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Viewing 91 to 120 of 39469
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0424
Henry E. Hojnacki, Ghazwan Taka
In this paper we present a seat design concept that results in significant (20%-40%) weight savings in automotive seat cushions. This concept replaces the traditional flexible foam and steel frame with an alternate lightweight concept using structural foam technology. Additionally, this design concept uses comfort cutout areas, which allow optimization of seating comfort. To develop and prove this concept, we explain the methodology used, including design concepts, computer simulation, manufacturing processes, assembly considerations, and testing. The materials used are characterized and modeled for use in virtual development, including comfort and crashworthiness. Traditional assembly techniques are reexamined and optimized for time and cost. The overall economics of the concept are shown. Finally, the design is tested to verify the real world performance.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0420
Adam Vaughan, George J. Delagrammatikas
Manifold tuning has long been considered a critical facet of engine design and performance optimization. This paper details the design, analysis and preliminary testing of a continuously variable, carbon fiber intake manifold for a restricted 2003 Suzuki GSXR-600® engine. The device achieves a large dynamic runner length range of 216-325 mm through the use of a half-tube, sliding shell design that differs substantially from traditional variable intake approaches. A combination of Ricardo WAVE® and 2D/3D Ansys Fluent® simulations were used to aid in the design of the intake along with a custom software routine to optimize restrictor geometry through fully automated CFD simulations. The sliding mechanism was actuated via a cable linkage system and powered by a small servo motor. This motor was controlled by a Microchip dsPIC® microcontroller that was embedded in a custom power distribution PCB for the 2009 Cooper Union Formula SAE® entry.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0405
Frank J. Ferfecki, Allen Hale
A joint development program between Metaldyne and Victrex Polymer Solutions was established with the goal of developing a cost effective net shape injection molded gear that provides improvements in NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) and operating efficiency over conventional high quality iron gears. A detailed DOE (Design of Experiments) evaluating NVH performance of machined gears was performed in a calibrated NVH test cell. Variables in the DOE included material, gear geometry and backlash variation. The DOE showed the PEEK material gears had different geometric sensitivities, such as helix angle effects, on NVH performance. The results of the DOE were then used to develop an optimal injection molded PEEK polymer gear design. A production quality injection molding gear tool was constructed. Net shape production quality PEEK polymer gears were injection molded and the gears were evaluated in a current production mass balance unit for NVH, mechanical efficiency and durability.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0438
Ahmet Kanbolat, Murathan Soner, Tolga Erdogus, Mustafa Karaagac
The parabolic leaf spring plays a vital role in suspension systems, since it has an effect on ride comfort and vehicle dynamics. Primarily, leaf spring endurance must be ensured. Presently, there are two approaches to designing a leaf spring. In the traditional method, fatigue tests should be repeated for each case, considering different material, geometry and suspension hard points. However, it takes a long time and requires a heavy budget to get the optimized solution. In the contemporary method, a numerical approach is used to obtain the fatigue life and the leaf geometry against the environmental condition on the basis of material properties. This paper presents a more precise method based on non-linear finite element solutions by evaluating the effects of the production parameters, the geometrical tolerances and the variations in the characteristics of the material.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0429
Mathew Kuttolamadom, Joshua Jones, Laine Mears, John Ziegert, Thomas Kurfess
For incorporating titanium components onto a vehicle in place of existing iron/steel components, there is a need for a methodical procedure to ensure successful and efficient integration. This involves a refinement over standard lightweight engineering procedures. In this paper, a suitable procedure is developed for replacing a structural component with titanium and the method realized. Design and manufacturing issues associated with integrating titanium are identified and addressed. The importance of justifying component replacement in terms of life-cycle costs rather than purely by the manufacturing cost alone is also emphasized.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0427
Daniel S. Codd
Martensitic stainless steels are ideally suited for structural components and assemblies, satisfying the requirements of high strength, toughness and corrosion resistance with ease of forming in the annealed state. New developments in welding and thermal processing, coupled with increased demands for high strength lightweight structures, are positioning martensitic stainless as a cost effective alternative to conventional lightweighting materials. Several examples are shown, including the development of fully martensitic (UNS S41000) automotive subframes, door beams, B-pillars, seat rails, tow hooks and fuel rail assemblies. The excellent mechanical properties of hardened martensitic stainless allow for notable weight savings, achieving 35% or greater weight reduction relative to baseline designs.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0428
