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Viewing 271 to 300 of 42300
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891765
Manabu Furubayashi, Yoshihiro Tadaki, Masaharu Uchida
This report describes the process and the result of captioned development. At first, the process of understanding the end user's requirement for farm tractors are described, then the technical factors for fulfilling the requirement are described. By these process we have achieved to satisfy the OEM requirement in many aspects especially the highest torque and horsepower among 1.5L class diesel engines.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891763
Ma Jie, Yin Zi-Jia, Deng Zhen-Quan, Zhou Guo-Xiang
In transient process test of turbo-charged diesel engine, IBM-PCXT takes an important part. This test system has following advantages: large datum-storage, 16 collecting channels, direct parameter-treatment and convenient digit-storing. With its help, the transient process test could be exactly performed according to schedule. The curve could be imitated in first order to six order polynomials, so that the instruments with poor linearity could still be employed for accurate measurement.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891764
Ernst Hatz
MOTORENFABRIK HATZ in West Germany has been manufacturing air-cooled and water-cooled diesel engines for the last 78 years. Our single-cylinder, 70 Series, has met with worldwide success. Our new single-cylinder line. SUPRA, builds on that success and introduces several unique features including a new mass balancing system, both clockwise and counterclockwise rotation, and encapsulation for noise reduction. This paper describes the overall design features of the SUPRA including the unencapsulated as well as the encapsulated design.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891766
Hirotaka Nakajima, Tadao Okazaki, Masaaki Michizoe, Akira Hayatani
Abstract With a drastic advance of computing software and hardware, recently, simulation techniques play snore important role in development and design of diesel engines. Especially, Finite Element Method (FEM) is indispensable for design of diesel engine components, as a tool of optimizing each part and selecting the Materials. Meanwhile, it is one of the greatest theme for all engine designers to raise compactability and high-performance of small engines. At the same time, we have to respond to social needs, that is safety, reliability, durability, and comfortability, for reduction of noise and vibration. Moreover, for design of engine components, we always try to reduce a period of development and make more economical components because we have to consider those cost. To meet this severe requirement, it is needed not to apply the simulation techniques just as they are, but to establish the higher and more useful ones.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891767
Jack M. O'Leary, George W. Gatecliff
A computer program capable of predicting cyclic engine bearing forces, and dynamic unbalance in a single cylinder engine is used to evaluate and optimize counterweight size and angular location. The program requires inertial, geometric and locational input for each of the moving parts in the slider-crank mechanism. This information together with a cylinder pressure history allows calculation of dynamic bearing forces. The vector addition of these bearing forces with cylinder pressure force and cylinder side wall force determines the net unbalanced force produced by a single cylinder engine. The program evaluates means of reducing unbalance forces by simulating the addition of eccentric masses attached to the crankshaft and/or other shafts rotating at the same speed. Rotating mass can be added at any location along the crankshaft or any other parallel shaft rotating in the same (forward) or opposite (counter) direction.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891768
Wu-Tsung Dent, Chin-Rong Chen
An overhead camshaft valve train system with center pivot rocker has been analyzed. Considering the valve train as a rigid body and using the concepts of differential geometry and coordinate transformation, we can find the mathematical formulas of sufficient and necessary conditions to generate a cam profile. A valve train dynamic test rig was set up to investigate the relationship between valve motion and cam profile. The valve dynamic characteristics were also studied. Valve lift was measured by a LVDT, and valve train dynamic stress was monitored by a strain gage mounted on the rocker arm. Valve noise was measured by a microphone located near the valve seat. And, the relationship between valve noise and cam profile has been investigated.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891769
Yoshitoshi Hagiwara, Kyo Takahashi
Production of a relatively inexpensive titanium connecting rod for a mass production motorcycle engine has been achieved. Previously, the high cost of Titanium and other factors limited its usage by the aerospace industry and motor sports racing. As a material for mechanical parts titanium is light in weight and high in strength. In the engines of racing motorcycles the connecting rods, valves, and valve spring retainers which have been fabricated from a titanium alloy enhance the engine's performance.-1, -2 The cost of titanium alloy and its surface treatment is very expensive. -3, -4 Therefore the cost of the material was prohibitive and limited the application of titanium to competition machines. This paper outlines the development of a new surface treatment and application to titanium connecting rods. It was specifically applied to the connecting rods of a 750 cc motorcycle in 1987, the first in this field of industry. -5, -6, -7
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891770
Kouichirou Kurata, Masahiro Nishikawa, Jumpei Abe
A structural analysis for the connecting rod was performed in consideration of bearing crush, oil clearance and initial deformation of the big end bore caused by tightening force of the rod bolts. This analysis enabled to calculate not only the bearing pressure distribution but also the three-dimensional stress state with accuracy. A new fatigue criterion for multi-axial out-of-phase stress was proposed by using mean stress tensor and alternating stress tensor of complex number in this study. This criterion was developed to improve the classical multi-axial “yield criteria”. This criterion is simple, comprehensive and suitable for the evaluation of three-dimensional FEM results. The connecting rods exhibiting high reliability under severe conditions were investigated through the stress analysis and the new evaluation criterion.
