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Viewing 91 to 120 of 58642
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1510
Arash Keshavarz, Mohsen Bayani Khaknejad, Shahram Azadi
The main purpose of this research is to tune the stiffness of engine mounts of a passenger car in order to reduce the transmitted vibration to driver with regard to the permissible values of natural frequencies of engine using DOE method. Based on the previous experiments, prevalent criteria are introduced by automakers which would lead the designer to optimum values of mountings' stiffness. In this paper we benefit the usage of experimental frequency bands introduced by the NVH authoritative references. To achieve this, we use a mixed Finite element and multi body dynamic modeling. The FEM model of the body front end and engine subframe is developed using Hypermesh. The engine block is modeled as a rigid body attached to the neighbor parts with rubber mounts. The modal natural file of the whole system is created by the aim of MSC/Nastran and exported to the ADAMS/View for further analysis.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1512
Jaegon Yoo, Klaus Pfeiffer, Koo-Tae Kang
Advanced powertrain test, which is simulating real road load condition, was performed on the dynamic test bed. This cutting edge system can reproduce real road resistance based upon the vehicle dynamic model and wheel slip model. This wheel slip function is simulating the real behavior of the powertrain wheel as close as possible at each wheel independently. Additionally, low inertia of dynamometer motor themselves is another advantage for this purpose. This test bed is capable of testing all kinds of 2WD and 4WD powertrain configuration regardless of transmission type. Also, vehicle configuration can be mounted and tested on this test bed with small addition of supporting system alternatively. For the application, a four wheel drive powertrain was mounted on the test bed and driveline noise and vibration behavior such as transfer rattling noise and tip in/out shock were reproduced on this test bed.
2011-05-17
Journal Article
2011-01-1517
Robert E. Powell, Dena Hendriana, Brian Gutzeit, Kevin Golsch, Gregory Fadler
Unusual noises during vehicle acceleration often reflect poorly on customer perception of product quality and must be removed in the product development process. Flow simulation can be a valuable tool in identifying root causes of exhaust noises created due to tailpipe openings surrounded by fascia structure. This paper describes a case study where an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the combined flow and acoustic radiation from an exhaust opening through fascia components provided valuable insight into the cause of an annoying flow noise. Simulation results from a coupled thermal/acoustic analysis of detailed tailpipe opening geometry were first validated with off-axis microphone spectra under wide open throttle acceleration. After studying the visualizations of unsteady flow velocity and pressure from the CFD, a problem that had proved difficult to solve by traditional “cut and try” methods was corrected rapidly.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1727
Ashley Gillibrand, Iain Suffield, Xavier Vinamata, Roger Williams, Andreas Brückmann
Many electric (EV) and hybrid-electric (HEV) vehicles are designed to operate using only electric propulsion at low road speeds. This has resulted in significantly reduced vehicle noise levels in urban situations. Although this may be viewed by many as a benefit, a risk to safety exists for those who rely on the engine noise to help detect the presence, location and behaviour of a vehicle in their vicinity. In recognition of this, legislation is being introduced globally which will require automotive manufacturers to implement external warning sound systems. A key challenge for premium vehicle manufacturers is the development of a suitable warning sound signature which also conveys the appropriate brand aspirations for the product. A further major difficulty exists when trying to robustly evaluate potential exterior sounds by running large-scale trials in the real world.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1726
Eun Gyeong Shin, Michael Ahlswede, Christopher Muenzberg, In-Soo Suh, Ferhat Engel
It is a global research and development trend to introduce electric vehicle into the market in a prompt manner; however, there have been technological issues with batteries, or in general, an energy storage technology in moving vehicles. KAIST, a globally leading university majoring in science and technology in Korea, has been developing a break-through wireless power transfer technology by applying inductive power transfer technology, as demonstrated in a public park in March, 2010, which is referred to as “OLEV- On-line Electric Vehicle.” With the technology, it is possible to drive the electric powertrain and charge its battery simultaneously while the vehicle is in operation on the road. In this paper, a couple of specific noise and vibration phenomena are introduced which have been observed during the development phase of the proto-type of test vehicle.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1724
Juliette Florentin, Francois Durieux, Yukihisa Kuriyama, Toyoki Yamamoto