Essam Z. Namouz, Laine Mears, Gregory Mocko, Joshua Summers
A new approach to lightweight engineering of vehicles focuses on identifying and eliminating Lazy Parts through the application of the Lazy Parts Indication Method (LPIM). In this context, Lazy Parts are defined as components that have the potential for mass reduction for a number of reasons discussed in previous literature. The focus of this research is to apply the LPIM to an automotive component, identify potential mass savings, and redesign the component to address the laziness and begin to validate the LPIM as well at the estimated mass savings. A generator mounting bracket for a vehicle is analyzed using the LPIM and redesigned. The application of the LPIM to the generator mounting bracket predicted an estimated mass savings of 10% (0.32kg), while the actual redesign of the bracket revealed a 12% (0.38kg) mass savings.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0425
Jody Shaw, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Marc Lambriks
FutureSteelVehicle’s (FSV) objective is to develop detailed design concepts for a radically different steel body structure for a compact Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV). It also will identify structure changes to accommodate larger Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV) and Fuel Cell (FCEV) vehicle variants. The paper will demonstrate seven optimised structural sub-systems that contribute to the programme's 35 percent mass reduction goals and meet its safety and life cycle emissions targets. It will explain the advanced design optimisation process used and the resulting aggressive steel concepts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0426
Mark E. DeBruin, S. E. Jordan
Significant research has been conducted with the goal of obtaining thin walled ductile iron for use in lighter weight designs. A review is made of the past efforts to achieve thin walled ductile iron. Most past efforts resorted to costly processes or non-standard production practices. Lost Foam Casting (LFC) is an alternate foundry process which used in conjunction with standard melt shop practices results in a massive carbide free structure when used with thin section size. Chemistry, hardness tests, microstructures, and design improvements of a case study are reviewed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0381
Charles B. Bright, LeAnn Faidley, Adam Witthauer, Evan Rickels, Theodore Donlin
In order to approach the Carnot efficiency in modern diesel engines that see variable loads and high speeds, programmable electrically controlled fuel injections are required. Traditional solenoid based transducers are binary and cannot achieve this programmability while newer piezoelectric transducers are susceptible to performance degradation due to high pressures and temperatures. This paper presents the experimental characterization of a programmable diesel fuel injector transducer designed by Great Plains Diesel Technologies, L.C. to address the limitations of existing technology. This transducer employs a little-known magnetostrictive alloy to position its needle. In contrast to piezoelectric ceramics, quantum mechanics endows this alloy with the indestructible property of magnetostriction, the ability to strain proportional to a magnetic field. This allows it to be fast and infinitely adjustable (or, “programmable”) without degradation.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0399
Andre Ferrarese, Jason Bieneman, David J. Domanchuk, Thomas Smith, Thomas Stong, Peter Einberger
Changing emission legislation limits are challenging the engine developers in many aspects. Requirement to improve combustion and engine efficiency have resulted in increased loads and higher levels of abrasive particles within the engine environment. Concerning piston rings and piston ring grooves, such engine modifications are leading to critical tribological conditions and side wear is becoming a key issue in the design of these components. Historically one of the most common forms of side wear protection on piston rings has been chromium plate. This solution has limitations on durability (low thickness) and on topography (rough surfaces). In response to these limitations, nitrided stainless steel top rings have been used to improve the side protection; it is harder and typically has a smoother surface finish when compared to chromium coating.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0649
Bin Li, Steffen Peuker, Pega Hrnjak, Andrew Alleyne
Automotive air conditioning systems are subject to constantly changing operation conditions and steady state simulations are not sufficient to describe the actual performance. The refrigerant mass migration during transient events such as clutch-cycling or start-up has a direct impact on the transient performance. It is therefore necessary to develop simulation tools which can accurately predict the migration of the refrigerant mass. To this end a dynamic model of an automotive air conditioning system is presented in this paper using a switched modeling framework. Model validation against experimental results demonstrates that the developed modeling approach is able to describe the transient behaviors of the system, and also predict the refrigerant mass migration among system components during compressor shut-down and start-up (stop-start) cycling operations.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0609
