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Viewing 31 to 60 of 36625
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1421
Yashodeep Lonari, Christopher Polonowski, Jeffrey Naber, Bo Chen
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1404
Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1407
Fanghui Shi
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1406
Mahesh Puthiya Veettil, Fanghui Shi
The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1410
Andrea Catania, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Alessandro Catanese, Gerhard Landsmann
A new predictive zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model has been applied to both PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and conventional diesel engines to simulate HRR (Heat Release Rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces on the basis of the injection rate. The model enables one to estimate the injection rate profile by means of the injection parameters that are available from the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit), i.e., SOI (Start Of main Injection), ET (Energizing Time), DT (Dwell Time) and injected fuel quantities, taking the injector NOD (Nozzle Opening Delay) and NCD (Nozzle Closure Delay) into account. An accumulated fuel mass approach has been applied to estimate Qch (released chemical energy), from which the main combustion parameters that are of interest for combustion control in IC engines, such as, SOC (Start Of Combustion), MFB50 (50% of Mass Fraction Burned) have been derived.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1416
Jerzy Merkisz, Marek Waligorski, Maciej Bajerlein, Jaroslaw Markowski
The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1505
Iku Kosaka, Juan Pablo Leiva, Brian Watson, Phani Adduri, Takanori Ide
A methodology to optimize sound pressure responses of a structure, producing a radiation noise due to structural vibration, is presented. The method involves a finite element analysis module to calculate structural vibration, an optimization module to perform sensitivity analysis and structural optimization, and an acoustic module to compute acoustic transfer vectors. The proposed design system is successfully implemented and is demonstrated in the paper using several example problems.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1511
Takahiro Mochihara, Ryusaku Sawada, Takumi Jinmon, Venkat Deshpande
Due to the global economic downturn and higher environmental awareness, the social demands for low cost and fuel efficient vehicles are increasing. At the same time the engine power is increasing and customer expectations of reliability and NVH levels are increasing. To meet all the requirements, engineers are challenged to design light weight parts with higher performance. However, unconsidered mass reduction carries a risk of compromised NVH, Functional Reliability, and other functional demands. In order to resolve this contradiction, it is important to establish a basic structure with minimum necessary mass at the concept design phase, when there are still many degrees of freedom in the design space. Hence, a multi-objective optimization CAE methodology applicable for designing the basic structure of the Engine system was developed and is detailed below.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1510
Arash Keshavarz, Mohsen Bayani Khaknejad, Shahram Azadi
The main purpose of this research is to tune the stiffness of engine mounts of a passenger car in order to reduce the transmitted vibration to driver with regard to the permissible values of natural frequencies of engine using DOE method. Based on the previous experiments, prevalent criteria are introduced by automakers which would lead the designer to optimum values of mountings' stiffness. In this paper we benefit the usage of experimental frequency bands introduced by the NVH authoritative references. To achieve this, we use a mixed Finite element and multi body dynamic modeling. The FEM model of the body front end and engine subframe is developed using Hypermesh. The engine block is modeled as a rigid body attached to the neighbor parts with rubber mounts. The modal natural file of the whole system is created by the aim of MSC/Nastran and exported to the ADAMS/View for further analysis.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1517
Robert E. Powell, Dena Hendriana, Brian Gutzeit, Kevin Golsch, Gregory Fadler
Unusual noises during vehicle acceleration often reflect poorly on customer perception of product quality and must be removed in the product development process. Flow simulation can be a valuable tool in identifying root causes of exhaust noises created due to tailpipe openings surrounded by fascia structure. This paper describes a case study where an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the combined flow and acoustic radiation from an exhaust opening through fascia components provided valuable insight into the cause of an annoying flow noise. Simulation results from a coupled thermal/acoustic analysis of detailed tailpipe opening geometry were first validated with off-axis microphone spectra under wide open throttle acceleration. After studying the visualizations of unsteady flow velocity and pressure from the CFD, a problem that had proved difficult to solve by traditional “cut and try” methods was corrected rapidly.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1729
Jiantie Zhen, Chunhui Pan, Ashish Jangale, Brad Salisbury
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machines' performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in a motor grader when it is used under certain operating conditions that cause low frequency excitations to the machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, both simulation and testing techniques were leveraged to reduce the booming noise of a motor grader. Simultaneous structural/acoustics simulations and experimental modal tests were performed to evaluate this phenomenon. The simulation models were validated using test results and then used to evaluate solutions to this noise problem. Further field tests confirmed the validity of these recommended solutions.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1747
R. Dubouil, J. F. Hetet, A. Maiboom
