine speed profile analysis, it was developed a system to acquire data using the engine's flywheel ring gear information and the audio input of a standard notebook computer. It was also developed a specific software to analyze the acquired signals. The system is able to point out several important features of the engine start such as the starter motor beginning of operation, the maximum engine speed during the start time, the settling time and the engine idling speed. All of this information can be collected using a low cost set of instrumentation devices.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0256
Taboada Gonzalo
This paper is to for determine, using a simulation model (equation) and graphic, each of the faults that may occur in a systems, mechanical / electrical / hydraulic / pneumatic. In this case I have taken the rear axle of a truck as a component to analyze. Was sampled over 34,000 units in warranty, from 2004 to 2012 The next steps for the project are: Search specific data (manufacturers, companies, dealers) on the different types of failures and their respective analysis, in order to model and interpret correctly my analysis and simulation. Take a drive current park representative to mount the rear axle and are within one standard warranty period for a truck plant (1 to 2 years or 100,000 km. 200,000 km. respectively). Analyze data obtained in point 2 (number of faults, fractures) to have a database, with respect to reliability, unreliability and hazard rate.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0245
Getúlio Soares Junior, Jean Cory de Souza Silva, Rafael Fortuna Pizzi, Vinícius Mendes Guarenghi, Ricardo Santarosa
The anti-lock brake system, known as ABS, whose the main function is to ensure directional stability and, consequently, the handling of the vehicle in an emergency brake application. Acting on the brakes, prevents the wheels are locked in extreme situations as well as in various applications on low friction floors. The most common applications found in our market are vehicles whose brakes are fully hydraulic or pneumatic. The purpose of this paper is to present all ABS development phases on an “air over hydraulic” vehicle, in other words, the front brake is acted by a hydraulic system and the rear by a pneumatic.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0233
Matheus Ferreira, Mário Praça, Ricardo Simão
The increasing demand for engines with higher efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and high power density is driving the future engine technologies in the direction of downsizing and reduction of number of cylinders, especially for Otto engines. Specifically the Power Cell Unit (PCU) components are of extreme interest due to its potential for weight and friction reduction. To cope with these demands a new lightweight connecting rod design for flex fueled engines was developed. The combination of thinner web thickness and bushingless small end (coated and profiled), through the optimization by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation, enabled on the new lightweight design a weight reduction of 25% maintaining safe connecting rod fatigue limits in a studied flex fueled engine. The connecting rod bearings were evaluated using Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) simulation, and demonstrated suitable results. The connecting rod material selected was the premium 46MnVS6 forged steel.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0276
Milene A. Luciano, Vanessa F. C. Lins
In the last decade, industries have been concerned about the processes production sustainability and with the use of alternative energies forms, in order to minimize the amount of waste generated in the process, and to suit market requirements. With this view, one alternative for automotive industry is the use of organometallic coated automotive fuel tanks. These tanks are not permeable to hydrocarbons, they do not need to be painted after stamping and are 100% recyclable. The replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels is also a way to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reducing global warming. In this work, corrosion resistance of organometallic coated and tin coated automotive tanks, in contact with hydrated ethyl alcohol, gasoline, and diesel and soybean biodiesel was evaluated and compared, using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0270
Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Intensive use of fossil fuels in densely populated areas has caused adverse environmental effects in cities all over the world. This has fostered the evaluation of alternative technologies for transit applications, like hydrogen fuel cells - electrochemical energy conversion devices that operate with zero emission, quieter and with higher efficiencies than internal combustion engines, specially at part load regimes. Transit bus market is particularly well suited to technology innovations because they are i) centrally fueled and maintained, ii) professionally operated on fixed routes and schedules, iii) tolerate weight and volume requirement of new technologies and, finally, whenever necessary, iv) can be subsidized by government. In this scenario, considerable research, development and testing effort has been dedicated to hydrogen fuel cell bus technology, with the engagement of governments and transit authorities, bus industry and operators.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0264
Paola S Sant'Anna
Manual transmissions are used in a wide range of automotive applications such as commercial vehicles like trucks, buses and pick-ups as well on passenger car market. On manual transmissions is very common to use helical gears to transmit torque. Some of typical failure modes of these gears are tooth breakage, pitting and scoring. The objective of this paper is to present a case study of helical gear scoring issue on manual transmission and the design changes implemented in order to solve it. This material also shows the ultimate consequence of scoring problem on gear life and the co-relation of the part heat treatment case depth specification on this failure mode.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0182
Raunak Santosh, Vijayakumar Chekuri
Abstract Rapid growth in the Indian economy has led to new market trends for commercial vehicles. Customers now expect high levels of comfort from all tactile points in a truck cabin; the gear lever knob is frequently used and its reactions greatly influence how a driver perceives Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) and thereby vehicle quality. The subjectivity of human perception is difficult to measure objectively; therefore this paper represents an objective methodology to correlate customer feedback of gearshift reactions. For the attribute evaluation of a set of intermediate commercial vehicles; detailed subjective appraisals were conducted by expert level assessors for GSQ sub-attributes, and a consecutive objective measurement was performed to investigate and substantiate these vehicle assessments.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1018
