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Viewing 241 to 270 of 39471
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9134
Ta-Chuan Liu, Zong-Da Lin, Chia-Yun Yeh, Yun-Yang Chen
This paper describes the test results of low concentration butanol gasoline as fuel on motorcycle. It contains an immerse test to study material compatibility of 50% n-butanol gasoline(nB50) with some rubber, thermoplastics and Aluminum alloy usually used on motorcycle engine fuel system. An engine dyno test which is to compare the combustion characteristics of 20% n-butanol-gasoline (nB20) and gasoline. And an vehicle emission and fuel test which is to evaluate nB20 fuel emission characteristics and compliance of Taiwan motorcycles emission standards. The results shown there is no malfunction concern to use nB20 as fuel on the fuel injection motorcycle designed for gasoline. However, the NOx exhaust increase is a common issue of Alcohol alternative fuels on motorcycle.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9131
Naresh Kumar Gurasala, Arul Mozhi Selvan V, Ajay Balan, Shreyas Athreya
Biodiesel production from the waste oils and fats are the cost effective methods and prevents the environmental pollution by proper disposal techniques. Converting waste oils/fat into biodiesel using alkaline catalyst is difficult, as it contains more than one percent Free Fatty Acid (FFA) which will form soap during the transesterification process. Hence, it is desirable to reduce the level of FFA lower than one percent for biodiesel production using the pre-treatment process. In the present research work, ferric sulfate (solid catalyst) is used as a catalyst, because it converts FFA efficiently than the homogeneous acid catalyst which is corrosive in nature and takes longer reaction time.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0010
Thomas Hofer
Elastomeric modifiers have been commonly used in friction lining compounds to provide resilience, stability of frictional characteristics, reduced wear and improved fade resistance as well as providing some level of noise and vibration dampening. Thermal and frictional characteristics according to SAE J2430 will be compared between friction linings made with a virgin powder of Styrene Butadiene Rubber (P-SBR), a powder of reclaimed Styrene Butadiene Rubber (Tire Scrap) and a highly defined morphology powder of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (DM-NBR). Unique performance advantages of friction linings made with higher loading levels of DM-NBR powder and reduced copper content will also be discussed.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0036
Radoslaw P. Markiewicz, Carlos Agudelo, Eduardo Ferro
New rules in the states of California and Washington mandate the phase out of cadmium, copper, hexavalent chromium, lead, mercury, and asbestiform starting in 2014. These rules apply to most on-road vehicles with open brakes. The rules are similar in its end-goals (to minimize the environmental impact of heavy metals and asbestiform fibers on runoff waters and on air pollution). They are however different in key aspects regarding the timing, limits, and process to register the corresponding percent-by-weight of all formulations sold and installed in these particularstates. After a short background, the paper presents three key areas pertaining to the rules and its practical implications for the self-certification (declaration of conformity) process.
2013-05-15
Technical Paper
2013-36-0033
T. A. Flaim, N. B. Flaim, C. W. Greening, B. D. Greening
In addition to traditional load-deformation response of brake friction materials at constant load (compressibility), measurements for creep (time dependent deformation at constant load), and transient deformation response under increasing (apply) and decreasing (release) linear loading cycles have been measured and reported. One additional load-deformation response characteristic of brake friction materials that can be studied using the Greening Model 1140 test technology is that of nonlinear hysteresis under cyclic loading conditions (both linear and nonlinear). This presentation discusses the measurement of low frequency (< 10 Hz) deformation response of brake friction materials, how these measured results can be objectively quantified and normalized as well as how these measurements might provide additional insight into the ‘internal friction’ mechanisms of these complex composites.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0143
Fernando de Azevedo Silva, Erick Siqueira Guidi
The development of the technology of rolling bearings, such as cylindrical or thrust bearings has as one of its objectives constitute a set of mechanical components that combine mechanical strength and stiffness, designed to support the loads, speeds and life specified for a particular application. This project aims to discuss the application of the finite element method in the analysis of fatigue failure in rolling bearings, evaluating the influence of some construction and operational parameters in the stress distribution, such as geometry of contact surfaces, applied load, rotation, and properties of materials in contact. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between the stress caused by cyclic loading in fatigue life of these bearings. The analysis of the life of rolling bearings was performed using the commercial software ANSYS, based on the finite element method in a virtual environment.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0113