Takahiro Sano, Takeyuki Nakasone, Takeshi Katagiri, Yutaka Okamoto
Recently, automotive engines have been operating under harsh conditions of high-power, low viscosity oil and increase of start-stop (e.g. idling stop). In plain bearing used within engine, as oil film thickness decreases, the frequency of direct contacts on the sliding surfaces between the shaft and the bearing are gradually increasing. In fact, the plain bearings for engines would tend to be used under mixed lubrication and the contacts of the surface roughness asperities sometimes occur between the shaft and the bearing. As a result, the bearing wear on the sliding surfaces is accelerated by the contacts of the roughness asperities. In order to predict the bearing performance exactly, it is very important to understand the change progress of the geometric shape of sliding surfaces caused by the wear.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0951
Vitaly Eyges, Jeya Padmanaban, Greg Stadter
The analysis presented here updates and expands previous research in which rollover critical events were classified based on a detailed review of about 500 police-reported single-vehicle rollover crashes of ESC-equipped vehicles. In order to compare the rollover performance of vehicles with and without ESC for the present study, an additional sample of 150 police reports on non-ESC passenger cars and 196 police reports on light vehicles with ESC in single-vehicle rollovers were obtained, and detailed coding of rollover scenarios was performed. The coding effort was undertaken by an engineering team and focused on critical events leading to rollovers (departure from road, loss of directional control, impact with an object, and departure from road with possible driver's input); driver factors (alcohol/drug involvement, speeding, inattention, distraction, fatigue, and overcorrection); and environmental factors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0993
Xu Chen, Lianxiang Yang, Xiaoming Chen, Constantin Chirac, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou
Abstract Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in automotive industry. A major issue for AHSS stamping is edge cracking. This failure mode is difficult to predict by conventional forming limit curve (FLC). The material edge stretchability is mainly evaluated using the hole expansion test. In this study, digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied for strain measurement. DIC is a non-contact, full field, high accuracy and direct measurement technique that provides more detailed information for the evolution of strains on the sheet surface. Tests were conducted for five AHSS and nine cases. This paper will explain in detail the DIC technique and its results.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0995
Yoshiharu Morimoto, Motoharu Fujigaki, Akihiro Masaya, Kosuke Shimo, Ryoji Hanada, Hideki Seto
Recently, sampling moire method was developed to analyze the phase of a one-dimensional or two-dimensional grating on an object with high accuracy. In the method, several phase-shifted moire patterns are generated from one image of the grating. In order to analyze a shape by a stereoscopic method, it is necessary to find the corresponding points between the two images of the object recorded from different two cameras. It is possible to analyze the phase of the grating using the sampling moiré method and find the corresponding points as points with the same phase. It is also possible to analyze the displacement and strain from the corresponding point before and after deformation. This method is, therefore, suitable for shape and strain distribution measurement of a moving object. In this paper, a dynamic shape and strain measurement method using the sampling moiré method is proposed and a system for the measurement is developed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0997
John Tyson
Materials are advancing at a record rate, with unimagined complexity even in now standard materials. Traditional measurement tools can only get approximate material properties. Core to all proper design and accurate computer modeling is a base understanding of accurate material properties. Full-field optical measurement tools using 3D digital image correlation (DIC) is able to provide a more complete measurement and analysis of these advanced materials, providing precise material properties at all scales. This paper will review microscopic analysis of crystalline behavior, coupon testing of dog bone specimens and large scale materials measurements in stamping operations. In addition, the measurement of extreme materials properties, such as high-speed forming limit curves and deep drawing properties will be discussed. Key to all of these measurements are the associated standards that control them; these will be discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0992
Juan D. Tobon, Claire Silverstein, Juan Rueda, Laila Guessous, Lianxiang Yang