The present work attempts a complete noise and vibration analysis for an electric vehicle at concept stage. The candidate vehicle is the Future Steel Vehicle (FSV), a lightweight steel body with an electric motor developed by WorldAutoSteel [1,2,3]. Measurements were conducted on two small Mitsubishi vehicles that both share the same body, yet one is equipped with an internal combustion engine and the other with an electric motor. The outcome was used as a starting point to identify assets and pitfalls of electric motor noise and draw a set of Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) targets for FSV. Compared to a combustion engine, the electric motor shows significantly lower sound pressure levels, except for an isolated high frequency peak heard at high speeds (3500 Hz when the vehicle drives at top speed). The prominence of this peak is lowered by increased use of acoustic absorbent materials in the motor compartment.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1725
Jay Pliskow, Koorosh Naghshineh, Robert Wall Emerson, Dae Kim, Kyle Myers
The increased popularity of hybrid electric vehicles has created a growing concern for the safety of blind and visually impaired pedestrians. Accident data published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration demonstrates a higher incident rate among hybrid electrics vehicles compared to internal combustion engine vehicles during slow speed movement, like when coming to a stop and leaving/entering a parking spot. The typical lower sound output of hybrid electric vehicles, compared to internal combustion engine vehicles, has been reported as the reason for higher incident rates. Previous studies have focused on the overall sound pressure level of vehicles and the ability for blind pedestrians to detect their approach.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1728
Kiran Govindswamy, Georg Eisele
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has caused a significant change in many areas including the world of vehicle acoustics. Comments from the media currently range from “silently hums the future” to “electric car roars with V8 sound”. Decades of experience in designing brand-specific vehicle sound based on noise and vibration generated by combustion engines cannot be simply transferred to the upcoming vehicles driven purely by electric powertrains. Although electric vehicles are almost always considerably quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines, the interior noise is characterized by high-frequency noise components which can be subjectively perceived as annoying and unpleasant. Moreover, such disturbing noise is no longer masked by combustion engine noise. Fundamental questions regarding the sound design of electric vehicles have yet to be answered: it remains unclear what exactly the interior noise of an electric vehicle should sound like.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1765
Haifeng Liu, Peng Zhang, Zheming Li, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao, Xuan Feng
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1764
Ulugbek Azimov, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara
The objective of this study is to investigate the performance and emissions in a pilot-ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine, fueled with different types of gaseous fuels under various equivalence ratios. It is found that if certain operating conditions are maintained, conventional dual-fuel engine combustion mode can be transformed to the combustion mode with the two-stage heat release. This mode of combustion was called the PREMIER (PREmixed Mixture Ignition in the End-gas Region) combustion. During PREMIER combustion, initially, the combustion progresses as the premixed flame propagation and then, due to the mixture autoignition in the end-gas region, ahead of the propagating flame front, the transition occurs with the rapid increase in the heat release rate.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1763
Kevin Cedrone, Wai K. Cheng, Samir Chahine, John Williams, Brad VanDerWege
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1762
Ryo Odajima, Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engine is able to achieve low NOx and particulate emissions as well as high efficiency. However, its operation range is limited by the knocking at high load, which is the consequence of excessively rapid pressure rises. It has been suggested that making thermal or fuel inhomogeneities can be used to solve this problem, since these inhomogeneities have proved to create different auto-ignition timing zones. It has also been suggested that EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) has a potential to reduce pressure rise rate. But according to a past report, it was concluded that under the same fueling ratio and CA50 with different initial temperature and EGR ratio, the maximum PRR is almost constant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental effects of EGR. First, I considered EGR homogeneous charge case. In this case, the effects of EGR and its components like CO₂, H₂O or N₂ on HCCI combustion process is argued.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1769
Robert Kiplimo, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Shiyu Zhou, Sumito Yokobe