Dinecio dos Santos Filho
The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys. An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle's total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component. Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0107
Adriano Gonçalves dos Reis, Carlos de Moura Neto, Danieli Aparecida Pereira Reis, Antônio Jorge Abdalla
Search for alloys with improved high temperature specific strength and creep resistance properties for aerospace applications has led in the last decades to sustained research activities to develop new alloys and/or improve existing ones. The maraging steels evoked tremendous interest, especially in the aerospace world. Extra low carbon, high nickel, iron based alloys held great promise of providing an extraordinary combination of structural strength and fracture toughness. Applications of this alloy include aircraft structural components and rocket engine case for Satellite Launcher Vehicles. The objective of this work is to study the creep behavior of a solution treated Maraging 300 alloy. Constant load creep tests were conducted with this alloy at 550°C and in a stress range of 200 to 500 MPa. The creep parameters are determined. Samples with a gage length of 18.5 mm and a diameter of 3.0 mm were used for all tests.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0177
Patrícia R. Maia, L. C. Rolim Lopes
Fretting fatigue problems occur in contact regions of two components submitted to contact loading and external cyclic loading or oscillation due to vibration. The contact region is submitted to micro-displacement relative with amplitudes in the rage 5 - 100 μm. The severe tri-axial stress state and local plastic strain can accelerate cyclic damage accumulation and premature crack nucleation. Under fretting conditions fatigue strength can be reduced by 50 to 70%, relative to conventional fatigue. The strength and life of components under these conditions is a difficult task, due to the complexity of the phenomena of contact and the various factors that control the process of damage accumulation. In this work, it was built a numerical model to study the fretting process in a sphere-plane contact for RQC-100 steel, using ABAQUS application. The model enabled the analysis of fretting cycles for different combinations of contact load and cyclic stress amplitudes.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0359
C.C. Scozzafave, L.G.S Ericsson, U. Wildmann, D.M. Spinelli
The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for approval of component that is applied when the first version is tested on a durability track with closed circuit and fails without meeting the approval criteria previously established. This approach was applied in suspension support on commercial vehicles. The full commercial vehicle was modeled in finite element for stress analysis in frame torsional loading. By presenting stress regions near the material's limit, tests were made on durability track with deformation measurement at the main critical spots. The component has failed in one of the measured spot without reaching the established number of laps for component approval on track. With the deformation measurement signal for one lap at the failure spot, a fatigue analysis using the software FEMFAT strain ® has been made, correlating the obtained damage with the number of laps on track until component failure.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0369
Rok Kopun, David Greif, Wilfried Edelbauer, Dongsheng Zhang, Reinhard Tatschl, Bernhard Stauder
This paper outlines an improved computational methodology to simulate the immersion quenching heat transfer characteristics. Main applicability of the presented method lays in virtual experimental investigation of the heat treatment of cast aluminum parts, above all cylinder heads of internal combustion engines. The boiling phase change process between the heated part and a sub-cooled liquid domain is handled by using the Eulerian multi-fluid modeling approach, which is implemented within the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE®. Solid and liquid domains are treated simultaneously. While for the fluid domain mass, momentum and energy equations are solved in the context of multi-fluid modeling approach, only the energy equation is solved to predict the thermal field in the solid region. For the presented quenching simulation, the solid and fluid parts are contained in a single domain.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0276
Milene A. Luciano, Vanessa F. C. Lins
In the last decade, industries have been concerned about the processes production sustainability and with the use of alternative energies forms, in order to minimize the amount of waste generated in the process, and to suit market requirements. With this view, one alternative for automotive industry is the use of organometallic coated automotive fuel tanks. These tanks are not permeable to hydrocarbons, they do not need to be painted after stamping and are 100% recyclable. The replacement of fossil fuels with biofuels is also a way to minimize the emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reducing global warming. In this work, corrosion resistance of organometallic coated and tin coated automotive tanks, in contact with hydrated ethyl alcohol, gasoline, and diesel and soybean biodiesel was evaluated and compared, using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0233
