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Viewing 31 to 60 of 39471
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2066
Mohamad S. Qatu, Javed Iqbal
The advantages of having higher stiffness to weight ratio and strength to weigh ratio that composite materials have resulted in an increased interest in them. In automotive engineering, the weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). The driveline of an automotive system can be a target for possible use of composite materials. The design of the driveshaft of an automotive system is primarily driven by its natural frequency. This paper presents an exact solution for the vibration of a composite driveshaft with intermediate joints. The joint is modeled as a frictionless internal hinge. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. Lumped masses are placed on each side of the joint to represent the joint mass. Equations of motion are developed using the appropriate boundary conditions and then solved exactly.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2060
Abdelkrim Zouani, Thomas Smith, Frank Valencia, Changshen Gan, Mamta Sabharwal, Chul Lee, Ankur Bhosale, Prasanna Kondapalli
The increased demand to reduce cost and weight is forcing engine manufacturers to replace some metal under hood components with high performance polymers. The use of these materials has often been avoided in this type of applications due to concerns around their long-term strength and temperature performance. In particular, the materials of choice for the oil pans in the gasoline engines, at the present time, are aluminum and stamped steel. This paper presents a case study to evaluate the NVH performance of a plastic oil pan designed to replace a stamped steel pan in a gasoline engine. Emphasis is given to the design features and material characteristics that were considered to achieve the required NVH performance.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2054
Prakash T. Thawani, Zhengyu Liu
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2049
Ming Une Jen, Ming-Hung Lu
We assessed the feasibility of weight reduction concerning noise and vibration characteristics for engine components. Three alternatives were plastic intake manifold, stamped steel oil pan, and no balance shaft. The assessment indices were engine noise level, engine mount bracket vibration, and engine block vibration. Reducing the reciprocating mass and applying design alternatives made the removal of balance shaft feasible. The lightweight plastic intake manifold was beneficial to the engine vibration with a little improvement to the engine noise. The stamped steel oil pan, with optimal structural ribs design and EMS calibration, offered all the benefits of weight, vibration, and noise improvements.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2035
Shi Zheng, Chris Kleinfeld
The definition method and the two load/source method of a transmission loss test of an automotive tuning device are discussed in this paper. For the definition method, the accuracy penalty due to the imperfect anechoic termination quality is studied based on an empirical acoustic model of glass-wool and the best practice of constructing an anechoic termination is attempted. The conclusion is verified with numerical simulations. For the two load/source method, the difference in the two source/load impedances compounded with the error of measured acoustic pressures, as related to transmission loss accuracy, is discussed and demonstrated.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2030
Filip De Coninck, Wim Desmet, Paul Sas, Eric Hansenne, Yvan Van Gucht, Luk Dedene
OEM's increase the pressure on their suppliers to design, develop and test their products within a short time period. This requires design ‘first-time-right’ philosophy and advanced numerical and experimental methods. Four steps are required to experimentally asses the durability of exhaust systems. Environmental loads and strain references are acquired on the test track. This data is analyzed and damaging are sections retained. These sections are then reproduced on a test rig. During this reproduction, strain is measured at the reference locations and the damage is calculated and compared with the test track data.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2088
Johan Grébert, Luca Mazzarella
In order to characterize the noise filtering performance of a vehicle with respect to both structure- and airborne transfer paths, a reciprocal transfer functions synthesis method is proposed. Simple, timesaving and repeatable, the procedure is an interesting alternative to the direct measurement. As part of the Vehicle Benchmarking acoustic expertise, the reciprocal transfer function synthesis method is well appropriate to rank different vehicles according to their sound attenuating performances, or to characterize the effectiveness of an acoustic package. As an application example, a sensitivity analysis of the rolling noise transmission with respect to the floor treatment of a vehicle is presented.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2092
Andrew S. Waisanen, Jason R. Blough
Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is an established tool that can be used to determine path contributions for road noise transmission (e.g. suspension links, sub-frame bushings, etc.) in passenger vehicles. However, due to the large number of paths and the presence of multiple partially-correlated sources in a road noise problem, TPA can be nearly impractical to implement as an experimental diagnostic tool. A simplified approach to Road Noise TPA is desirable to reduce test and analysis times in this era of shortening development cycles. It has been previously established that helium gas can be used to significantly alter the frequency of a tire’s acoustic cavity resonance [1]. Helium is used to “eliminate” excitation sources at the frequencies of tire cavity resonances, thereby reducing the number of paths to consider and simplifying a complex multi-reference TPA down to a single-reference TPA problem.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2101
Hou Jun, Guo Xue-xun, Tan Gang-feng
Squeal noise in vehicle disc brakes is perceived by comsumers as both annoying and warranty cost. The mechanism is considered a mode coupling phenomenon also referred to as coalescence. In this paper, the system eigenvalues have been computed using a technique based on the • nite element method in order to obtain the dynamical properties of the disc brake assembly. The simulated squeal results were compared with the brake noise test that was in accordance with SAE J2521 standard and showed good correlation for some squeal frequencies which indicated that the research on disc brake squeal using complex mode could predict squeal propensity of the disc brake. Among the methods that have been used to control squeal noise, increasing the system damping has been shown to be very effective. The most commonly used method to increase system damping consists of attaching multi-layer laminates on the back of the brake pads.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2106
Barry R. Wyerman, Eric Frank, Gabriella Cerrato
Identical fiber wheel liners were installed on two different mid size vehicles in order to compare the noise reduction for each vehicle. The fiber liners represented material in current production. A baseline noise level was established with the existing plastic wheel liners and then comparisons were made with fiber wheel liners. Noise levels were compared in the wheel well and in the interior for similar vehicle operating conditions. For both vehicles, significant tire noise reduction at the source was measured with fiber liners compared to plastic liners. One of the vehicles also demonstrated noise reduction in the passenger cabin with fiber liners. Insight into potential explanations for these differences was provided by comparing the noise levels at different locations within the vehicles. The results show how fiber liners are an additional tool to reduce the noise in a vehicle and how the NVH design for the balance of the vehicle can leverage the NVH impact of these parts.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2122
Barry R. Wyerman, Terence Connelly
Attenuation of noise from the rear of a vehicle was evaluated for different trunk insulation systems using a combination of poro-elastic material modeling and a full vehicle SEA model. The model considered the interaction between the trunk and the passenger cabin. The sound absorption coefficients and acoustic impedance for each of the material systems used in the trunk were measured and the poro-elastic Biot properties were calculated to define the acoustic treatments in the SEA model. Several levels of acoustical treatment for the trunk were studied ranging from a trunk with no decorative liner to a trunk with a liner and maximum acoustical treatment. The results show the contribution of the trunk material in reducing cabin noise for different levels of noise originating at the rear of the vehicle. These results demonstrate the value of combining poro-elastic material modeling and SEA models for selecting efficient material systems early in a vehicle design.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0047
Azmi Osman
A novel combustion cycle involving oxygen and water is proposed as a potential replacement to the existing Otto and Diesel cycles. The cycle involves a compression ignition 2-stroke engine equipped with poppet exhaust valves and 2 high pressure gas injectors. Novel exhaust valve timing and lift strategy is applied to control the cylinder temperature for optimal fuel auto-ignition. High purity oxygen is used to replace air. Water having high specific heat capacity and gas constant is used as a working medium. In theory, relatively higher engine output from a comparable size of engine displacement can be expected as lesser heat is rejected to the environment.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0055
Daisuke Matsuo, Akihiko Haramai, Kazuhiko Sato, Minoru Ueda
The applicability in adverse environment is essential for an injector for engines to use in motorcycles or power products. In view of that, what was considered most important in the development of this product was the applicability in diversifying environment, which was assumed to become even more adverse in the future. Accordingly developed is the injector that is more corrosion-resistant and waterproof. To improve corrosion resistance, an oxide layer is created by the surface reforming referred to as passivation. To attain steady coating, optimum passivation conditions such as the temperature, time and chemical-substance concentration are selected. Thus, the new injector that can cope with a high-alcohol-content fuel has been developed. To improve water-sealing, the double-resin-molding structure is employed in the coil for better adhesion of resin. The choice of optimum molding conditions ensures better sealing.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0066
