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Viewing 211 to 240 of 16241
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0171
Marcel Wilson G. Martins
The purpose of this paper is to suggest guidelines for new projects of soft tonneau covers for pickup truck beds made up of aluminum framework and soft coverage. As the main objective, this paper will make an overall about new accessories projects focusing on each one of the main components of the assembly. The target is to obtain a low cost tonneau cover with a great performance regarding functionality, water accumulation, sealing, noise, robustness, vibration and compatibility with another pick up box's accessories. This article also explores basic procedures for testing and validation of a new soft tonneau covers or a carry over one, with its use extended to a different pickup truck. It is one of the first technical documents about truck soft tonneau covers available, so few references could be found in technical databases.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0154
Rafael V. Carvalho, Ludmila C. A. Silva, Milton Amaro, Alessandro A. Ferreira, Aparecido M. da Rosa
Heating generation in rolling bearings is a critical point for development and application, specially for heavy trucks. Several problems can occur in the rolling bearing and in the system when the temperature increases. For example, at high temperature levels the rubber sealing can change its proprieties and volume, creating a high interference at the contact with the rings. The grease can also be affected and modify its viscosity, generating a possible leakage, which is not allowed during life. This papers aims to study the heat generation and evaluate, experimentally, the temperature stabilization in clutch release bearings for heavy duty application. With this purpose, several tests were performed and the results were analyzed to find the main factors that can be influenced.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0228
Fernanda Meneses Kelly, Helaine Maria Braga Sbampato
On cab-over trucks to access the engine and others components it is necessary to tilt the cab. This is a regular procedure done several times during the vehicle life cycle. In order to make it easier and safer for mechanical tilting system, it was developed an articulated safety bar to sustain and maintain the cab on the open position. On the current bars available in the market, to close the cab it is necessary that the operator get under the cab to disengage the safety bar. This procedure puts the operator under risk because an accident can happen while the disengagement and the cab can close over him. Thinking on that and looking for a better ergonomic and safety situation, the objective of this work is to present a new articulated safety bar that the engagement and disengagement is done automatically with the natural tilting movement of the cab. This solution was developed at Iveco Latin America for adoption on the new Vertis HD and is under patent process.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0216
R.A. Antonelli, L.C.C. Costa, A.M.N. Eustachio, R.C. Queiroz, F. S. Martins, A.P.S. Mello
Safety, Ergonomics and comfort are inseparable concepts and of greater relevance to the full exercise of professional drivers, being the seat, one of the most important components to be considered, when designing their workplace. This work presents initiatives taken by Mercedes-Benz do Brasil Ltda. (MBBras) in partnership with GRAMMER do Brasil Ltda. (Grammer) and Oficio Ergonomia e Design Ltda. concerning the improvement of a SAE Class 8 Heavy-truck Driver Seat. Proposals involved seat design improvement at driver reach and posture, design and constructive characteristics (seat-bottom foam and frame) Upholstery, seat-controls ergonomics and the vibration response, due to the introduction of independent shock-absorbers.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0209
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With the purpose of minimizing the gaseous emissions impacts on the metropolitan areas, many alternative fuel resources has been developed as alternatives to fossil fuels. An environmentally and economical interesting alternative for the Brazilian market is the diesel made from sugar cane (Farnesene - C15H32). The Farnesene, made by sugar cane juice fermentation in presence of a genetically modified yeast is basically a saturated hydrocarbon molecule (C15H32) with more than 98% purity and that presents properties comparable to fossil diesel and when used in regular diesel cycle engines can bring significantly reductions not only in soot levels (Particulate Matter - PM) but also on the Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), unlike the biodiesel, that is well known that it brings increases on NOx emission level due its physic-chemical properties. Reduction on CO2 levels on life cycle is another important benefit of using such fuel since it's made by renewable feedstock.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0212
Gabriel de Andrade Ribeiro, Cirilo de Paula Silva
The growing necessity for less carbon emission vehicles due to environmental issues and more rigid legislation rules encourages many automotive companies to develop low CO2 emission engines. This motivation leads Mercedes-Benz do Brazil to the development of a “dual-fuel” diesel engine for buses that works with diesel and CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) fuel. One of the challenges for the development of this kind of engine is the electric/electronic integration between the diesel engine ECU (Electronic Control Units) and the CNG system ECU that coordinates the engine gas injectors.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0206