One of the main advantage of a hybrid thermal-electric vehicle is that the internal combustion engine (ICE) can be shut down when not needed anymore (Stop&Start system, propulsion with full-electric mode), thus reducing fuel consumption. But this use of the ICE impacts its thermal behavior because of a lack of heat source and thermal losses. Furthermore, the ICE is sometimes used with higher load in order to charge the batteries that increases the total heating power produced by the combustion. Therefore, the simulation of hybrid vehicles becomes really interesting to evaluate the effect of different control strategies (energy repartition between the engine and the electric motor) on the fuel consumption. However, in most of actual hybrid vehicles simulation tools, for calculation speed reasons, the thermal phenomena are either not taken into account, or their calculation is not based on physical equations (empirical formulas). Their predictive capability is then limited.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1691
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Takuya Nagao, Ichiro Kido, Masato Hashioka
This paper presents progressive techniques based on the previous SAE papers [1], [2] for vibration transmission analysis (VTA) on finite element (FE) model using Transfer Path Analysis (TPA). The techniques are: 1) a contribution calculation technique for structure with manifold and continuous transfer paths: 2) a visualization technique of the influence degree for efficient derivation of measures for response reduction. In VTA, influence degree of each DOF is calculated based on TPA. In order to understand characteristics of vibration transmission (VT) easily and visually by engineers, magnitude of influence degree is expressed by replacement to magnitude of displacement in the diagram of FE vibration shape. This visualization technique is applied to an automotive body structure. The proposed techniques are applied to automotive body structure consisting of members and panels. The members are such as pillars, cross members and side members, which are the main VT paths.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1693
Luca Guj, Theophane Courtois, Claudio Bertolini
Typically, in the automotive industry, the design of the body damping treatment package with respect to NVH targets is carried out in such a way to achieve panel mobility targets, within given weight and cost constraints. Vibration mobility reduction can be efficiently achieved thanks to dedicated CAE FE tools, which can take into account the properties of damping composites, and also, which can provide their optimal location on the body structure, for a minimal added mass and a maximized efficiency. This need has led to the development of different numerical design and optimization strategies, all based on the modeling of the damping composites by mean of equivalent shell representations, which is a versatile solution for the full vehicle simulation with various damping layouts.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1694
Hai sheng Song, Wen ku Shi, Yan long
Spot-weld in most of vehicle modal analysis is modeled as a Rigid-beam, which is found that the stiffness of spot-weld can not be controlled and is highly dependent on mesh. A new simulation method of spot-weld is put forward by using Elastic-beam and modal analysis of a light bus is done. The experimental validation of real cars is completed and the results show that the simulation method of spot-weld using Elastic-beam is more accurate and effective.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1696
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Ricardo Sbragio, Aimin Wang
Stiffened panels are encountered in many engineering systems since the stiffeners comprise the mechanism which provides support and rigidity to the panel's skin. Either a mechanical excitation or an acoustic load can be applied on a stiffened panel creating vibration that is transmitted in all panel components. Mechanical excitation tends to be localized in nature, originating from operating machinery mounted on the panel, while the acoustic excitation tends to be distributed over the entire panel, since it typically originates from an external acoustic source which creates an acoustic field impinging on the entire panel. In the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) various degrees of fidelity are possible when modeling the response of a stiffened panel. In this paper, the theoretical background and the corresponding implications associated with each alternative modeling approach are presented first.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1697
Fumiyasu Kuratani, Kazuhei Matsubara, Takashi Yamauchi
In this paper, we focus on the ACM2 (Area Contact Model 2) model as a simplified spot weld model suitable for vibration analysis and reveal its dynamic characteristics. First, the theoretical background of the multi-point constraint (MPC) used in the ACM2 model is explained. Next, we examine in detail the effect of the mesh pattern surrounding a spot weld on the modal properties (natural frequency and mode shape) of a spot welded structure. Finally, an appropriate mesh size in the area of the spot weld for the ACM2 model is presented. As an example, we used two steel plates joined by three spot welds. The results show that the configuration and size of the patch (group of shell elements in the ACM2 model) significantly affect the modal properties of the model. When the centers of the patch and the solid element that represent the spot weld are coincident, the natural frequencies monotonically increase with the patch size.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1685
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Christian Leibling
It is commonly accepted that refined “powertrain sound quality” is essential to the development of a vehicle which will be well received by today's discriminating automotive customer. However, though there are several metrics which correlate well with a subjective impression of powertrain level inputs, what is ultimately important is the sound quality at driver's ear. Vehicle level powertrain sound quality is influenced by the powertrain noise and vibration (source) as well as the vehicle airborne and structureborne transfer functions (path). In development as well as benchmarking activities, it can be difficult to separate the influence of source and path on overall vehicle sound quality.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1687
Sachin Wagh, Prasanth B, David Hudson