Yudai YAMASAKI, Masanobu KANNO, Yasuhiro TAURA, Shigehiko KANEKO
Autoignition and combustion characteristics of biomass gas were investigated experimentally. A mock biomass gas consisting of H2, CH4, CO, N2 and CO2 was used as a wood pyrolysis gas. Experiments were carried out with a modified gas engine varying equivalence ratio and fuel composition. High hydrogen content increases the combustion speed, but it hardly affects ignition timing. Carbon monoxide in fuels does not affect combustion speed largely. The autoignition temperature of biomass gas is about 1000K, which is the same as those of hydrocarbon fuels. The engine also realizes 42% of the indicated thermal efficiency and a maximum IMEP of 0.3MPa.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0068
Zulkhairi Salleh, Chan Ming-Yau, Wan Ahmad Nadzri
In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and marketplace. In today's very competitive market environment, fuel producers also have to continuously develop and renew their products performance and capability in order to improve their business competitive edge and market share. With more consumer awareness on environment concerns, fuel producers require a better mean of assessing their product performance for internal combustion engine market including motorcycle for improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. Fossil fuel resources depletion and uncertainty in oil prices further worsen the situation. Advancement in internal combustion engine measurement technology allows engineers to have access to improve evaluation tools in enhancing their understanding and knowledge on the effect of fuel properties on engine performance.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0074
Emishaw D. Iffa, A. Rashid A. Aziz
The complicated In-cylinder varying density field behavior of gaseous fuels makes the air fuel mixing process difficult to study. This problem urges to find out the injected gaseous fuel density distribution. This paper tries to find out the normalized injected CNG density distribution at small injection pressure. Background oriented schlieren and image processing techniques are implemented to find the variable density distribution on a constant volume chamber during injection.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0076
Satoru SUWA, Daiji KAWAGUCHI, Atsushi MURAKAMI, Kazuyoshi KIMURA, Masato TADA
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0075
Brent Dohner, Ewa Bardasz, Mike Brenner
Phosphorus is known to reduce the effectiveness of the three-way catalysts commonly used by automobile manufacturers by deactivating the catalyst. This process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) decomposes in the engine oil, creating many phosphorus species, which provide excellent wear protection of the engine but can also interact with the active sites of the three-way catalyst. This reactivity has led to API specifications for engine oils with lower concentrations of phosphorus. In order to further minimize catalyst deactivation without compromising wear protection, a novel ZDP technology was designed for engine oil applications. This novel ZDP was designed to minimize the amount of phosphorus produced via volatilization during engine operation while maintaining engine wear protection.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0082
Keiichi MAEKAWA, Atsushi MURAKAMI, Masayuki HASHIMURA, Hiroshi YARITA, Takanori WATANABE
For the requirements of high power output, lightweight and improved fuel consumption of motorcycles to respond to global environmental needs, high fatigue strength to cope with high stress is becoming more important than ever for valve springs. To satisfy such needs, a new alloy steel that softens less in tempering (1),(2) and nitriding that increases surface hardness of valve springs has been developed using oil-tempered silicone-chrome steel wire as the base material. Also, with regards to shot-peening to create compression residual stress on the surface, studies are being performed for multi-stage and high-hardness peening. The research reported in this paper is aimed at an increase of internal hardness after nitriding while maintaining the cold-coiling-ability by adding elements that reduce softening from tempering while reducing non-dissolved carbide in the material.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0085
Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
Thermal and mixing stratifications have been thought as one of the ways to avoid an excessive pressure rise on HCCI combustion. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of thermal and mixing stratifications for reducing PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) on HCCI combustion. The pre-mixture with thermal and mixing stratifications is charged in RCM (Rapid Compression Machine). After that, the pre-mixture is compressed and in that process, in-cylinder gas pressure and chemiluminescence images are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, experimental results are compared with the computational results calculated by using multi-zone model for analyzing these mechanisms.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0052