Oscar Javier Duque Táutiva, Guido Roewer, Paolo Furlan
The purpose of this work is to show possible evolutions of the OBDBr-2 legislation, moving on the same level as stricter international standards looking for an alignment of OBD requirements, even taking into account the flex-fuel technologies.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0208
Anibal Godoy Machado, Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa
With focus on reducing the Green House Gases emissions, the use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel, in special for buses that runs on the Brazilian metropolitan areas has been even higher. Additionally, with the introduction of the new legislation for diesel engines in 2012, CONAMA PROCONVE P7, that in order to attempt to its requirements uses different kinds of exhaust gases after treatment systems, the necessity of knowing the behavior of those “P7 engines” operating with different biodiesel contents on blends with regular fossil fuel or even pure biodiesel has been an important issue to ensure the benefits of using such alternative fuel. On this evaluation, blends of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% of biodiesel content in ANP65/2011 A_S50 Diesel Fuel (50ppm Sulfur content) was experimented in a Mercedes-Benz OM926LA E5 engine with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reaction) exhaust gases after treatment system.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0399
Sylla Benedicto Abibe Aranha, Edgard Fernandes de Andrade, Eliana Mitiko Katayose, Kaísa Couto Machado, Marcelo Gonçalves
The truck body on chassis for dry freight applies to several types of goods, including packagings, broken or unitized cargoes. In Brazil, this equipment is traditionally made of wood and recently of steel. Moreover, in overseas countries the manufacturing of aluminium bodies is quite common (mainly in Europe and the United States), for economic, operational and environmental reasons, such as: weight reduction and resulting increase in payload capacity of the vehicle; easy manufacturing and repair; recyclability of the material used. This paper presents the main features and technical requirements from the Design of a Aluminium Truck Body mounted on a 3-axle truck, with 23 tons of deadweight (Gross Weight) and 5.4m of distance between axes.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0389
Tadeu Miguel Malagó de Amaral, Anton Zeller, Edson Valdomiro de Azevedo, Fernando Jun Yoshino, Gisela Ablas Marques, Johnny Ossami Kagawa, Marcos Jose Dantas de Oliveira
Air cleaners are used in a wide range of automotive applications. From passenger cars to heavy duty trucks, there is always an air cleaner to keep inlet air free of impurities and air flow passage obstruction in low levels. Today's automotive air intake systems are developed to deliver maximum filtration efficiency, maximum dust holding capacity and maximum service interval range based on engine performance and reliability requirements [1]. In Brazil, some applications require outstanding performance for the air cleaners. One of them is at harvester application. In this case, vehicles are exposed to thin soil particles in high quantities due to harvester movement at plantation work. At the same time, engine performance needs to be kept during long journeys. According to this limitation, re-fuelling and components replacements are done direct at field. Any vehicle stop means lower productivity and more costs.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0418
Rogério Ribeiro, Fernando M. Sauer, Domingos da Silva, Luís Carlos C. Costa
New demands for the European Market claimed a new medium duty truck. Aim was not only to comply with new legislations, but also achieve better driving comfort and dynamic characteristics. The development of a new cab suspension was the answer given by means of an international project executed by the Technology Development Center of Mercedes-Benz do Brasil (CDT) with support of other technical divisions of our Development Center in Germany. High-level Teamwork Brazil/Germany at all levels from project coordination down to the plant assembly line was the key to reach an outstanding result with an extra achievement of weight reduction. Complete integration of all involved collaborators in Brazil and in Germany proved to be the main reason to get at the high efficiency shown during the development tasks. This article presents a brief overview of the undertaken development steps together with the challenges and the solutions given to assure the success of the international teamwork.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0359
C.C. Scozzafave, L.G.S Ericsson, U. Wildmann, D.M. Spinelli
The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for approval of component that is applied when the first version is tested on a durability track with closed circuit and fails without meeting the approval criteria previously established. This approach was applied in suspension support on commercial vehicles. The full commercial vehicle was modeled in finite element for stress analysis in frame torsional loading. By presenting stress regions near the material's limit, tests were made on durability track with deformation measurement at the main critical spots. The component has failed in one of the measured spot without reaching the established number of laps for component approval on track. With the deformation measurement signal for one lap at the failure spot, a fatigue analysis using the software FEMFAT strain ® has been made, correlating the obtained damage with the number of laps on track until component failure.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0336