In worldwide automotive markets, the migration of customers towards smaller cars having compact, fuel-efficient design is well established and accepted as an engineering challenge by global automotive OEMs. Tata Motors of India has established a precedent by developing an ultra low cost and light weight car (the Nano), and has thereby created a new market segment for such cars that are more affordable to most of the population. This is now becoming established as a brand of low cost, safe transport in both rural and urban market segments. Despite the market moving towards such compact, fuel-efficient designs, customers are unwilling to lose many of the vehicle attributes to which they have been accustomed in previous types of entry-level cars. Addressing this marketing requirement places some significant challenges before the designers of this type of car.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1688
Khodabakhsh Saeedi, Alfin Leo, Rama Bhat, Ion Stiharu
A new approach is proposed to solve for the eigen-values and eigen-functions of circular plates with circular holes by using the Rayleigh Ritz Method. In this method, the spatial solution is expanded into separable functions in terms of polar coordinates. While trigonometric functions are used along the circumferential direction, the Boundary Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials build the radial shape functions. Written in terms of the assumed functions, the potential and kinetic energies are modified in order to account for the holes. Although the proposed approach is applicable for plates with different boundary conditions and different hole shapes, the free vibration of a clamped circular plate with circular holes is considered in the present study. The edges of the holes are free. Four different case studies are carried out. The results of the Rayleigh Ritz Method are compared with those available in the literature.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1689
Jose Javier Bayod
This paper presents new results regarding damping of structural vibrations using the elastic wedge method. An elastic wedge is a plate, or a rod, whose thickness decreases smoothly towards zero. Flexural vibration energy accumulates at the thinner edge and thus, effective damping can be easily achieved. The method has been proposed to reduce flexural vibrations of structures in the high frequency range, like vibration of turbine blades. In this research, the application of the elastic wedge method to reduce structural vibration in low frequency ranges is investigated using FEM. The structure under analysis is a heavy machinery bed structure. Two rod elastic wedges are attached to that bed. The target frequency range to be damped is between 150 and 250Hz. The results show that the elastic wedge method can effectively reduce the structural vibration of the bed in the target frequency range.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1690
Ichiro Kido, Sagiri Ueyama, Masato Hashioka, Seigo Yamamoto, Minoru Tsuchiyama, Hiroo Yamaoka
This paper presents a modeling method for prediction of low-frequency road noise in a steady-state condition where rotating tires are excited by actual road profile undulation input. The proposed finite element (FE) tire model contains not only additional geometric stiffness related to inflation pressure and axle load but also Coriolis force and centrifugal force effects caused by tire rotation for precise road noise simulation. Road inputs act on the nodes of each rib in the contact patch of the stationary tire model and move along them at the driving velocity. The nodes are enforced to displace in frequency domain based on the measured road profile. Tire model accuracy was confirmed by the spindle forces on the rotating chassis drum up to 100Hz where Coriolis force effect should be considered. Full vehicle simulation results showed good agreement with the vibration measurement of front/rear suspension at two driving velocities.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1715
Giovanni Visconte, Alessandro Fasana
The sound transmission loss of multilayered structures is commonly used in the building industry to quantify the acoustical performances of walls and rooms, but also in the industry to design car and aircraft components. Multilayered panels are a class of widely diffused components so that prediction models for their acoustical properties are of great importance for designers, especially to limit the number of laboratory tests which may be long, difficult and expensive to accomplish. In practice, however, between leaves in the multilayered components, finite size structural connections (points or lines) normally exist and these are not simple to be considered. Aim of this paper is to determine the equivalent characteristic impedance of a layer and a stud to be used in the classical formulation of the progressive impedance method. Predictions of the proposed method are quite satisfactorily compared with experimental results.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1719
Chong Wang, Sejoong Oh, Qijun Zhang, Kurt Schneider
In traditional FE based structure-borne noise analysis, interior trims are normally modeled as lump masses in the FE structure model and acoustic specific impedance of the trim is assigned to the FE acoustics model when necessary. This simplification has proven to be effective and sufficient for low frequency analysis. However, as the frequency goes into the mid-frequency range, the elastic behavior of the trim may impose some effects on the structural and acoustic responses. The approach described in this paper is based on the structural FE and acoustic SEA coupling analysis developed by ESI, aiming to improve the modeling efficiency for a possible quick turnaround in virtual assessments.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1713
Jan Rejlek, Hans H. Priebsch
Driven by both the ever more restrictive legal regulations on human exposure to noise and the growing customers' expectations regarding the functional performance of a product, the vibro-acoustic behaviour of the product have gained a significant importance over the last decades. At the same time, product development phase and costs have been reduced in order to comply with the nature of competitive market. To cope with those conflicting design targets, the computer aided engineering (CAE) became an essential part of the product design process. A broad class of engineering vibro-acoustic problems involves the mutual coupling interaction between the structure and fluid. In this type of problem, the back-coupling effects are no longer negligible and the problem has to be considered as a fully coupled system. The conventional state-of-the-art techniques adopt the element-based schemes, such as the finite (FEM), boundary (BEM) and infinite element method (I-FEM).