K.R.C. Somaraju, R. Subasri, A. Jyothirmayi, T. Gururaj, G. Padmanabham
Sol-based coatings derived from organically modified silanes and metal alkoxides have been investigated for the past two decades for their applicability as barrier coatings for corrosion protection of stainless steels and mild steels. Colored sol-gel coatings can also be generated by the addition of pigments. Recently, lot of attention has been given to use of radiation (UV or NIR) curing for densification of protective coatings on metals/steels. In this context, investigations were carried out on the mechanical and corrosion protection properties of UV-curable transparent and colored sol-gel coatings on mild steels for comparison with a painted substrate.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0053
S M Shariff, Manish Tak, G Padmanabham, S Shanmugam
The present work involves systematic study on identification of process parameters and processing conditions for effective laser surface-hardening of automotive crankshaft and its implementation in the industry, utilizing a diode laser integrated to a 6-axis robot and a turn/tilt table. The crankshaft chosen was made of low-alloyed 0.52% C steel and required hardening at two contact regions of bearing/flange seat areas and a pin area (on a different axis than the actual shaft). The subjected areas had features like oil holes, sharp corners and wide areas. The target was to develop laser hardening process resulting in hardened case-depth of above 200 µm with a hardness of 500 - 650 HV at different locations mentioned. Additionally, It was targeted to minimize the processing time and also eliminate any post process machining operations.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0026
How Heoy Geok, Taib Iskandar Mohamad, Shahrir Abdullah, Yusoff Ali, Azhari Shamsudeen
A single cylinder port injection gasoline engine was converted to a bi-fuel gasoline-compressed natural gas operation. The engine was run at wide open throttle and speeds ranging from 1500 to 5000 rpm. Cylinder pressure and air-fuel flow rate were recorded to calculate the indicated performance. Results show CNG operation yields higher FCE and lower ISFC. However, the indicated power, indicated torque, IMEP and volumetric efficiency of CNG were reduced due to lower charge density and slower flame speed. In terms of exhaust emissions, CNG shows significantly lower emission of HC, CO2 and CO. The NOx emission however shows mixed behavior.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0032
TEOH Yew Heng, Horizon GITANO-BRIGGS, TAN Yee Hern
It is well known that conventional carbureted two-stroke engines have high exhaust emission and poor fuel efficiency. To solve these problems direct gaseous fuel injection (DI) was introduced as a lower cost alternative to the gasoline direct injection (GDI) System. In this paper we investigate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel in terms of lean combustion operation, and focus on analysis of in cylinder combustion pressure, fuel mass fraction burned, engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results are compared for various injection timings from premixed (early injection) to fully direct injection mode (late injection). Results show that late start of injection timing causes the torque to drop off significantly and poorer exhaust emission, mainly due to poor mixing of gaseous fuel and air. The DI of gaseous fuel effectively reduces exhaust emission and can substantially improve the fuel economy of two-stroke engines.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0042
D A Dhananjaya, P Mohanan, C V Sudhir
The objective of this study is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel and its blend fueled in standard CI engine (without coating piston crown) and thermal barrier coating (with coating of piston crown) CI engine at optimum injector opening pressure (IOP) and injection timing (IT). Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, water cooled, CI engine whose piston crown were coated with a 300µm thickness of zirconium oxide over a 150µm thickness of nickel chromium and aluminum oxide bond coat at optimum IOP and IT (220 bar and 26° btdc). The working conditions for the standard and thermal barrier coating of piston crown CI engine were kept exactly the same to ensure a realistic comparison between the two configurations of the engine.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0048
Vivek P. Adhikari, Abdul Nassar, Q. H. Nagpurwala
Owing to the dynamic life style, considerable time is spent in traveling. Consequently, the demand for thermal comfort of passengers in vehicles has increased. And, to provide thermal comfort, the vehicles are equipped with Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. However, the tendency to use more glass in vehicle styling, fuel-economy constraints, environmentally safe refrigerants and reduced condenser air flow, particularly at idling conditions, hampers the goal of achieving the desired thermal comfort of passengers. Thus, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of the HVAC units and the effect of their delivery systems to predict the impact on the airflow, temperature distribution and thermal comfort of passengers. CFD simulations have gained importance for such evaluations, which include both steady state and transient calculations.