Ana Cristina Soares, Lauro Catapano, Rogério Dias
Simulations tools like AVL Cruise and Vehicle Dynamics where used to carry on a comparative study between two trucks equipped with automated manual transmissions in two configurations: the original with 12 gears, and a proposal with 16 gears. The original configuration is world-wide used and in this way, the present study was fundamental to decide whether choosing the new proposal would bring the Brazilian option any advantages. In order to evaluate the whole vehicle behavior fuel consumption evaluation and vehicle performance were analyzed. From the present study, it was showed that the 16 gears transmission was the best alternative for the Brazilian application.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0335
Ana Cristina Soares, Bibiana Quintiliano, Rogério Dias
Evaluation of vehicle performance is one of the most important phases of the new vehicle development. Start Ability and Top Speed are factors that are noticed by users, therefore are very important to the final product. Vehicle performance evaluation has been largely benefited from the use of simulation tools. In fact, MAN Latin America (ML) employs simulation programs to evaluate the performance of its vehicles (trucks and buses) achieving good results. However, those programs are normally “closed codes” which makes difficult the physical comprehension of results. Altogether, this article presents Vehicle Dynamics, a macro developed by ML engineering team. The aim of this macro is the automatic calculation of Start Ability, Grade Ability, Top Speed, among other performance parameters.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0375
Marcos N. Schiesari, Vinícius Abrão S. Marques
Turbochargers are used in a wide range of applications, duty cycles and different vehicle usage rates in whole world. As known, the exhaust gas temperature is still a challenge to the turbochargers manufactures once it has a considerable impact in the turbocharger durability and reliability. High temperatures can lead to thermal mechanical stress, which can cause material fatigue. Extensive works have been carried out by product and combustion engineers to guarantee that temperature limits are under acceptable values. However, there are other factors that are related to the application usage in the field that can contribute to the exhaust gas temperature increase. As known, service engineers have the difficult task of identifying the reason why some components used for years in different localities fail only in certain regions, fleet or applications. Trouble shootings are often a useful guide in the investigation, but are to generic most of the cases.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0312
I. Coutinho, A. Pereira, C. Sanches, M. Mottin
The internal combustion engine air intake manifold is subjected to continuous dynamic excitation due to unbalanced firing sequence and alternated movement of the pistons. An elastic anchoring for the intake manifold of Iveco's new bus was developed based on two criteria: 1. increase the natural frequency of the system to avoid coupling with engine's NEF 6 idle input and 2. minimize the vibration transmitted to the chassis. In order to solve this duality an optimization algorithm was used to fit cushion stiffness to both requirements. The system behavior is evaluated virtually in frequency domain through FRFs and its modal mode shapes and natural frequencies (eigenvectors and eigenvalues) extracted with Lanczos method.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0302
Cléliomiro de Sousa Lourenço, Tiago de Sousa, André Luiz Pereira
Brazilian government has started an incentive program for innovation and consolidation of the vehicles productive chain called INOVAR-AUTO. Many companies in the automobile industry are engaged in meeting the program targets that has a main scope in supporting the OEM's technology development, innovation, safety, environmental protection, energy efficiency and quality by providing taxes benefits for industrialized products. Considering this scenario, this paper will address the technological innovations applied in commercial vehicles segment focusing on dual fuel engines, a system operated by the injection of gas and diesel.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0324
Roberto F. Britto, Eugênio P.D. Coelho, Sammi Frederico, Marcelo Machado, Daniel Martinek, Celso Rabello, Thaisa Tomita
Brazil has been a leader for the past 30 years in the development and commercialization of vehicles powered by ethanol, which contributes significantly to maintain the basic Brazilian energy less dependent on fossil fuels, but its usage was restricted to small vehicles with focus on gasoline replacement. Whereas the use of diesel fuel has significant impact on emission of greenhouse gases when it is compared to the whole production cycle of the alternative fuels (“well to wheel” analysis), these fuels have been the focus of studies, applications, federal government programs, and also the private sector, such as bio-diesel, sugar cane diesel, ethanol with additive for diesel cycle and diesel-gas Dual-Fuel. This paper will detail the development a high efficient engine fueled with 100% hydrated ethanol capable to achieve up to 42% of break efficiency, similar to a diesel efficiency running on Otto cycle.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0319