The automotive industry has a strong need for lightweight materials capable of withstanding large mechanical loads. Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS), which have high tensile strength and formability, show great promise for automotive applications, yet if they are to be more widely used, it's important to understand their deformation behavior; this is particularly important for the development of forming limit diagrams (FLD) used in stamping processes. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which anisotropy introduced by the rolling direction affects the local fracture strain. Three grades of dual-phase AHSS and one high-strength low-alloy (HSL A) 50ksi grade steel were tested under plane strain conditions. Half of the samples were loaded along their rolling direction and the other half transverse to it. In order to achieve plane strain conditions, non-standard dogbone samples were loaded on a wide-grip MTS tensile test machine.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1257
John Olari, Evan cheolas
Huntsman is a global leader in polyurethane technology for automotive applications and recognizes the use of bio-based materials as a key element of many OEM's sustainability strategies. The use of soy-based polyols in polyurethane foams was investigated for use in acoustical applications such as dash insulators and carpet underlayment. The base polyol in a typical acoustical foam was replaced with one of several soy-based polyols available on the market and tested for physical and acoustical properties. The foams were also evaluated as to the effect the soy-based polyol had on processing characteristics. The base polyol was replaced with 10% and 20% of the soy-based polyol. These foams showed some degradation of physical properties. The effect of the soy-based polyol on acoustical properties was index and frequency dependent. Some acoustical properties increased while others decreased.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1323
Saghi Saedlou, Pierre Santacreu, Johan Leseux
Due to the evolution of emission control standards, new pollution control systems will be necessarily used for off-road vehicles and trucks exhaust systems and in the near future for passenger cars. Indeed, the will to reduce NOx emission through Euro 5 (2009) and then to Euro 6 (2014) and American EPA Tier 4 (2008-2015) imposes the implementation of a new after-treatment system within the exhaust line. One of the most promising technologies takes advantage of the reduction feature of ammonia (NH₃) on NOx. This system called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) couldn't be developed by storing directly ammonia as a reduction agent on the vehicle due to its high toxicity and flammability. It is why urea is used as an ammonia generator through thermolysis reaction.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1355
Francisco Payri, Jesús Benajes, Ricardo Novella, Christopher Kolodziej
Concepts of premixed diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) have been shown to be advantageous in greatly reducing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, even below the minimum detection limit of standard opacity-based PM mass instruments. Previous research has revealed that significant changes to the PM size and number emissions still occur for changes to the LTC engine operating conditions. This work investigates the influence of reductions in intake oxygen concentration on PM (mass, size, and number), NOx, hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from select LTC engine operating conditions. Exhaust particle size distributions were measured for multiple engine operating conditions of premixed diesel LTC within a range of five intake oxygen concentrations from 9% to 13% (by volume) at three intake pressures from 1.325 to 1.6 bar.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1336
Atsushi Yokoyama, Tadashi Osaka, Yuto Imanishi, Sachio sekiya
The thermal management system for electric vehicles is developed. Called the Thermal Link System, it consists of a heat-pump air conditioner, a system recovering waste heat from the electric power train, and a heat exchanger between the air-conditioner refrigerant and the power-train coolant water. The recovered heat is used for interior heating, so the amount of power consumed by the heat-pump air conditioner can be reduced. In this system the refrigerant for the heat-pump air conditioner and the coolant water for electric power trains are thermally linked by the heat exchanger, which can reduce the temperature of the coolant water to less than that of the surrounding air. This enhanced cooling function increases the power of electric power trains, or extends the amount of time at full power operation. Here we describe the Thermal Link System's mechanism and effects on energy efficiency.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1050
John C. Goetz, Huade Tan, Andres Tovar, John Renaud
The primary objective of this investigation is the optimum design of lightweight foam material systems for controlled energy absorption under blast impact. The ultimate goal of these systems is to increase the safety and integrity of occupants and critical components in structural systems such as automotive vehicles, buildings, ships, and aircrafts. Although outstanding results have been achieved with the use of foams in blast protective systems, current design practices rely on trial and error as there is an absence of a systematic design method. While the governing equations are known for a variety of physical phenomena in appropriate length scales, there are no suitable methodologies to accomplish the aforementioned objectives. A promising approach to systematically design the material's microstructure is the use of structural optimization methods. This investigation presents an appropriate design methodology to optimally design foam material systems for blast mitigation.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1051