2009-01-21
Technical Paper
2009-26-0061
Luigi Mauro, Leonardo Trozzi
During the development of a tubular steel frame for motorcycles, it is very important to make FEM calculations in order to evaluate the stress level and the stiffness of the structure. The FEM models must be light in order to reduce calculation time and precise in order to obtain reliable results that can be checked in the following experimental tests. FEM models of tubular frame made using 1D elements (Pipe) have low precision results and are not advisable for this kind of work. It is suggested to use FEM models made using 2D elements (Shell) for sensitivity tests too. In order to obtain the best result using Shell elements, it is very important to choose the right criterion to model the welding parts: the model must represent the right inertia of the tubular welded joint and be both accurate and easy to be modeled.
2009-01-21
Technical Paper
2009-26-0053
Vijay Ravinath, Maurizio Mantovani, Claudio Bertolini, Davide Caprioli
Generally all OEMs have a distinctive approach in designing their sound packages. Considering the complexity and combination involved in this process, there is no general valid scheme, although there tend to be some common blocks. Also as automotive manufacturers face strong demands to cut CO2 levels there is a trend to reduce prototypes and introduce limitations on weight of sound controlling materials. The supplier of the sound package must therefore be able to support the OEMs in taking design decisions early, quickly and based just on drawings, or even just on sketches in the concept phase. A proposed way forward in designing fast and cost-effective sound packages is by skillfully combining target setting, material characterization measurements, virtual prototyping and optimization tools. The solution should not only be acoustically effective, but also lightweight and cheap.
2009-01-21
Technical Paper
2009-26-0089
S. Fulsundar, P. Shembekar, P. Naughton, B. Hoek
The effect of processing parameters on the material properties is an important design consideration in plastic part design. The process may cause anisotropic properties due to matrix and fiber orientation, develop internal stresses during cooling, cause thickness variation etc. These effects if not considered in the product design and analysis, may result in premature product failure, reduced safety factor, fit and finish issues or higher costs and weight due to over design. Injection molded long glass polypropylene and blow molded PC/ABS have been used in automotive structural parts requiring to meet stringent static and dynamic loads as per the regulatory legislation. This paper demonstrates the use of injection molding and blow molding process simulation to incorporate the process effect on material and structure properties.
2009-01-21
Technical Paper
2009-26-0090
Mahesh Chitnis, Suresh Shah, Mark Hammer, James Acre, Emily Wu, Gary Victor
Traditional methods of structural analysis of fiber reinforced plastic tanks used in automotive applications generally consider the plastic material to be homogeneous in nature. Non-linear stress strain curve obtained from a standard tensile strength test on a fiber reinforced plastic specimen is employed for modeling the material behavior of the plastic tank. There is also a tendency to employ cross flow fiber data in the analysis as a factor of safety measure. However this approach does not account for the anisotropic properties introduced due to complex fiber orientation resulting from plastic injection molding process. Present study aims at capturing the realistic anisotropic properties of the plastic material in the structural analysis. Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI) software has been used to obtain the fiber orientation details for the plastic tank.
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