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Viewing 151 to 180 of 39471
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1774
Constantin Chiriac, Ming F. Shi
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are widely used in the automotive industry for various applications especially for structural and safety parts. One of the concerns for AHSS in stamping operations is edge fracture originating from sheared blanked edges. This type of failure cannot be predicted by computer simulations using the conventional forming limit as the failure criterion. The reason for this is that edge damage produced by the blanking operation is not incorporated into the computer models to properly simulate the material edge formability. This study presents a method to evaluate edge damage in terms of the residual stress at the sheared edge produced by the blanking operation. The method uses the level and distribution of edge strain hardening (ESH) through the material thickness as an index to characterize the edge damage caused by the shearing operation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1779
Maria El-Zeghayar, Tim Topper, John J. Bonnen
Small crack growth from notches under variable amplitude loading requires that crack opening stress be followed on a cycle by cycle basis and taken into account in making fatigue life predictions. The use of constant amplitude fatigue life data that ignores changes in crack opening stress due to high stress overloads in variable amplitude fatigue leads to non-conservative fatigue life predictions. Similarly fatigue life predictions based on small crack growth calculations for cracks growing from flaws in notches are non-conservative when constant amplitude crack growth data are used. These non-conservative predictions have, in both cases, been shown to be due to severe reductions in fatigue crack closure arising from large (overload or underload) cycles in a typical service load history.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1765
Daijiro Takizawa, Tadanobu Takahashi, Haruhiko Shimizu, Ryutaro Kato
Honda has been proposing and developing a Transverse Flux Motor (T.F. motor) in order to shorten axial length of the motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In contrast to conventional motors that are composed of a stator core (made from magnetic steel sheet) and winding wires, the T.F. motor is a new type of three-dimensional magnetic circuit motor composed of a soft magnetic composites (SMC) core and a coil. While reducing axial length and achieving a simple stator architecture comprised of just five parts, the new motor raises issues including the need to improve motor efficiency and the development of techniques for the manufacture of rectangular wave-shaped coils. To improve motor efficiency, we conducted a parameter study of the SMC core material and manufacturing conditions to establish the optimum required specifications for reducing iron loss.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1904
Scott Noll, Jason Dreyer, Rajendra Singh
The elastomeric joints (bushings or mounts) in vehicle structural frames are usually described as uncoupled springs (only with diagonal terms) in large scale system models. The off-diagonal terms of an elastomeric joint have been previously ignored as they are often unknown since their properties cannot be measured in a uniaxial elastomer test system. This paper overcomes this deficiency via a scientific study of a laboratory frame that is designed to maintain a high fidelity with real-world vehicle body subframes in terms of natural modes under free boundaries. The steel beam construction of the laboratory frame, with four elastomeric mounts at the corners, permits the development of a highly accurate, yet simple, beam finite element model. This allows for a correlation study between the experiment and model that helps shed light upon the underlying physical phenomenon.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1891
Richard Luken, Kanwal Bhatia, William Rauch
Automotive air conditioning compressors induce pressure pulsations into the refrigerant system during their operation. These pressure pulsations are transmitted through the refrigerant system on both discharge and suction sides of the compressor. As these pulsations travel through the evaporator in the vehicle air handling system, undesired compressor noise can be generated inside the vehicle. It is important to minimize these pulsations at the compressor source in order to improve vehicle refrigerant system sound quality and meet customer requirements. This paper provides an analysis of measured NVH (pressure pulsation) data and a development of CAE models used to understand the characteristics of pressure pulsations generated by an automotive compressor. It explains factors which influence the magnitude and frequency of the pulsations in order to minimize their effects in the refrigerant system with regard to sound perceived in passenger compartment of the vehicle.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1890
Prakash T. Thawani, Stephen Sinadinos, Justin Black
Traditional IC engine powered vehicles readily mask the lower amplitude transients like hiss, clicks and slight tones. However, due to the popularity and expected increase in number of hybrid and electrically driven automobiles all around the world, all the OEMs are concerned about the vehicle interior quietness and sound quality. Refrigerant system induced hiss/gurgle is quite normal phenomenon but its excessive levels and frequent occurrences can be objectionable to demanding customers. Introduction of new environmentally friendly refrigerants (HFO-1234yf), A/C compressors with built-in oil separation (reduced damping in evaporator), and use of IHX with coupled suction and liquid lines, may lead to increased refrigerant system induced hiss and gurgle. Operation of typical A/C system generates steady-state and transient noises that consist of audible tones and high frequency hiss.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1227