1989-08-01
Technical Paper
891724
D. H. Swan
Fuel cell powered electric vehicles have the potential of replacing internal combustion powered vehicles if the problems of low power density and high cost can be overcome. Future cost and performance estimates for proton exchange membrane fuel cell power systems are compared with internal combustion power systems. Specific areas of research for fuel cell power systems are suggested.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891751
Richard A. Davis
The first ever, in-line 5-cylinder, crankcase scavenged, two-cycle engine is introduced as a 150 HP outboard engine by US Marine Power Corporation. This new approach succeeded in bringing a better value and surprising performance to the 150 HP segment of the 1989, “Outboard Motor” marketplace.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891750
Vinay Harne, S. R. Marathe
In Two Stroke Spark Ignition engines the thermal efficiency increases with increase in compression ratio. Also, with higher compression ratios the Ican burning limit increases because of the reduction in initial combustion period. Under part throttle conditions the fuel economy can be improved with higher compression ratios. However, this is often associated with problems of knocking and roughness. The paper describes a new type of cylinder head design which allows operating at high compression ratios under part load conditions and at lower compression ratios under full throttle condition. This paper begins by discussing the necessity for developing an automatic variable compression ratio engine (AVCR engine) and continues with the explanation of working of an experimental engine developed by TVS Suzuki Ltd. The mathematical model for theoretical prediction of the pressure crank angle diagram is then explained.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891865
T. A. Carlson, A. L. Humke, W. A. Schmitt, M. R. Vandendriessche
The Deere 4.5 liter turbocharged diesel engine is the first engine model in the 300 Series family to be updated with an evolutionary series of design improvements. Features include a new cylinder head for improved engine breathing, as well as significant improvements previously introduced on selected models in the current 300 Series engine family. This paper will highlight some of the component design changes that have resulted in improved performance, reduced heat rejection, improved gasketed joint integrity, and component standardization that provides increased engine value to the customer.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891866
J. A. C. Kentfield
The potential advantages of incorporating an extended expansion-stroke in Diesel engines are discussed. It is shown that Diesel engines with extended expansion strokes can be expected to have specific fuel consumptions up to about 8% lower, for typical automotive size units, than those achievable with conventional Diesel engines employing equal compression and expansion strokes. A description is also given of the essential mechanical linkage necessary to achieve an extended expansion stroke in engines of the four-stroke type. The application of the extended expansion concept to engines of the two-stroke, uniflow, type is also described.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891868
D. V. Bitner, P. R. Ukrainetz, P. N. Nikiforuk
Axial piston type pumps are often exposed to severe operating conditions because of the duty cycle, the environment, or, in some situations, poor maintenance and even abuse. The detrimental effects on the pump and the hydraulic system as a result of these adverse conditions are often not known or predictable. In this study, four controlled severe operating conditions were imposed on four identical axial piston type pumps. They included 1) constant high load pressure and normal fluid temperature, 2) constant high load pressure and elevated fluid temperature, 3) cyclic load pressure and normal fluid temperature, and 4) cyclic load pressure and elevated fluid temperature. The tests were long-term; they were run continuously for up to 5000 hours. The pump wear was monitored in all cases using ferrography. In addition, the condition of the fluid was monitored and the circuit filters were examined periodically. The results of the findings are presented in this paper.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891860
Arthur Akers, Su-Chen Jonathon Lin
This paper presents a mathematical model of an axial piston pump/two-stage electrohydraulic controller combination. The controller uses swashplate position feedback and has been specially designed so that it is of low-to-moderate cost and so that it can respond quickly to control changes. The first stage of the controller makes use of a squeeze film damper and is dynamically stable. The model may be used for design purposes inasmuch as geometry and operating conditions can be varied over wide limits and the resulting dynamical behavior evaluated. Calculation of the dynamic response to a control current for the operating conditions and geometry of the valve shows close agreement with experiment.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891864
Hellmut Garthe
Abstract This technical presentation is based on the SAE Paper 881285 which describes the Deutz diesel engine family FL 1011 featuring an engine integrated cooling system. The “E” version utilizes engine oil as the only cooling medium in conjunction with an external heat exchanger. The development philosophy behind these two configurations and the technical details of the “E” version are described.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891875