Matheus Ferreira, Mário Praça, Ricardo Simão
The increasing demand for engines with higher efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and high power density is driving the future engine technologies in the direction of downsizing and reduction of number of cylinders, especially for Otto engines. Specifically the Power Cell Unit (PCU) components are of extreme interest due to its potential for weight and friction reduction. To cope with these demands a new lightweight connecting rod design for flex fueled engines was developed. The combination of thinner web thickness and bushingless small end (coated and profiled), through the optimization by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulation, enabled on the new lightweight design a weight reduction of 25% maintaining safe connecting rod fatigue limits in a studied flex fueled engine. The connecting rod bearings were evaluated using Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) simulation, and demonstrated suitable results. The connecting rod material selected was the premium 46MnVS6 forged steel.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2878
Rajesh Kashyap, Santhosh Kumar, Venkatesh G K
Mobile Air Conditioner's (MAC) are becoming part of every mobility solution, both for goods and people. Developed nations have started reigning in the side effects for inevitable use of refrigerants during usage and service. The most stringent and current regulation related to servicing of MAC is SAE J2788 for R134a refrigerant. This paper will discuss the parameters influencing AC service and challenges there by. The SAE J standard mandates recharge accuracy of ±15°g at 21 to 24°C temperature on Chevy Suburban for a target charge quantity of 1360 g. Though the standard is limited to testing condition at laboratory temperature, actual conditions in a service workshop would demand higher degree of fine tuning to meet efficient functioning of MAC, despite many controllable and uncontrollable variables. This paper would examine some of such variables and technological approaches adopted in achieving the above requirements.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2880
Dharmdev Vyas, Moqtik A Bawase, M R Saraf
Impact of higher gasoline-ethanol blends E10 and E20, on the fuel system components of gasoline vehicles must be known to ascertain the intended performance of these components throughout its service life. Study of compatibility of particular selected grades of metals, like Aluminium alloy, Brass & Stainless steel, with ethanol-gasoline blends (E10 and E20) in comparison with Commercial gasoline was conducted as per the guidelines given in SAE J1747. Three specimen of each metal were exposed (Fully immersed, half immersed & Vapour) to above fuels at 45 °C for 2016 hours. Mass loss/ gain data was recorded periodically at the end of 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th week and based on this data corrosion rate was calculated. Substantial tarnishing was observed in case of brass & slight colour change in case of aluminium & steel alloys. All the three distinct metals grades tested were found compatible with E10 & E20 with no significant corrosion rate at the end of the test period.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2879
Nishith Verma, Prabhakaran Arumugam, Kaushal Kumar Jha
One of the most essential components of automotive HVAC system is compressor. In a vehicle it is directly mounted on the engine. It derives power from the engine feed system to keep refrigerant moving in the HVAC system of the vehicle. It is also essential to complete the vapor compression cycle. During the operation, it causes considerable load on the engine and thus results in lower fuel efficiency and higher pollution. There are several types of compressors available globally. According to construction it can be classified as reciprocating piston type, scroll type and rotary vane type. The reciprocating piston types of compressors are further classified as fixed displacement and variable displacement. Normally the fixed displacement compressors have good idling cooling performance, but it increases the load on the engine. To reduce the load on the engine and to have good idling cooling performance, generally a variable displacement compressor is used.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2881
Aravind Vadiraj, Shashank Tiwari
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2899
Parul Chandak, Raghavendra K. Katti, Sandeep Raina
Fasteners performance on account of rust is not consistent and conductivity is a concern. A surface coat is applied on fasteners to provide corrosion protection, i.e., protection against rust. When a metal comes in contact with Oxygen present in the air, it gets corroded. So, an extra protective layer is required to prevent the contact of metal with air, hence preventing corrosion. However, surface coating peel-off is a persistent problem observed while assembly of fasteners, which leads to impetuous rusting of parts. So, repeated use of fasteners in service life becomes a matter of concern. At the same time, it is important to provide conductive surface coating to fasteners used in fuel filler area. When a human body comes in contact with fuel filler area, it is necessary to discharge the static electricity of humans, in order to avoid explosion, due to generation of spark in presence of fuel fumes.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2900