Hiromitsu Ando, Yasuyuki Sakai, Kazunari Kuwahara
Abstract The relationships between the octane number and the carbon atom number and the molecular structure of alkanes were comprehensively analyzed by using the detailed kinetic model generated by there automatic reaction scheme generation tool, KUCRS [1, 2]. The octane number is an index showing the ignition delay in the engine temperature regime, that is, the engine ignition temperature range. The high octane number is observed in the following two cases; 1 The ignition delay of the low temperature region is large.2 The ignition delay of the low temperature region is the same, but the transition temperature for NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) region is low.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1188
James P. Szybist, Richard R. Steeper, Derek Splitter, Vickey B. Kalaskar, Josh Pihl, Charles Daw
Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1177
Paul B. Dickinson, Kieran Hegarty, Nick Collings, Tashiv Ramsander
Abstract The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0033
B. V. Shamsundara, A. V. Mannikar
Visibility through windscreen along with front lighting system is one of the most important elements of road safety. Windscreen also provides the good visibility to driver to drive safely during night time. As per the rule windscreen visual light transmission should be minimum 70%. Windshields are made-up of tinted glass which produces light transmission varying from 70% to 95%. Windscreen installation is various from vehicle to vehicle, the visual light transmittance at different installation angle and its effect to the visibility are not fully understood. Vehicle headlamps and front fog lamps are evaluated for the illumination without consideration of driver's visibility with the combination of wind screen and its installation angle. This paper describes the effect of different ranges of tinted wind shield glass on driver's visibility at various installation angle of windshield along with the headlamp illumination.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0061
Shivakumar B, Ramesh A, Vaishnavi P, Avi A. Cornelio, Dirk Limperich
The need for a consistent and reliable calculation of thermodynamic property of refrigerants has been a topic of research since the past decade. This paper reports a study of various cubic equations of state for a refrigerant being used in automotive air-conditioning applications. The thermodynamic property of refrigerant 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (commercially known as R134a) is estimated for this purpose. A comparative analysis is made on three sets of equations of state. They are Redlich Kwong equation (RK), Peng Robinson equation (PR) and Patel Teja equation. It is found that the Patel-Teja and Peng-Robinson equations are accurate in the operating region of automotive air-conditioning system. Using these literature based equations and Maxwell correlations, thermodynamic models are developed. They estimate thermodynamic properties of saturated liquid/vapor, sub-cooled liquid and superheated vapor phases.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0053
Sivanandi Rajadurai, N. Suresh, P. A. Sairaman, S. Ananth
A combined Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation and physical fatigue testing of a passenger car exhaust system resonator with wire mesh seal between the inlet and outlet pipe is performed to evaluate the durability and improvise the design. The outlet pipe end cap of the exhaust system resonator deformed and cracked at the fillet region repeatedly upon the application of the maximum load from a pre developed accelerated specification test. However, the system meets the end usage on-road durability target of 5 years / 1,00,000 km. There is a gap between the accelerated bench test and the end usage durability target. The current study correlates CAE simulation and biaxial fatigue testing and improvise possible alternate resonator design. Conventionally, components passing the accelerated test always meets the end usage durability target whereas components meeting the end usage durability target need not necessarily pass the accelerated test.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0049
Teuvo Maunula, Arto Viitanen, Toni Kinnunen, Kauko Kanniainen
The emission regulations for mobile applications become stricter in Euro-IV to Euro-VI levels. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon can be removed by efficient Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) but Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx are more demanding requiring the use of active methods (urea-SCR and DPF) which will be world-wide implemented in the 2010's. Durable, coated V-SCR catalysts are based on stabilized raw materials and tailored preparation methods. Coated V2O5/TiO2-WO3 catalysts (ceramic 300/400 cpsi and metallic 500/600 cpsi) were evaluated by laboratory and engine bench experiments. Traditional V-SCR catalysts are durable up to about 600°C and have a high efficiency at 300°C-500°C. SCR activities were tailored to be higher also at 200°C-300°C or 500°C-600°C. The use of thermal stabilizers or the vanadium loading variation enabled the changes in operation window and stability.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0071
Dhananjay Kale