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1717
Easwaran Viswanathan, Mark Donley
Simulation of interior vehicle structure-borne noise is typically performed with coupled acoustic-structure finite element models. The structure body mesh and acoustic cavity mesh are usually non-conformal, hence finite element solvers use coupling algorithms based on projected areas to develop the connection between the fluid pressure degree of freedom and the structure displacement degrees of freedom. Robust coupling algorithms need to account for various challenges such as separation and penetration of the meshes, openings in the structure mesh, and overlapping panels in the structure mesh. A new coupling algorithm that uses precise area projections addresses these issues and has been implemented in an FE solver code base. The robustness and accuracy solution is demonstrated by comparison to existing methods. Another challenge with acoustic simulation is to join dissimilar acoustic meshes.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1721
J. Liu, L. Zhou, D. W. Herrin
The principle of vibro-acoustic reciprocity is reviewed and applied to model sound radiation from a shaker excited structure. Transfer functions between sound pressure at a point in the far field and the velocity of a patch were determined reciprocally both for the to-scale structure and also for a half-scale model. A point monopole source was developed and utilized for the reciprocal measurements. In order to reduce the measurement effort, the boundary element method (BEM) was used to determine the reciprocal transfer functions as an alternative to measurement. Acceleration and sound intensity were measured on patches of the vibrating structure. Reciprocally measured or BEM generated transfer functions were then used to predict the sound pressure in the far field from the vibrating structure. The predicted sound pressure compared favorably with that measured.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1720
L. Zhou, D. W. Herrin
Partial enclosures are a very common way to reduce noise emissions from machinery. However, partial enclosures exhibit complex acoustic behavior that is difficult to predict. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to model the airborne path of a partial enclosure. Simulation results were compared to measurement with good agreement. Special attention is given to the determination of negative insertion loss. It is demonstrated that the enclosure insertion loss will be negative at the Helmholtz frequencies for the enclosure.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1722
Lu shouwei, Feng huihua, Shang jiao, Zuo zhengxing
A coupled vibro-acoustic of a compressor modeling process was demonstrated for predicting the acoustic radiation from a vibrating compressor structure based on dynamic response data. FEM based modal analysis of the compressor was performed and the result was compared with experimental data, for the purpose of validating the FE model. Modal based force response analysis was conducted to calculate the compressor's surface vibration velocity on radiating structure, using the load which caused by mechanical excitation as input data. In addition, due to the coolant had oscillating gas pressure, the gas pulsed load was also considered during the dynamic response analysis. The surface vibration velocity solution of the compressor provided the necessary boundary condition input into a finite element/boundary element acoustic code for predicting acoustic radiation.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1703
Dmitrii N. Maksimov, Gregor Tanner
Predicting the distribution of vibro-acoustic energy in complex built-up structures in the mid-to-high frequency regime is often a difficult task because “numerically exact” results obtained by Finite Element Method (FEM) may be of little practical value; the vibro-acoustic response of “identical” structures assembled as part of a manufacturing process is very sensitive to small changes in material parameters and/or variability in the shape of the structure. These differences may lead to large changes in the resonance spectrum and a full (and time expensive) FEM calculation for an individual sample has at best statistical significance. This problem becomes severe in the mid-frequency regime where the high-frequency techniques, such as Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA), are not yet available. Mid-frequency problems usually occur in structures with large variation of local wavelengths and/or characteristic scales.
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