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Viewing 61 to 90 of 58638
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1419
Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti, Luca Poggio, Daniele Zecchetti
The paper presents the development and real-time implementation of a combustion control system based on optimal management of multiple spark discharge events, in order to increase combustion stability, reduce pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, and avoid partial or missing combustion cycles. The proposed approach has been developed as a cost-effective solution to several combustion-related issues that affect Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines during cold start and part load operation. The problem of optimizing combustion efficiency and improving its stability during such operating modes is even more critical for high performance engines, which are designed to maximize charge efficiency especially at medium-high engine speeds.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1418
Seongeun Yu, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi, Sunghwan Cho, Kyoungchan Han
Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1417
Bastian Maass, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
More and more stringent emission regulations require advanced control technologies for combustion engines. This goes along with increased monitoring requirements of engine behaviour. In case of emissions behaviour and fuel consumption the actual combustion efficiency is of highest interest. A key parameter of combustion conditions is the in-cylinder pressure during engine cycle. The measurement and detection is difficult and cost intensive. Hence, modelling of in-cylinder conditions is a promising approach for finding optimum control behaviour. However, on-line controller design requires real-time scenarios which are difficult to model and current modelling approaches are either time consuming or inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach of in-cylinder condition prediction. Rather than reconstructing in-cylinder pressure signals from vibration transferred signals through cylinder heads or rods this approach predicts the conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1424
Adrian P. Lee
Full-toroidal traction drives (IVT, TCVT & TVAD) have demonstrated a significant fuel economy, emissions and cost benefits across a diverse range of applications. However, increasing emphasis is being placed on power density and endurance limits, hence additional demands are being placed on the ability of the variator elements and traction fluid to withstand the heavily loaded rolling contact fatigue conditions within the variator. This paper describes the experimental work done to demonstrate the high temperature durability of traction fluid and variator disc and roller material. In addition, the latest fatigue endurance limit testing results are presented which provide further evidence of traction fluid ‘fill for life’
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1423
Joachim Foth
The megatrends "reduction of emissions" and "fuel consumption reduction" play a predominant role in the development of powertrains. For transit buses this implies both the reduction of emissions and pollutions of the internal combustion engine, and, on the other hand, a further reduction of noise and brake dust. Also very important is the reduction of both fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. For all these targets the actual developments on the engine side have led to great improvements in the last decades, but what can be mentioned for the other components of the powertrain, especially looking for transmissions? First of all the relevant trends for transit buses have to be considered: A large increase of the torque of the combustion engines during the last years has a big impact on the development of transmissions for buses.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1422
Ying Huang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang, Lin Chen, Xueqing Yang
In-cylinder pressure sensor, which provides the means for precise combustion control to achieve improved fuel economy, lower emissions, higher comfort, additional diagnostic functions etc., is becoming a necessity in future diesel engines, especially for chemical-kinetics dominated PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) or LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) engines. In this paper, new control strategy is investigated to utilize in-cylinder pressure information into engine start process, in order to guarantee the success of engine start and in the meantime prevent penalty of fuel economy or pollutant emissions due to excessive fuel injection. An engine start acceleration model is established to analyze the engine start process. “In-cylinder Combustion Analysis Tool” (i-CAT), is used to acquire and process the in-cylinder pressure data and deliver the combustion indices to ECU (Engine Control Unit). Feedback control is accomplished in ECU based on this information.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1421
Yashodeep Lonari, Christopher Polonowski, Jeffrey Naber, Bo Chen
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1428
Mark A. Schang, Matthew Whitton, David Webert, Todd Berger
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1427
Takahide Kobayashi, Morise Masaru, Tomoyuki Kano, Mizuki Imafuku, Masanobu Yamada
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new drivetrain for their flagship Lexus LFA sports car. Passionate driving experience was pursued at the forefront of development. Superior vehicle performance, handling, and responsiveness that seem to anticipate the driver's intentions are achieved. Special vehicle packaging and component placement are adopted in the LFA in order to realize such performance. The engine, clutch, and front counter gear are positioned at the front of the vehicle, and the transaxle at the rear. The engine and transaxle are connected by a rigid torque tube. The transaxle is an automated manual transmission equipped with an electrohydraulic actuator for controlling both the shift and clutch operations. This actuator enables accurate control of the transmission and extremely quick response to shift paddle operation by the driver. This paper describes a general outline of the drivetrain and each component that has significantly contributed to LFA product appeal.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1426
Toshihiro Saito, Koji Miyamoto, Tetsuhiko Kajiwara