L. S. Wang, X. D. Guo
A new concept in gas turbine prime mover is proposed. This new gas turbine uses the intercooled supercharging to reduce the exhaust energy loss, thus eliminating the need for regeneration. We establish the feasibility of a broad operating range for the proposed gas turbine. Its thermal efficiency at the design condition is comparable with, while the overall efficiency performance is better than, the regenerative gas turbine. The most important advantage of the proposed gas turbine as an alternative to the regenerative gas turbine is the potential reduction in size and weight.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891873
Masaru Ogura, Eisaku Umezaki, Tsuneo Tomita
This report describes with the performance test of a diesel engine using a new variable scroll type turbocharger (VS turbocharger). The experimental variable scroll is relatively a simple structure in which several scroll pieces are jointed by pins, located inside of exhaust turbine inlet flow passage. The scroll is varied by the control rod according to exhaust flow volume, and as a result, the A/R ratio that effects to the performance of turbocharger is varied. To compare the performances of variable scroll type turbocharger with a conventional turbocharger with waste gate, a test of diesel engine equipped with each was performed. The experimental results show that VS turbocharger increases more than the conventional turbocharger in boost pressure at lower engine speed, and the wide torque range is ensured. Also, the experimental scroll pieces did not showed signs of trouble from heat wear during experimentation ensuring reliability.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891876
James J. Zucchetto, John H. Johnson, Phillip S. Myers, Thomas Jahns
A technology assessment of engines, power source and electrical technologies that can meets the needs of the future U.S. Army (“Army 21”) for cost-effective generator sets is made. Considered in this assessment are: diesel engines; stratified-charge, spark-ignited engines; homogeneous-charge, spark-ignited engines; gas turbine engines; and Stirling engines. Direct energy conversion devices including batteries, fuel cells, thermal-to-electric generators, and nuclear powered systems are also considered. In addition, potential advances in electric alternators and power conditioning, applications of networking, and noise reduction methods are discussed for possible application to the Army environment. Recommendations are made for the potential application of the different technologies for the needs of Army 21.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891874
Eisaku Umezaki, Masaru Ogura, Tsuneo Tomita
A new variable scroll type turbocharger has been developed, which is a kind of variable geometry turbocharger. This paper describes a method for determining the shape of a scroll chamber of a turbine housing of the turbocharger. The basic idea is to vary the flow area using the scroll according to exhaust gas flow. The scroll consists of several scroll pieces joined to form a linked variable structure. The shape of the scroll pieces is decided on the basis of an Archimedes’ curve. The device developed is relatively simple.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891847
D. M. Doyle, J. R. Needham, S. A. Faulkner, R. G. Freese
Future emission standards for heavy duty diesel engines will require the application of improved fuel injection systems with high pressure capability and electronic control of timing and fuelling. A recent Ricardo research project has concentrated on the application of the latest in-line pump from Robert Bosch, designated RP39, to a prototype turbocharged and aftercooled heavy duty diesel engine based on the Volvo TD122. The maximum pressure capability of the prototype RP39 used during the experiment was 1400-1500 bar at the injector nozzle. The pump also featured electronic control of the injection timing and rate by the sleeve control principle. The RP39 was matched to a revised low swirl combustion system.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891852
Mark G. Smith, Kamyar Haghighi, Gary W. Krutz, James F. Hamilton, Larry Bennett, Joe Buchanan
The new design for a diesel engine chassis mount bracket was fitted with strain gages and placed in a test vehicle instrumented with an on-board data acquisition system to find stress levels under actual service conditions. All experimental stresses were smaller than endurance limit of the part, so the bracket was predicted to have infinite life. In addition, a finite element model of the chassis mount bracket was optimized. The solution suggested removal of three portions of the bracket, reducing the weight by 13.49% and saving some manufacturing costs.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891842
Kiyoharu Hikino, Takayuki Suzuki
The spark-assisted methanol engine has disadvantages like poor fuel economy especially at light load and low spark plug durability affected by combustion characteristics. Investigations of combustion characteristics of the spark ignition system and the autoignition system in the methanol engine and discharge characteristics of a spark plug are described in this paper. It is clear that effective autoignition was accomplished by increasing the compression ratio and adopting an EGR system in the spark-assisted methanol engine. This new improved methanol engine which is named HAMS achieved good fuel economy at light load, a low NOx emission and longer spark plug life. And a heat insulated piston with a stainless steel cap is being investigated for further improvement of autoignition combustion characteristics.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891841