Muthuraj R, Vignesh E, Kannan C, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
The objective of this project is to reduce the weight of a wheel without affecting its primary functions such as fitment, air flow and fatigue life, the design is made with the concept of variable thickness, meaning reducing thickness wherever the stresses are low and also addressing the failures in the field. However, requirement of a prototype makes the validation process laborious, costly and time consuming. Finite Element Method (FEM) has evolved as a resourceful tool for analyzing various components under a variety of operating conditions. It is being used not only to predict the critical points bearing the highest stress in a wheel, but also to predict its fatigue life. The present study focuses on the design of variable thickness disc and validation of the same using FEM for air flow analysis and Rig testing. The analysis was carried out on existing and proposed designs and the salient features were compared.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2901
Charles Munirathinam, VImalathithan S.A, Sundararajan Thiyagarajan
The ability to introduce new lightweight materials into vehicles is not as simple like “remove and replace”. The direct challenges in light weighting are manufacturing feasibility for design concept and material selection for right application. The execution approaches of automotive lightweight and the design and manufacturing performance of typical parts with the product performance are discussed. Typical case studies and analysis is presented to evaluate the selection and application of the lightweight materials for different application.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2904
Kuldeepak Mahto, K. V. Balaji, Syamal Adhikari, Jeevanandam R.
This paper discusses about the feasibility of polypropylene-Starch blend in automotive application. Melt blending of polypropylene -starch Hybrid, polypropylene and talc are done using a co-rotating twin screw extruder. By optimizing the percentage of Polypropylene -starch hybrid, Polypropylene and talc, a formulation has been developed which is comparable with the commercial talc based polypropylene grade. Formulations based on regular talc and high aspect ratio talc are tried out and the composition based on high aspect ratio talc is found to have improved performance. Based on the Bio-PP formulation, a pillar trim auto component is molded. This pillar trim met the functional, aesthetic requirements but with higher weight. The developed composition contains about 18% starch and is a small step towards using greener materials with a sustainable raw material base in Automobiles.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2831
Suresh Babu Muttana, Arghya Sardar
Mass reduction of vehicle is crucial for increasing fuel efficiency and reducing emissions so as to address rising environmental concerns. In case of battery electric vehicles, this will further augment the benefits in reducing the energy storage capacity required at a given electric drive range. The range of an electric vehicle depends on the stored energy in the battery pack and energy use by the vehicle. The energy use by a vehicle depends on several factors including vehicle mass, power train efficiency as well as driving cycle. Given a range requirement, vehicle's energy efficiency determines the energy storage required. A lighter vehicle will typically require a smaller battery for a given electric range, which in turn will result in energy savings. Hence, vehicle mass and battery mass are critical factors in energy efficiency of the vehicle.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2848
V. Sivakumar
Spring seat plays major role in bogie suspension; which is guiding and controlling the leaf spring for better suspension and also to withstand the compressive load from leafs. Currently used spring seats are failing frequently in medium and heavy duty vehicles, which lead to customer concerns by higher idle time and part replacement cost. Thickness of the spring seat can't be increased by large extent due to packaging constraints in the vehicle. Stress levels identified by FEA method are found higher than the current material capacity. With these constraints, the spring seat has been re-designed with improved strength and ductility of material by modern technology - Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI). The parts have been developed and assembled in various tipper applications and performance was studied. The developed spring seat shows five times superior durability compare to existing design.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2788
Sathish Kumar P, Manikandan M, Mahendra N
The objective of this work is to find cumulative fatigue damage of the truck cabin caused by proving ground data. Stresses in the cabin are derived by finite element analysis using inertia relief method. Multi body simulation software ADAMS was used to obtain the load history at cabin attachment points using measured proving ground data as input. The fatigue damage of the truck cabin was estimated by linear super position method with static results and load history. The calculated numerical fatigue damage results were compared with physical test results and correlated.