In designing CVT pulleys, the effect of the fit clearance of the movable pulleys and their stiffness on the transmission efficiency and strength of the metal pushing V-belt is not necessarily clear. The research discussed in this paper introduced a pulley model that defined the pulleys as elastic bodies to a previously developed technology for the prediction of the transmission efficiency of the belts. As a result, it was found that when the fit clearance is reduced, the transmission efficiency of the belt is increased, and the amplitude of stress on the innermost rings and the element neck section is reduced. In addition, it was found that if pulley stiffness was reduced transmission efficiency was also reduced, and the amplitude of stress on the element neck section increased. This indicated that the fit clearance and the pulley stiffness changed the degree of deflection of the pulleys in the axial direction.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1425
Satoshi Kamijo, Hideo Tomomatsu, Makoto Sawada, Takuro Shimazu
TOYOTA has developed the iQ with a 1.3L engine for the Scion brand in USA. Due to the importance of fun-to-drive factor for the Scion brand image, a responsive driving performance is required even with compact packaging and a small engine. In addition, because of the recent attention to global-warming and energy issues on a global scale, development of vehicles with high fuel economy is one of the most important issues for a car manufacturer. Therefore, it is necessary for a vehicle to have both high driving performance and fuel economy. TOYOTA has adopted the CVT-i as the transmission for this purpose. The following were achieved by adopting the CVT-i as the transmission for the iQ(1.3L). 1 Responsive driving performance with shift changes without a time lag.2 Compact transmission for efficient vehicle packaging3 Class-leading fuel economy performance. Moreover, it was developed with adjustments for the US market by improving the shift schedule for a linear acceleration feel.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1430
Cleber Augusto Celli
The objective of this paper is to share the benefits regarding a study of fuel economy improvements involving Powertrain technologies. In this case our research was concentrated in vehicles transmissions initiatives like a Six Speed Manual Transmission application in Passengers Vehicles with low displacement engines. During the last 10 years the fuel economy challenges has presented a significant growth mainly due to two simple factors. First of all the fuel price which is the main driver to keep this technological continuous improvement. This fact has a direct influence in customers satisfaction, so all car makers concentrate huge efforts to provide intelligent solutions in order to increase competitiveness, as for example, the flex fuel engines (Figure 1). In parallel, the “green” appeal raises everyday stronger. Therefore the air pollution caused by vehicles gas emissions reinforces this commitment.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1429
Yanxiao Fu, Yang Yang, Xiangyang Xu, Yanfang Liu
With the rapid development of the world's automobile industry, china's car sales have increased with each passing day. The automobile industry has become one of china's leading industries, and the market share of the automatic transmission in the Chinese car market is growing rapidly. Based on the actual status of the automatic transmission industry in china, we analyze the present condition and development tendency of the automatic transmission market in china in this thesis. We analyze and discuss some features like structure, design, technology of the AT / AMT / CVT / DCT and their adaptability in Chinese automatic transmission market. On that basis we bring forward a conceptual design of a 8-speed automatic transmission which is for a front-wheel drive vehicles, then we analyze the feature of 8AT's design, introduces the design and engineering development of 8AT.Finally, we discuss the possibility SOP of 8AT in China.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1402
Akemi Ito, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Masaaki Nakamura
Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1400
Emin Yusuf Avan, Robin Mills, Rob Dwyer-Joyce
An essential part of the total parasitic loss in an IC engine is due to the piston ring and liner friction. In this work, a piston ring-liner reciprocating test rig combined with ultrasonic film thickness measurement system was used to understand frictional characteristic of the lubricant that formed in the contact. Two test procedures were carried out for two lubricants with different viscosities. These procedures were a step load increment at a constant speed and a step speed increment at a constant load. The results showed that the piston ring-liner contact was in boundary lubrication regime for low operating speeds at high load. This was consistent with the oil film thickness data. However, mixed lubrication regime was observed for high operating speeds at low loads. The lubricant film thicknesses increased with speed and decreased with load.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1404
Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1407
Fanghui Shi
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1401
Yoolkoo Kim, Hyundal Park, Jeong Uk An, Tae-Suek Kan, Joonsung Park
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1408
Tao Chen, Hui Xie, Le Li, Weifei Yu, Zhihua Li, Hua Zhao
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1405
Pranay Nagar, Scott Miers
Engine friction serves as an important domain for study and research in the field of internal combustion engines. Research shows that friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for almost 20% of the losses in an engine and therefore any effort to minimize friction losses will have an immediate impact on engine efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The two most common methods to experimentally measure engine friction are the floating liner method and the instantaneous indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) method. This paper provides a detailed review of the IMEP method, presents major findings, and discusses sources of error. Although the instantaneous IMEP method is relatively new compared to the floating liner method, it has been used by many scientists and engineers for calculating piston ring assembly friction with consistent results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1406
Mahesh Puthiya Veettil, Fanghui Shi
The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1412
Jerzy Merkisz, Marek Waligorski, Maciej Bajerlein, Jaroslaw Markowski