Daniel Kujawski, Muralidhar Ghantasala, Subash Gokanakonda, Shabbir Hussain
Fatigue damage sensing and monitoring of any structure is a prerequisite for reliable and effective structural health diagnosis. The designed sensor has alternate slots and strips with different strain magnification factor with respect to the nominal strain at its location. The strips experience the strains which closely resemble the actual strain distribution in the critical area of the component. One of the major advantages of this sensor is that it can be placed at any convenient location, still experiencing the same fatigue damage as a critical location. It can be used on various structures from ground civilian and military vehicles to steel bridges. This can predict the remaining useful life of a component or the number of miles (for any automobile) left for the component before it needed replacement. This paper mainly describes the design aspects of this sensor following analytical and finite element analysis (FEA) approaches.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1052
Susan J. Wolf, Chann Cheng, Benda Yan, Jayanth Chintamani, Michael Golden, Jagdeesh Bandekar
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are becoming major enablers for vehicle light weighting in the automotive industry. Crash resistant and fracture-toughened structural adhesives have shown potential to improve vehicle stiffness, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), and crashworthiness. They provide weight reduction opportunity while maintaining crash performance or weight increase avoidance while meeting the increasing crash requirement. Unfortunately, the adhesive bonding of galvanneal (GA)-coated steels has generally yielded adhesive failures with the GA coating peeling from the steel substrate resulting in poor bond strength. A limited study conducted by ArcelorMittal and Dow Automotive in 2008 showed that GA-coated AHSS exhibited cohesive failure, and good bond strength and crash performance. In order to confirm the reliable performance, a project focusing on the consistency of the adhesive bond performance of GA-coated steels of 590 MPa strength level was initiated.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1057
Junying Min PhD, Jianping Lin
Hot forming process of ultrahigh strength boron steel 22MnB5 is widely applied in vehicle industry. It is one of the most effective approaches for vehicle light weighting. Dynamic recovery is the major softening mechanism of the boron steel under austenite state at elevated temperatures. Deformation mechanism of the boron steel can be revealed by investigation on the behavior of dynamic recovery, which could also improve the accuracy of forming simulations for hot stamping. Uniaxial tensile experiments of the boron steel are carried out on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble3800 at elevated temperatures. The true stress-strain curves and the relations between the work hardening rate and flow stress are obtained in different deformation conditions. The work hardening rate decreases linearly with increasing the flow stress.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1058
James Dykeman, Skye Malcolm, Benda Yan, Jayanth Chintamani, Gang Huang, Naveen Ramisetti, Hong Zhu
In vehicle crash events there is the potential for fracture to occur at the processed edges of structural components. The ability to avoid these types of fractures is desired in order to minimize intrusion and optimize energy absorption. However, the prediction of edge cracking is complicated by the fact that conventional tensile testing can provide insufficient data in regards to the local fracture behavior of advanced high strength steels. Fracture prediction is also made difficult because there can be inadequate data on how the cutting processes used for hole piercing and blanking affect the edge condition. In order to address these challenges, research was undertaken to analyze edge fracture in simple test pieces configured with side notches and center holes. Test specimens were made from a number of advanced high strength steels including 590R (C-Mn), 780T (TRIP), 980Y (dual phase) and hot stamp 1500 (martensitic).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1059
Curt D. Horvath, Ronald Sanders
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1060
Jody Hall, Tareena Mulholland, Darryl Young, J.P. McGuire
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1053
Heike Kantereit
The demand for the reduction of vehicle weight advanced the development of High Strength Steels. In the 80's, Bake Hardening Steels were developed for parts which are manufactured at high stretch forming capacities, specifically utilizing the increase in strength during the paint process. At the end of the 90's, the demand for even higher strength levels led to the development of Advanced High Strength Steels, e.g. Dual Phase Steels, TRIP-Steels, Martensitic Steels or Complex Phase Steels. Since then, the portion of high strength steels in vehicle bodies has been increasing constantly. In addition to the high strength level, they also possess a remarkable bake hardening potential. Currently, this potential is not taken into consideration sufficiently. The use of Advanced High Strength Steels increases the demands on the production in dealing with these materials. Process windows, such as for welding or painting, are narrowed down further.
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