Robert V. Petrach, David Schall, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Randy Gu, Laila Guessous
Coatings have the potential to improve bearing tribological performance. However, every coating application process and material combination may create different residual stresses and coating microstructures, and their effect on bearing fatigue and wear performance is unclear. The aim of this work is to investigate coating induced residual stress effects on bearing failure indicators using a microstructural contact mechanics (MSCM) finite element (FE) model. The MSCM FE model consists of a two-dimensional FE model of a coated bearing surface under sliding contact where individual grains are represented by FE domains. Interactions between FE domains are represented using contact element pairs. Unique to this layered rolling contact FE model is the use of polycrystalline material models to represent realistic bearing and coating microstructural behavior. The MSCM FE model was compared to a second non-microstructural contact mechanics (non-MSCM) model.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0029
Artur Safont Gutierrez, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Daniel Novello, Leandro Maggioni, Alexandre Roman, Carlos Henrique Selle Pereira
During the development of a new friction material, besides the interface between lining/drum is also fundamental take in account all aspects involving the attachment of the linings on the brake shoes. This paper presents an optimization approach to the development and manufacturing parameters of brake linings, applied on medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles, aiming to assure the correct specification of the riveted joint clamp forces. These evaluations were conducted based on the quality tools documents and the theoretical aspects of the product usage as well as the modeling of key elements of the referred mechanism throughout various known applications. A calculation methodology was developed based on brake geometry, its generated forces and braking reactions required for each vehicle family.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0145
Eduardo Sala Polati, Paulo Henrique Rohenkhol
The commercialization of additives for treating internal combustion engine oils in Brazil was regulated by ANP Ordinance n° 131, from 30.7.1999 and revoked by ANP Resolution n° 10, from 07.03.2007, where requires the performance proof of the referred additive following the ASTM Sequence IIIF bench engine test. The test PB/IMI-1109S3FGM151-2 establishes a procedure to evaluate internal combustion engine oils as well as additives against special performance conditions particularly operating at high temperature based on ASTM D 6984-09 Sequence IIIF procedure. This test measures oil thickening, sludge and varnish formation in engine components, piston deposits, oil consumption and camshaft wear. The ASTM procedure also suggests the use of any engine that proves the competence to accelerate thermochemical deterioration of lubricants under severe operating conditions and temperature, allowing in that way the development of this test procedure.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0119
Luiz Carlos Gertz, André Cervieri, Antonio Flavio Aires Rodrigues, Edison Reus Silveira
The depletion of non-renewable energy, emissions of harmful gases to the atmosphere and the impact of fuel consumption in road transport of cargo in Brazil, are motivating the study proposed by this work. In order to reduce fuel consumption, field tests were conducted, where tests were performed for three main segments of heavy transport in the state of Rio Grande Sul We used different combinations of engine power and ratio gear. The test vehicles were operated on a test route that has similarity to the main trade routes of the state that is Porto Alegre - São Paulo, where consumption showed differences between the settings, always indicating the best specification, validating the methodology applied.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0184
Leonardo de Oliveira Costa, James Edward Godden, Rafael Batista Amadio, Rodrigo Silva Santos
Emission standards are becoming more stringent and at the same time the standards for the On-Board Diagnostic System (OBD) are also continuously enhancing to ensure a more efficient and robust engine emissions monitoring system during the whole vehicle useful life and to improve the quality of the information delivered to the user. In the case of heavy duty diesel vehicles, the Brazilian standards are developed according to the existing European standards (Euro), for example the current standard in Brazil (so called Proconve P7) follows the same requirements of the Euro V with some minor differences. As a consequence, the applied technologies for exhaust gas after-treatment and sensing systems to meet the requirements are already used in European applications such as Selective Catalytic Reduction System (SCR), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), as well as temperature, NOx and differential pressure sensors.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0182
M. Pontoppidan, G. Montanari
The paper gives a short introduction to the bio-diesel mixture approach for diesel engines. The paper continues with a description of the design of a strategy for recognition of a random bio-diesel fraction, Bx, by a purely software-based sensing technique, which creates an image of the temporal combustion behavior and uses only sensors already in service for current common rail mixture preparation systems. A short description is made of a baseline approach of sensing technique based on the presence of a crank angle speed sensor. Hereafter the paper presents the introduction of several integral or Upper Level (UL) key-parameters used to enhance the precision of the Bx-detection or completely replace the original lower level combustion key-parameter set, which relates the instantaneous fraction of bio-diesel, Bx, to the engine torque.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0171
Marcel Wilson G. Martins
The purpose of this paper is to suggest guidelines for new projects of soft tonneau covers for pickup truck beds made up of aluminum framework and soft coverage. As the main objective, this paper will make an overall about new accessories projects focusing on each one of the main components of the assembly. The target is to obtain a low cost tonneau cover with a great performance regarding functionality, water accumulation, sealing, noise, robustness, vibration and compatibility with another pick up box's accessories. This article also explores basic procedures for testing and validation of a new soft tonneau covers or a carry over one, with its use extended to a different pickup truck. It is one of the first technical documents about truck soft tonneau covers available, so few references could be found in technical databases.
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