The paper describes the problem of the combustion process diagnostics dedicated for CI engines with direct injection of HDV vehicles in the aspect of misfire detection monitor application for OBD and EOBD systems. The monitor is based on the vibroacoustic signal utilization. Because of that, frequency method and the method of time-frequency parameterization map a(t,f) of vibration accelerations generated by combustion engine were used. The above article is directed to get a diagnostic monitor that would detect faults and incorrect runs in the combustion process (including also its lack) in the real time with the help of vibration accelerations estimators. Point estimators of the process and research stages and conditions are presented. The signal analyses and limits of a method use, criteria of the process qualification and its accuracy were also write down.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1411
Fan Zhang, Hongming Xu, Jun Zhang, Guohong Tian, Gautam Kalghatgi
Conventional diesel-fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) engines have been investigated by many researchers previously. However, the ease of ignition and difficulty of vaporization of diesel fuel make it imperfect for PPCI combustion. In this study, dieseline (blending of diesel and gasoline) was looked into as the Partially Premixed Compression Ignition fuel for its combination of two fuel properties, ignition-delay-increasing characteristics and higher volatility, which make it more suitable for PPCI combustion compared to neat diesel. A series of tests were carried out on a Euro IV light-duty common-rail diesel engine, and different engine modes, from low speed/load to middle speed/load were all tested, under which fuel blend ratios, EGR rates, injection timings and quantities were varied. The emissions, fuel consumption and combustion stability of this dieseline-fuelled PPCI combustion were all investigated.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1410
Andrea Catania, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Alessandro Catanese, Gerhard Landsmann
A new predictive zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model has been applied to both PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and conventional diesel engines to simulate HRR (Heat Release Rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces on the basis of the injection rate. The model enables one to estimate the injection rate profile by means of the injection parameters that are available from the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit), i.e., SOI (Start Of main Injection), ET (Energizing Time), DT (Dwell Time) and injected fuel quantities, taking the injector NOD (Nozzle Opening Delay) and NCD (Nozzle Closure Delay) into account. An accumulated fuel mass approach has been applied to estimate Qch (released chemical energy), from which the main combustion parameters that are of interest for combustion control in IC engines, such as, SOC (Start Of Combustion), MFB50 (50% of Mass Fraction Burned) have been derived.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1409
José Carlos Zavala, Charles Folkerts
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1415
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte
Combustion control is assuming a crucial role in reducing engine tailpipe emissions and maximizing performance. The number of actuations influencing the combustion is increasing, and, as a consequence, the control parameters calibrations is becoming challenging. One of the most effective factors influencing performance and efficiency is the combustion phasing: gasoline engines Electronic Control Units (ECU) manage the Spark Advance (SA) in order to set the optimal combustion phase. SA optimal values are usually determined by means of calibration procedures carried out on the test bench by changing SA values while monitoring Brake and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP, IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and pollutant emissions. The effect of SA on combustion is stochastic, due to the cycle-to-cycle variation: the analysis of mean values requires many engine cycles to be significant of the performance obtained with the given control setting.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1416
Jerzy Merkisz, Marek Waligorski, Maciej Bajerlein, Jaroslaw Markowski
The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1413
Akira Yamashita, Hisashi Ohki, Terutoshi Tomoda, Koichiro Nakatani
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1414
Ferdinando Taglialatela-Scafati, Nicola Cesario, Mario Lavorgna, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Increasing demands on emissions reduction and efficiency encouraged a progressive introduction of cleaner combustion concepts. "Advanced" diesel combustions offer a high potential for simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot within the engine through high inlet charge dilution and mixture homogenization. However, the potential benefits of these combustions in terms of emissions are counterbalanced by their high sensitivity to in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions. This sensitivity makes the engines require closed loop combustion control with real-time information about combustion quality. The parameter widely considered as the most important for the evaluation of the combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the cylinder pressure. However, this kind of measure involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder, expensive sensors and a special mounting process.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1509
Takahiro Ryu, Kenichiro Matsuzaki, Takashi Nakae, Atsuo Sueoka, Yoshihiro Takikawa, Yoichi Ooi, Daisuke Nakagoshi, Yuichiro Hirai
In recent years, automatic transmissions have become widely used in cars. Compared to manual transmissions, automatic transmissions suffer from poor fuel economy. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a lock-up clutch system in the torque converter has been applied. When the rotating speed of the turbine approaches that of the pump, the input shaft is directly connected to the gear train through friction by means of the lock-up clutch. In the process of slipping at the lock-up clutch, frictional vibration referred to as shudder sometimes occurs. When shudder occurs, the power train, as well as the tires and the car seats, vibrates. Therefore, the shudder adversely affects passenger comfort. In the present study, experiments are conducted to analyze the shudder mechanism using a bench test apparatus and an actual vehicle. The characteristics of friction in the lock-up clutch is found to have a negative slope with respect to the relative slip velocity.
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