Effects of injection parameters on combustion and emission characteristics of diesel PCCI engine operating on optical and test engine was investigated. PCCI combustion was achieved through slightly narrow included angle injector, low compression ratio coupled with exhaust gas recirculation. Analysis based on diesel spray evolution, combustion process visualization and analysis was carried out. Spray penetration was evaluated and related to the exhaust emissions. Advancing the injection timing and EGR extended the ignition delay, decreased NOx emissions and increased HC, smoke and CO emissions. Higher injection pressure led to low emissions of NOx, smoke, HC and comparable CO. Optimum spray targeting position for minimum emission was identified. Impingement on the piston surface led to deterioration of emissions and increased fuel consumption while spray targeting the upper edge of Derby hat wall showed improvement in emission and engine performance.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1768
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Daijiro Tanaka, Teppei Maruko, Satoshi Kato, Masato Kishiura, Jiro Senda
A dual fuel operation with different reactivity fuels has the possibility of optimizing performance and emissions in premixed charge compression ignition engines by controlling the spatial concentration and distribution of both fuels. In the present study, n-heptane and i-octane were independently injected through two different injectors. In-cylinder pressure analysis and emissions measurement were performed in a compression ignition engine. Injection timings, fuel quantity ratio between the injections were changed for the two cases, in which one fuel was injected using a port fuel injection system while the other was directly injected into the cylinder, in order to drastically vary mixture distributions and ignition timings. In addition, an optical diagnostic was performed in a rapid compression and expansion machine to develop an understanding of the ignition processes of the two mixtures.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1767
Thananchai Tepimonrat, Kittisak Kamsinla, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, Tanet Aroonsrisopon, Krisada Wannatong
The current study examined diesel dual fuel (DDF) operations in a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine under low load conditions. Experiments were performed to investigate effects of diesel injection timings and exhaust valve timing advance for DDF operations under high levels of natural gas utilization. Results showed that diesel injection timings played an important role in DDF combustion. Increasing the ratio of natural gas to total fuel resulted in greater amounts of HC and CO emissions. Advancing the exhaust valve timing increased the internal EGR, raised the in-cylinder temperature at IVC, and improved the combustion efficiency. To maximize the ratio of natural gas to total fuel, a combination of proper exhaust valve timing advance and a tuned timing of diesel injection should be employed to avoid excessive HC and CO emissions.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1766
Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Koichi Hatamura, Junichi Takanashi, Yasuhiro Urata, Toshio Yamada
To extend the operating range of a gasoline HCCI engine, the blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system and the EGR guide were developed and experimentally examined. The concepts of these techniques are to obtain a large amount of dilution gas and to generate a strong in-cylinder thermal stratification without an external supercharger for extending the upper load limit of HCCI operation whilst keeping dP/dθmax and NOx emissions low. Also, to attain stable HCCI operation using the BDSC system with wide operating conditions, the valve actuation strategy in which the amount of dilution gas is smaller at lower load and larger at higher load was proposed. Additionally to achieve multi-cylinder HCCI operation with wide operating range, the secondary air injection system was developed to reduce cylinder-to-cylinder variation in ignition timing. As a result, the acceptable HCCI operation could be achieved with wide operating range, from IMEP of 135 kPa to 580 kPa.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1747
R. Dubouil, J. F. Hetet, A. Maiboom
One of the main advantage of a hybrid thermal-electric vehicle is that the internal combustion engine (ICE) can be shut down when not needed anymore (Stop&Start system, propulsion with full-electric mode), thus reducing fuel consumption. But this use of the ICE impacts its thermal behavior because of a lack of heat source and thermal losses. Furthermore, the ICE is sometimes used with higher load in order to charge the batteries that increases the total heating power produced by the combustion. Therefore, the simulation of hybrid vehicles becomes really interesting to evaluate the effect of different control strategies (energy repartition between the engine and the electric motor) on the fuel consumption. However, in most of actual hybrid vehicles simulation tools, for calculation speed reasons, the thermal phenomena are either not taken into account, or their calculation is not based on physical equations (empirical formulas). Their predictive capability is then limited.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1746
Yuichiro Kimura, Motoichi Murakami
Hybrid vehicles (HVs) are becoming more widely used. Since HVs supplement engine drive with motor power, the lubricant oil temperature remains at a lower level than in a conventional gasoline vehicle. This study analyzed the effect of cylinder bore temperature and lubricant oil temperature on engine friction. The results showed that, although the lubricant oil temperature was not relevant, the bore temperature had significant effect on piston friction. It was found that raising the temperature of the middle section of the cylinder bore was the most effective way of reducing piston friction.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1760