This paper will explore concepts of next-generation radiators that can adopt the high performance. The goal of this project is to design an advanced concept for a radiator for use in automobiles. Utilize the recently developed high conductivity carbon foam for thermal management in heat exchangers. The technique used to fabricate the foam produces mesosphere pitch-based carbon foam with extremely high thermal conductivity and an open-celled structure. An engineering model is formulated to account for the effects of porosity and pore diameter on the hydrodynamic and thermal performance of a carbon-foam finned tube heat exchanger. The thermal resistances are obtained from well-established correlations that are extended herein to account for the influence of the porous carbon foam.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0072
Suresh Babu Muttana, Sajid Mubashir
The automotive industry has to accommodate regulatory norms as well as customer demands in its vehicle design. These include better crash safety, new subsystems (for comfort) and high performance powertrains, all of which lead to increase in vehicle mass. Heavy vehicles consume more fuel and produce more emissions. While there are several ways to increase fuel efficiency (i.e. improving engine and transmission efficiency, reducing aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance), the most effective means of achieving improved fuel efficiency is by reducing the overall weight of the vehicle. Hence, materials selection plays a significant role in the fuel economy, emissions as well as economics of transportation. If mass of a component is reduced there will be secondary mass reductions in other components, thus resulting in further reduction of final vehicle mass (‘mass decompounding’). The paper highlights potential benefits of using lightweight materials for vehicle body applications.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0073
Vinod Kumar Mannaru, Keith Westwood
Creep is responsible for creating time dependent changes in product dimensions and reducing strength that could affect the ability of products to resist design loads. Creep behavior is an important design consideration for polymers as this phenomenon is observed at very low temperatures compared to metals. Literature suggests many mathematical models to represent this complex creep phenomenon; however they are limited to most common polymers. Today's automotive industry is equipped with state of the art polymer materials considering specific design requirements from the stake holders. The current study is focused on the engine oil pan and its sealing requirements for the automotive business. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) plays a very critical role in today's quest to reduce the design cycle and testing time.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0075
Prakash S
As we all know the price of Cu alloy keep on increasing trend and in few products like motors, generators and power electronics. Cu price plays a vital role in determining the cost. Particularly in power electronics products for the hybrid electric vehicles the electrical/thermal conductivity property of Cu alloy needs to be enhanced since of high voltage requirement within a small space. Many research activities are ongoing to enhance the properties of Cu metal by addition of various alloys compositions. In addition to that the extra-ordinary properties of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) were main focus for science and technology. Few successful attempts have been made for Copper-Carbon nanotube (Cu-CNT) composites by powder metallurgy techniques, also it was reported the issues on the detoriation of the CNT's properties due to mechanical working.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0077
Moqtik Bawase, Amita Baikerikar, M. R. Saraf
Variety of metals and elastomers/plastics are used in vehicle fuel systems. Though higher ethanol in gasoline can lead to efficient burning of fuel, material compatibility of non-metals is one of the major issues of concern. Material compatibility issue needs to be addressed before using higher contents of ethanol in gasoline because of reasons like permeation, swelling, leaching and plasticization, which lead to loss of material properties and subsequently resulting into field failures. For assessment of whether the fuel system will be able to perform as intended for its complete design life, it is necessary to know the impact of use of modified fuel on fuel system components. The impact on the in-use vehicles is particularly important in Indian context, where vehicles even more than 10 years old are plying. Most of the vehicles have not been designed for the 10% ethanol gasoline blend except for a few 4-wheelers.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0076
Sarita Kumari
In automotive seating system, seat upholstery quality has an important role in defining the overall quality and aesthetics of vehicle interiors. Technical textiles for seating system used in automotive applications are generally categorized into woven or knitted type. An automotive textile material is a composite material made up of three layers; base fabric (top layer), foam (middle layer) and scrim (bottom layer) as shown in Fig. 1. There are many challenges to be overcome during development of fabric e.g. mechanical, physical and aesthetic issues have an impact on overall seat quality, appearance and performance. These issues get highlighted during testing, which takes place during development stage of fabric. The concerns mentioned above are found in automotive textiles in both woven and knitted types of fabrics sourced from different manufacturing set-ups. This paper focuses on identification of problems during testing, followed by root cause analysis.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0078
Mohamed Anwar, Sandesh S, Ashok Kumar B, Sathya Prasad