Glécia Virgolino da Silva Luz, Pilar Hidalgo, Carlos Gurgel Veras, Simona Merola, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Luca Marchitto
The use of biodiesel as alternative to fossil fuel for light duty CI engines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was widely investigated. However, poor stability of biodiesel - diesel mixture limits the use of biodiesel to low volume concentrations. This paper presents the results concerning the use of a novel fuel additive package containing antioxidant (AS), pour-point depressant (D) and biocide (Bi) with the aim to increase the quality and amount of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blends. Some of the goals are linked to the degradative effects due to free radicals oxidation, contamination by water and microorganisms. The interaction between two different additive packages and two biodiesel (soybean and rapeseed) - diesel blends at 20% in volume was investigated. Optical studies have been performed to characterize the spatial and temporal spray evolution both in a high pressure quiescent vessel and in an optically-accessible single-cylinder 2-stroke CI engine.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0595
Wiliam Tean Su
In the past few years, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has become an almost essential engineering tool in product development. In addition to that, structural optimization, which is almost as old as the finite element method, is a widely used tool in engineering product design definition. One vastly used method is the shape optimization, which has as an objective the minimization of stress concentration on determined regions. In this work, a 6 cylinder diesel engine crankshaft was analyzed and a structural optimization was performed, more specifically at the web region. The interpretation of the shape optimization results led to a slightly modified geometry of the crankshaft, with the mass of the crankshaft throw only 0.5% higher than the original model. Also, the fatigue safety factor evaluation was performed for both reference and optimized crankshafts as a comparison criterion. The same boundary condition used in the shape optimization was employed for the fatigue factor evaluation.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0605
Fabio B. Bassetti
Modern diesel engines for vehicular applications such as buses and other commercial vehicles are increasingly using technological resources in order to meet the pollutant emissions regulations. Among these features, the turbocharger fulfills an essential function of providing a higher air flow to the engine intake, providing a cleaner and more efficient combustion. During the application process of a turbocharger, calculations are performed to estimate the life of the compressor impeller, which takes into account the maximum shaft speed and the number of cycles that cause fatigue damage. Among these parameters, the maximum speed affects directly in the fatigue life of the impeller. Due to the different material options for the compressor impeller, the mass properties of each type of rotor may result in differences in their inertias thus impacting the maximum speed and the fatigue life calculation.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0609
Adriano Adilson Antunes
The hybrid electric system for commercial vehicles introduction, redefine the load profile cycle used to evaluate common rail system components. This redefinition is necessary as result of the internal combustion engine number of starts enhanced, due to shared working cycle between diesel engine and electric motor. This load profile is mandatory to validate the common rail system components regarding lifetime for all application, conventional vehicle or hybrid. This new requirement, engine start numbers, places the hybrid electric vehicle as worst case load cycle, when compared with already known commercial vehicles cycle. The aim is also present the representative differences between both load cycles, more focused on hybrid. It will also give additional importance in common rail system requirements, applied for hybrid electric vehicles, an overview of instrumentation for the load profile measurement and the hybrid vehicle measurement particularities.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0646
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0571
B. Heuser, M. Jakob, F. Kremer, Stefan Pischinger, B. Kerschgens, H. Pitsch
In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol [1] and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle. In this paper the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0562
T. A. A. Moreira, F. A. Rodrigues Filho, L.A.R. Gonçalves, J. E. M Barros, F. J. P. Pujatti, R. M Valle
It developed a design and construction methodology of a stratified charge torch ignition system for an Otto engine aiming fuel consumption and pollutant emission reduction. The torch ignition system is made of a combustion pre-chamber equipped with a direct fuel injector, an air injector and a spark plug. Fuel is directly injected in the pre-chamber aiming the formation of a lightly rich air fuel mixture. The combustion process starts in the pre-chamber and as the pressure rises, combustion jet flames are produced through interconnection nozzles into the main chamber. The high thermal energy of the jet flames reduces the combustion time, increases the combustion efficiency and allows the engine to efficiently burn lean air fuel mixture of several kinds of fuel in the main chamber, even those that are difficult to ignite. After the combustion takes place in the pre-chamber, air is also injected to help the exhaust process of the combustion products of the previous cycle.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0471