Minoru Tsukahara, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Tadashi Murayama
Micro-explosions and vaporizing behaviors of droplets of various emulsified fuels were investigated to determine the influence of emulsified fuel properties such as water content, water particle size, and viscosity of base fuel on combustion in a diesel engine. The investigation used gas oil, A heavy oil, and B heavy oil mixed with water and evaporated on a hot surface under atmospheric pressure. The influence on the engine performance was also investigated. It was confirmed that the viscosity of the base fuel, the water content, and the water particle size influenced the droplet evaporation on the hot surface and the occurrence and intensity of micro-explosions. There were remarkable differences in the BSFC for emulsified fuels in or outside the range where micro-explosions occurred on the hot surface.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891854
N. A. Peppiatt
Seals are a critical item in hydraulic equipment. The problems of sealing the reciprocating parts of cylinders used in mobile plant are reviewed with particular reference to telescopic tipping (hoist) cylinders, cylinders for earth moving equipment and steering cylinders. The merits of various seal configurations for these applications are discussed. HYDRAULIC FLUID POWER SYSTEMS are widely used in mobile plant because of their compactness and cost effectiveness. Typical applications include the raising of the bodies in tipping trucks, the operation of the blades and buckets in earth moving machinery and the provision of power steering for a wide variety of equipment. One of the principal drawbacks of hydraulic equipment, however, is leaks, and some reports (1)* have placed the problem of leaking cylinder glands as second only to that of leaking pipe joints and fittings.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891828
Robert G. Dubensky, M. Spada
The analysis of the motion of the engine piston is presented by a PC based computer program. A new CAE technique is also used to solve the engine piston problem.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891823
Ki Seong Kim, Sung Soo Kim
In order to find the dynamic TDC a microwave sensor was installed on the head and a proximity probe on the wall of 4-cyl SI engines. The dynamic TDC determined by the microwave system exhibited fairly consistent results having less than 0.05 degrees in standard deviation and remaining nearly constant throughout the speed range of 1,000-2,500 rpm. There was 0.1-0.2 degrees difference between the dynamic TDC measured by the microwave sensor and that measured by the proximity probe; the microwave result was believed to be more reliable. The difference seemed to originate from the built-in system errors on the part of proximity apparatus caused by insufficient sensitivity and availability of data points and piston tilting motion. Both flush mounted and spark plug type pressure transducers were used to measure the motoring peak pressure.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891838
C. E. Goering, X. Q. Gui, N. L. Buck
A diesel engine coupled to a CVT (Continuously-Variable Transmission) was computer controlled to maintain constant CVT output speed. The engine operated on power demand on a torque-speed schedule giving low BSFC. The engine-CVT-computer combination is viewed as an augmented engine, to which a conventional power train can be added to produce required vehicle speeds. On farm tractors, the pto (Power Take Off) shaft and other functions requiring constant speed would be driven by the CVT output shaft. Fuel savings with the augmented engine depend on engine load; at half load or less, a prototype augmented engine produced fuel savings of 15% or more.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891798
M. Ford-Dunn, P. Etheridge, P. D. Davenport
The continuing refinement of the small engine as a power unit for such diverse applications as generators and lawn care equipment has forced designers to consider aspects other than those of production cost in the selection of combustion chamber geometry. Combustion stability, noise and exhaust emissions are becoming increasingly important in the development of new engine models. This paper reports on work which is being carried out to identify the combustion systems required for future engines.
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
891795
Yasuo Harigaya, Fujio Toda, Shigeharu Ohyagi, Hiroshi Tsuji
An experimental study was conducted to measure the instantaneous surface temperature and the wall heat flux from the gas to the combustion chamber in a spark-ignition engine under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The local instantaneous surface temperature and wall heat flux on the combustion chamber were measured at five positions, each at a different distance from the ignition plug, including three positions in the near knock zone, for various knock intensities. Relationships between the local heat transfer and the knock intensity were obtained. It was found that the instantaneous surface temperature and the heat flux rise rapidly at a crank angle when the knock is observed in the indicator diagram. For a knock intensity larger than 0.3 MPa, the maximum and the time-averaged heat flux, and the heat transfer coefficient increase with the knock intensity. In the near knock zone, these are strongly affected by the occurrence of the knock.
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