2013-11-27
Technical Paper
2013-01-2781
Sathish Kumar P, Sreedhar bollishetty, Vikram Suryavanshi
Evaluation of vehicle structural durability is one of the key requirements in design and development process of commercial vehicles. Computer simulations are used to estimate vehicle durability because of its cost advantage and reduction in lead time to launch the product. The objective of this work is to find the service life of the passenger commercial vehicle (Bus) by calculating cumulative fatigue life in operation under actual road conditions. Chassis and superstructure were considered for this exercise. Measured road load data at vehicle wheel centers were used for performing multi-body simulation in ADAMS to extract load histories at attachment points. Modal transient response analysis is performed using MSC-Nastran with the extracted load time history. Strain based fatigue life analysis is carried out in MSC-Fatigue using modal superposition method (MSM). The estimated chassis and superstructure fatigue life is compared with the physical test results.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2687
Jim Barker, Stephen Cook, Paul Richards
Diesel fuel distilled from crude oil should contain no greater than trace amounts of sodium. However, fuel specifications do not include sodium; there is a limit of five parts per million for the amount of sodium plus potassium in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) used as biodiesel. Sodium compounds are often used as the catalyst for the esterification process for producing FAME and sodium hydroxide is now commonly used in the refining process to produce ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel from crude oil. Good housekeeping should ensure that sodium is not present in the finished fuel. A finished fuel should not only be free of sodium but should also contain a diesel fuel additive package to ensures the fuel meets the quality standards introduced to provide reliable operation, along with the longevity of the fuel supply infrastructure and the diesel engines that ultimately burn this fuel.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2688
Ben Hornby, Georgina Cuckston, Rinaldo Caprotti, Iain More
The high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) was developed in the early 1990s as a test method to assess diesel fuel lubricity in order to provide wear protection for fuel injection pumps. This was necessary in response to the many field failures that occurred following the introduction of ultra-low sulphur diesel in Sweden. The prevalent fuel injection equipment (FIE) technology at this time utilised rotary pumps capable of reaching maximum fuel pressures of ∼650 bar in systems for direct injection engines. The continued drive for efficiency led to many changes in FIE technologies, materials and pressures. Modern high pressure common rail pumps reach significantly higher pressures, with 2200 bar available today and pressures up to 3000 bar discussed in the industry.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0068
Fabio Auriemma, Hans Rammal, Jüri Lavrentjev
The goal of this paper is to provide a complete characterization of acoustic performance for a novel type of advanced acoustic material - micro grooved element (MGE). In a previous study, the MGEs have been proved to offer a respectable alternative for the existing and increasingly popular micro perforated elements (MPEs). The MGEs are multi-layer elements where the acoustic attenuation effect originates from viscous losses taking place in a number of sub-millimeter grooves forming acoustic micro-paths inside the material. This new configuration allows to replace the laser perforation process, used to manufacture the MPEs, with less time consuming and more cost effective technologies. Moreover, such elements preserve low weight and surface roughness. Experiments have demonstrated that the MGEs can be regarded as suitable solution for noise control in a wide range of applications.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0056
Jianxi Zhou, Stephane Richard, Christine Mounaïm-Rousselle, Fabrice Foucher
In the present study, experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder downsized SI engine with different rates of oxygen (15% to 27% by volume in the total mixture of intake gases except fuel) and equivalence ratios (from 0.45 to 1). Therefore, the oxygen volume fraction is due to oxygen enrichment or nitrogen dilution. The study of the impact of controlling oxygen concentration on the combustion characteristics and emissions was performed at 1400 rpm, at several loads (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) from 400 to 1000 kPa). For each operation point, the spark advance and the intake pressure were adjusted simultaneously in order to maintain the load and obtain a minimum value of indicated Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC). The effect of oxygen concentration on the engine combustion characteristics was simulated by using the commercial software AMESim, with the combustion model developed by IFP-EN, and an adapted algorithm was used to avoid residual gas calibration.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0108
Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot, Philip de Goey, Bengt Johansson
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
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