Magnus Sjoberg, John E. Dec
Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1761
Tomohiro Hasegawa, Masamitsu Kinoshita, Toru Arima, Kou Sato, Mitsuaki Tanabe
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition combustion in homogenized temperature fields was investigated experimentally using a super rapid compression machine. Temperature fields before a blue flame occurs are thought to control the burning process. The time of blue flame occurrence, burn rate and ignition delay time were measured. Temperature homogeneity before a blue flame occurred was controlled by two means. One was by the piston shape which controlled the roll-up vortex and the other was by the heat release of low temperature reactions that has a homogenizing effect. It was found that homogenized temperature fields contribute to the occurrence of a homogeneous blue flame while inhomogeneous fields produce an uneven occurrence.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1710
Diego d'Udekem, Masatake Saitoh, Benoit Van den Nieuwenhof, Takashi Yamamoto
During the acceleration of a vehicle, the contribution of the exhaust noise to the interior sound pressure level is significant. The acoustic insulation brought by the trim components must be designed with that consideration in mind. As such, there is an increasing need for developing reliable methods for predicting the airborne noise transmission between the exhaust system and the sound pressure level at the passenger's ears, taking into account the positive impact of various trim components. This paper presents a methodology that has been developed for addressing this need. Based on a finite/infinite element method, the computational procedure is divided in two steps: 1 The first step involves the exterior acoustic field all around the vehicle.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2094
Boonlue Sawatmongkhon, Athanasios Tsolakis, Andrew P. E. York, Kampanart Theinnoi
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate chemical reactions and transport phenomena occurring in a single channel of a honeycomb-type automotive catalytic converter under lean burn combustion. Microkinetic analysis is adopted to develop a detailed elementary reaction mechanism for propane oxidation on a silver catalyst. Activation energies are calculated based on the theory of the Unity Bond Index-Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) method. The order-of-magnitude of the pre-exponential factors is obtained from Transition State Theory (TST). Sensitivity analysis is applied to identify the important elementary steps and refine the pre-exponential factors of these reactions. These pre-exponential factors depend on inlet temperatures and propane concentration; therefore optimised pre-exponential factors are written in polynomial forms. The results of numerical simulations are validated by comparison with experimental data.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2095
Georg Huthwohl, Sascha Dolenec
SCR technology is becoming more and more important for the segment of diesel-driven passenger cars. Due to space and functional demands the dependency of SCR performance on a uniform supply of ammonia into the catalytic substrates is highly increased. Both an even distribution of the AdBlue® spray and a completed evaporation and decomposition of the droplets are the key to achieve the desired ammonia spread. Evaluation of the influence of spray quality on the AdBlue® decomposition and catalyst performance are leading to a new approach in dosing, using a special nozzle and air-supply strategy. The resulting new technology is evaluated and compared to the state of the art.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2096
Aaro Kopperoinen, Matti Kyto, Seppo Mikkonen
When a new type of fuel is introduced, it is necessary to ensure that exhaust gas aftertreatment systems work properly with these fuels. Today diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an inherent part of current diesel engine's exhaust gas aftertreatment system due to stringent exhaust emission limits. The functioning of DPF depends on the composition of soot particulates of exhaust gas, whereas the type of soot depends on the fuel used. To avoid clogging, DPF has to be regenerated regularly. This regeneration is usually increasing fuel consumption, so the longer the regeneration interval is, the better is fuel economy. Fuel quality and engine-out particulate emissions are important factors affecting to the need of regeneration. Renewable fuels burn cleanly and produce less particulate emissions than ordinary diesel fuel. Therefore, the increase of exhaust backpressure is slower enabling longer regeneration frequency.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2089
Yuki Bisaiji, Kohei Yoshida, Mikio Inoue, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Takao Fukuma
An unprecedented phenomenon that achieves high NOx conversion was found over an NSR catalyst. This phenomenon occurs when continuous short cycle injections of hydrocarbons (HCs) are supplied at a predetermined concentration in lean conditions. Furthermore, this phenomenon has a wider range of applicability for different catalyst temperatures (up to 800 degrees Celsius) and SVs, and for extending thermal and sulfur durability than a conventional NOx storage and reduction system. This paper analyzes the reaction mechanism and concludes it to be highly active HC-deNOx by intermediates generated from adsorbed NOx over the base catalysts and HCs partially oxidized by oscillated HC injection. Subsequently, a high performance deNOx system named Di-Air (diesel NOx aftertreatment by adsorbed intermediate reductants) was demonstrated that applies this concept to high speed driving cycles.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2091