José Eduardo D'Elboux, Marcus Kliewer, Camilo A. Adas, Fernando C. Dusi, Marco A. Fogaça Accurso, Eraldo de J. Soares, Alan M. Oliva
Due to the growing necessity to reduce time for new products development, or even to evaluate the reliability of them, a rationalization tendency of the tests has been observed in the field through more and more representative bench tests in a shorter time and with smaller costs. In the automotive industry, the amount of simulated parameters is always increasing; therefore it is necessary to collect a great number of sign measurements in suspension systems (accelerations, temperatures, strokes and deformations), using prototype vehicles. In the present paper we will present the measurements made in a representative track, where it was possible to analyze the measured signs. In a second step they were compiled and compacted, and finally applied in a one-axial bench test. This procedure permits to get a correlation between field and laboratory results.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0467
Giovanni Giordani, Celso Fratta
In the light commercial vehicles and other wheeled vehicles, an open differential is a device that allows each driven wheel to rotate in different speeds during a curve or in limited grip conditions. On the other hand, when one of the wheels loses the grip the differential will direct all the torque available to the wheel that is spinning making the vehicle get stuck. In certain applications, such as electrical power line maintenance in rural areas requires a larger capacity drive vehicles due to low friction terrain. To comply with this application requirement was developed the locking differential speed sensitive that pulls both wheels at the same time offering full locking axle and increasing the traction capacity of the vehicle. The system automatically unlocks the wheel with higher speed when the speed is different between them as happened in a curve.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0488
Fabio Nicora, Mario Fabiano Alves, Lauro de Vilhena Brandão Neto, Henrique Costa França, Leonardo Cavaliere
In the coming years electric commercial vehicles market will grow in the world and in Brazil. Electric vehicle (EVs), beyond representing a way to reduce air pollution, could become providers of innovative additional services by an improved interaction between vehicles, communication systems and power grids in a smart grid architecture. Smart grid can enable EV-charging (grid-to-vehicle, or G2V), with load shifting from off-peak periods, flattening the daily load curve and allowing vehicles to grid operations (or V2G), with EVs being used as distributed generation and storage devices. Advanced metering and bi-directional battery chargers, like interface equipment between the grid and the vehicles, are essential components, enabling a two-way flow of information and power. However, there are a number of technical, practical and economic barriers that must be taken into account during product development process.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0469
Paulo Alexandre Galarce Zavala, José Roberto de França Arruda, Fábio Gimenes Bueno, Gaetano Miranda, Waldir Mothio, Camilo Abduch Adas
Due to increasingly stringent laws regarding the level of noise emitted by motor vehicles, especially when it comes from trucks, many techniques are used to determine the main source of noise. Levels must meet the standard pass-by noise as provided by the standard ISOR362. This work applies a technique that aims to identify the main source of noise of heavy vehicles during the pass-by noise test, called Pass-by Noise Beamforming. The technique use the method known as Generalized Inverse and an array of microphones optimized for low frequencies. The paper presents the steps of validation of the system using loudspeakers and application in two trucks with distinct contributions (engine and tire noise). The results of the technique showed advantages compared to the conventional method (delay-and-sum algorithm), obtaining better separation of coherent sources with better dynamic range in a wide frequency range (50 Hz - 7 kHz).
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0490
Nilton Mitsuro Shiraiwa, Rodrigo Mozardo, Celso Macarini da Costa, Wilson Muraro, Thomas Lemcke, Aníbal Zambotti
With the discovery of oil and gas in the pre-salt Santos and Campos basin, the supply of natural gas (NG) is expected to increase considerably, so the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in city buses will be an important option for reducing the overall consumption of fossil diesel fuel and a reduction in operating costs in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Areas in Brazil. A vehicle with an engine that can run on pure diesel or diesel and CNG has advantage over a vehicle that works exclusively with CNG, because when there is no availability or the lack of CNG, the vehicle / engine operates with diesel only. Another benefit of this technology is the resale value in Brazil, because after the life cycle of use in theses two big cities, Urban Buses are sold country side to small cities where CNG is not available.
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