A case study was conducted on the design, optimization and material replacement for an automobile suspension link. The link is part of a four bar mechanism. The mechanism was developed in Adams/Car® and multibody simulation was carried out on it. The joint forces arrived from the simulation were exported for finite element analysis of the components in OptiStruct®. Finally, topology and shape optimization was conducted to reduce the weight of the original component. A feasibility study was also carried out to replace the fabricated steel link with a heat treated cast iron link. Heat treated cast iron being lighter than steel, ensures reduction in weight without compromising on strength. The experiment resulted in a feasible optimized shape which was 32% lighter than the current shape of the link being used in the vehicle, while keeping the stresses and displacements within limits.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0080
Bade Simhachalam, C. Lakshmanarao
In this paper, energy absorption behavior of Aluminum Alloy AA 7003 and high strength steel tubes is investigated for automotive crash application both experimentally and numerically. The compression test results are compared with the static analysis results obtained from LS-Dyna Software. Tube thickness is varied in the LS-Dyna Finite Element Simulation Software to understand its effect on energy absorption behavior. The peak loads and energy absorption between experimental results and Numeral simulation are found to be in good agreement. The specific energy absorption between high strength steel and Aluminum Alloy AA 7003 is compared.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0081
M. A. Sai Balaji, K. Kalaichelvan
Non-Asbestos organic composite friction materials are increasingly used in automotive brake disc pad applications. The present paper deals with the role of various organic fibers namely Aramid, Acrylic fibers and the Cellulose fibers on the fade and recovery behavior of friction composites. The combination of various organic fibers percentage for thermal behavior is considered using Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The temperature raise during brake application will be between 150°C to 400°C and this zone of temperature is very critical to determine the fade characteristics during friction testing. Hence, three different friction composites are developed with same formulation varying only the percentage of Aramid, Cellulose and Acrylic fibers within the formulation. The formulations containing 10%, 12.5% and 15% of these fibers are developed as brake pads and designated as NA01, NA02 and NA03 respectively. Thermal analysis has been conducted using TGA.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0121
Kunjan Sanadhya, B. S. Deshmukh, D. P. Godse, S. Moharir, Y. V. Aghav
The research work focus on the occurrence of incylinder peak pressure variation and fuel spray characteristics on piston seizure. The study has been carried out for direct injection diesel engine of heavy duty off-highway application. The well optimized and normal combustion results into the peak cylinder pressure variation within 3.5 bar to 4 bar, whereas the abnormal combustion signposts the peak cylinder pressure almost double of normal combustion. The research work has been carried out to study the effect of different peak cylinder pressure variation and its effect on the start of piston seizure. The three different range of peak cylinder pressure variation have been selected for the study. The selected range of peak cylinder pressure depicts normal to abnormal combustion characteristics. The effect on piston motion dynamics and start of piston seizure has been carried out successfully.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0138
S. Sathya Prakash
Arriving at an accelerated durability test cycle either for a laboratory simulation or for an FE-based fatigue simulation is not an easy task. The loading spectra over the entire life span or desired validation cycle needs to be synthesized and the resulting signal is to be used for driving a rig or for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulation, as the case may be. Any structural durability evaluation essentially involves multiple measurements involving strain, acceleration, displacement, force-all of which directly or indirectly are a measure of fatigue damage on the structure. Multi channel dynamic events (time domain based) comprising strain signals can be accelerated by damage-editing, but what if the input time histories are not strains but are displacements, accelerations and forces? A directly “non damaging” parameter like displacement or acceleration or force signal makes an accelerated test synthesis not very easy.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0139
Sathish Kumar P, Vikram Suryavanshi, Manikandan M, Bollishetty Sreedhar
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development of today's automobiles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability to save the cost and time required for building and testing the prototype vehicles. The objective of this work was to find the service life of automotive structures like passenger commercial vehicle (bus) and truck's cabin by calculating cumulative fatigue life for operation under actual road conditions. Stresses in the bus and cabin are derived by means of performing finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body dynamics simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at the bus and cabin mount locations - using measured load data as input. Strain based fatigue life analysis was carried out in MSC-Fatigue using static stresses from Nastran and extracted force histories from ADAMS. The estimated fatigue life was compared with the physical test results.