Shuji Fujii, Tsuyoshi Asako
Back pressure of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) varies with accumulation of soot and/or ash. Soot can be cleaned in a high temperature oxidation (regeneration) process. But ash which is incombustible particulate matter derived from lubricant oil, engine wear, etc. cannot be cleaned from DPF without mechanical ash removal process and influences the back pressure perpetually. Design and control of DPF involving variation of the back pressure with ash accumulation will provide further improvement of fuel consumption and reliable operation in extended vehicle life time. Nevertheless, empirical investigations concerning ash accumulation are few because of the long testing time due to the slow accumulation rate, i.e. 0.5 - 2mg/mile [19]. In this investigation, four different designs of Cordierite (Cd) DPF were subjected to an accelerated ash accumulation test which is utilizing artificial ash powder.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2092
Arnaud Frobert, Stephane Raux, Arnaud Lahougue, Christian Hamon, Karine Pajot, Gilbert Blanchard
The challenge for decreasing the emissions of compression ignition engines now remains mainly on NOx control. If the Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction by Urea (Urea-SCR) are very efficient, their extra-cost and management are a major issue for the OEMs. In that context, the selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons (HC-SCR) appears to be an interesting alternative solution, with a more limited NOx conversion efficiency but an easier packaging (diesel fuel as a reductant) and a limited price (reasonable coating cost / no PGM). In the framework of the RedNOx project, a prototype catalyst made of 2% silver on Alumina coated on cordierite was manufactured and tested on a synthetic gas bench. In parallel, an exhaust implementation study has been led to ensure the most suited conditions for injection. Thanks to SGB and simulation results, adapted engine tests have been designed and performed.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2093
Anirut Noipheng, Napumee Waitayapat, Tanet Aroonsrisopon, Ekathai Wirojsakunchai, Thummarat Thummadetsak, Krisada Wannatong
Towards the effort of using natural gas as an alternative fuel for a diesel engine, the concept of Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) engine has been shown as a strong candidate. Typically, DDF's engine-out emission species such as soot and nitrogen oxides are decreased while carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are increased. The aftertreatment system is required in order to reduce these pollutant emissions from DDF engines. Additionally, DDF engine exhaust has a wide temperature span and is rich in oxygen, which makes HC emissions, especially methane (CH₄), difficult to treat. Until now, it is widely accepted that the key parameter influencing methane oxidation in a catalytic converter is high exhaust temperature. However, a comprehensive understanding of what variables in real DDF engine exhausts most influencing a catalytic converter performance are yet to be explored.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2113
Masataka Hashimoto, Tadanori Azuma, Morio Sumimoto, Kanji Mitsuda
A new type of lube oil cleaning system is successfully developed for semi-permanent use of oil by always keeping oil clean with the result of no oil change and no waste oil. It is in practical use in many marine diesel engines and in some other fields. In recent years, possibility of semi-permanent use of engines themselves has been expected based on the field data. A ship test for 7 years has verified the expected semi-permanent use of engines with almost no wear and constant thermal efficiency during the test. We present the characteristics of the oil cleaning system and the result of the test. Also, a new type of fuel oil cleaning system is presented which is useful for cleaning low quality fuel oil. As a whole, this test is the beginning of the new stage of our work following the semi-permanent use of lube oil, which has been verified and established in many diesel engines since the 1980s.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2114
Jai G. Bansal, Patrick Colby, Maryann Devine, Jack Emert, Kaustav Sinha
This paper is first in a series of papers designed to investigate wear processes in modern heavy duty diesel engines. The objective of the series is to discuss the effects that engine drive cycle, lubricant formulations and in-service ageing of lubricants have on wear of critical engine components. In this paper, the Radioactive Tracer Technology technique was used to study the steady state wear behavior of a number of contacting surfaces in a Caterpillar 1P engine, as a function of the drive cycle. A test protocol consisting of 7 modes or stages was used to simulate a variety of drive cycles. The results from this work provide useful insights into the wear behavior of these surfaces under a variety of speed and load conditions.
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