2013-01-09
Technical Paper
2013-26-0141
Rajesh M. Metkar, Vivek K. Sunnapwar, Subhash Deo Hiwase
Crankshaft is one of the critical components of an IC engine, failure of which may result in disaster and makes engine useless unless costly repair performed. It possesses intricate geometry and while operation experiences complex loading pattern. In diesel engines, the transient load of cylinder gas pressure is transmitted to crankshaft through connecting rod, which is dynamic in nature with respect to magnitude and direction. However, the piston along with connecting rod and crankshaft illustrate respective reciprocating and rotating system of components. The dynamic load and rotating system exerts repeated bending and shear stress due to torsion, which are common stresses acting on crankshaft and mostly responsible for crankshaft fatigue failure. Hence, fatigue strength and life assessment plays an important role in crankshaft development considering its safety and reliable operation.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9012
Stephen Gurchinoff, Duane Fish, Brian Stern
High performance polymers (HPPs) consist of a group of materials that perform in more demanding applications than more commonly known plastic materials. These materials have been used to replace metals in the automotive industry in a number of applications. HPP's offer specific strengths in line with cast metals and offer some benefits in certain chemical environments over metals. The use of these materials in fuels has a long history and continues to expand as the capabilities become better understood, HPP's are of particular interest in areas where alcohol is present in fuel mixtures and causes corrosion on metals. HPP's have also been developed to serve as a low cost solutions to fuel permeation in fuel tanks by using two or three layer blow molded constructions. Ethylene glycol, oils, and other automotive fluids also have little effect on the mechanical properties of HPP's.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0194
Carlos Sakuramoto
In the middle of the global competition, inside the automotive sector, the perceived quality of costumers, related to the beauty and harmony of the outer skin surfaces of motor vehicles, has become one of the main determinant factors in the purchase process decision. In general, the initial perceived quality of a car is determined by an appealing design of its body, the color and gloss of its paint, and also the manufacturing and assembly accuracy of the skin panels. The appealing design makes the skin panel even more complex and hard to produce with current metal forming technologies and the results are often small distortions on the outer surfaces about tens of microns and most of the times paint does not cover such imperfections. Despite the technological advances along the years, surface quality inspection was still being performed by manual and subjective evaluation by experts.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9045
Kentaro Ikegami
This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9053
W. Boll, M. Bonifer, R. Kiemel, U. Endruschat
In this paper the development of durable Palladium containing catalytic coatings suitable for the application in a carbureted four-stroke multipurpose small engine is presented. The catalyst activity is evaluated with regard to the overall washcoat architecture in terms of i.e. implementation of oxygen storage material. The basic parameters of all investigated fresh and thermally aged catalyst formulations are evaluated by light-off experiments using a synthetic gas test bench. In addition, engine test bench experiments are conducted to prove the catalyst activity in real application conditions. Finally a set of promising formulations are successfully submitted to a 125 hours durability test run with regard to the EPA III class I regulation [1].
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