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Viewing 31 to 60 of 42298
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1396
Yingying Lu, Wenbin Yu, Wanhua Su
The Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engine has the potential to reduce soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency at part load conditions. However, several technical barriers must be overcome. Notably ways must be found to control ignition timing, expand its limited operation range and limit the rate of heat release. In this paper, comparing with single fuel injection, the superiority of multiple-pulse fuel injection in extending engine load, improve emissions and thermal efficiency trade-off using high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and boost in diesel PCCI combustion is studied by engine experiments and simulation study. It was found that EGR can delay the start of hot temperature reactions, reduce the reaction speed to avoid knock combustion in high load, is a very useful method to expand high load limit of PCCI. EGR can reduce the NOx emission to a very small value in PCCI.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1391
Philipp Adomeit, Markus Jakob, Andreas Kolbeck, Stefan Pischinger
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1390
Antonio Pires da Cruz, Jean-Pierre Dumas, Gilles Bruneaux
Soot Volume Fraction (SVF) measurements were performed in an IFP Energies nouvelles optical single cylinder Diesel engine operated in Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) conditions. The engine was equipped with a sapphire liner, a dedicated flat bowl piston and a six-hole common-rail high pressure injector. The piston design included four quartz windows allowing optical access into the bowl. The aim of this work was to study soot formation and oxidation during the LTC Diesel combustion process and to build a database providing soot formation and oxidation data under a set of engine conditions to help developing and testing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. Two complementary optical diagnostic techniques were combined: Planar Laser Induced Incandescence (PLII) and Laser Extinction Method (LEM).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1393
Kazuhisa Inagaki, Jyunichi Mizuta, Takayuki Fuyuto, Takeshi Hashizume, Hirokazu Ito, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Kawae, Masaaki Kono
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity. Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1392
Marcis Jansons, Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Elena Florea
Misfiring or partial combustion during diesel engine operation results in the production of partial oxidation products such as ethylene (C₂H₄), carbon monoxide and aldehydes, in particular formaldehyde (HCHO). These compounds remain in the cylinder as residual gases to participate in the following engine cycle. Carbon monoxide and formaldehyde have been shown to exhibit a dual nature, retarding ignition in one temperature regime, yet decreasing ignition delay periods of hydrocarbon mixtures as temperatures exceed 1000°K. Largely unknown is the synergistic effects of such species. In this work, varying amounts of C₂H₄ and HCHO are added to the intake air of a naturally aspirated optical diesel engine and their combined effect on autoignition and subsequent combustion is examined. To observe the effect of these dopants on the low-temperature heat release (LTHR), ultraviolet chemiluminescent images are recorded using intensified CCD cameras.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1379
Jose Desantes, Vicente Bermudez, Antonio Garcia, Waldemar Linares, Christopher Kolodziej
In-cylinder emission control strategies, such as modifications of injection pressure and injection timing, have been used by researchers in order to reduce exhaust emissions and to comply with the legislation standards. Since some years ago post-injections have been studied and are well known as being efficient for soot emissions reduction. Although is well known that diesel gaseous and particle mass emissions have been reduced progressively over the last twenty years in response to the restrictive emission legislation and due to the application of new technologies The aim of this work is to help develop and understand the effect of the post-injection on diesel exhaust particle size distributions. The approach is to use a modern, well instrumented research engine equipped with a flexible high pressure fuel injection system. The results of this work are available to help provide guidelines for strategies to achieve reductions of the particle size distributions in diesel engines.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1376
Karl Bo Albert Mikkelsen, Steve Lambert
Electric energy storage is among the most significant hurdles to deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). Present storage methods struggle to provide the capacity and the service life demanded by automotive use. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) use a combination of storage types, for example, different types of batteries and ultracapacitors, to tailor the characteristics of the storage system to each application. In addition to sizing the system for the intended application, a suitable strategy for the integration of the energy storage system must be adopted. In the present application, a HESS has been designed for the electrification of a 2004 Chrysler Pacifica, through consideration of a combination of high capacity batteries, high power batteries, and capacitors. Hybrid storage systems using batteries alone, batteries and capacitors, and dual batteries have been considered.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1372
Kosuke Oguri, Naoki Maruno
A battery module structure and a battery management system that is optimal for the structure were developed, in order to facilitate the work of equipping hybrid cars with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that are expected to improve vehicle performance. This paper describes the structure of the LIB and the battery management system that is optimal for it. The battery module structure has cells with a sturdy holding structure and a highly efficient cooling system. The structure has enabled the improvement of battery pack system power output by 80% per unit weight and by 20% per unit volume compared to the previous model. The optimal management system prevents battery overcharge by detecting and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of each cell with a high degree of accuracy.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1420
Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra, Fabrizio Ponti
In modern Diesel engine control strategies the guideline is to perform an efficient combustion control, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions. Innovative control algorithms for optimal combustion positioning require the on-board evaluation of a large number of quantities. In order to perform closed-loop combustion control, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is MFB50, i.e. the angular position in which 50% of fuel mass burned within an engine cycle is reached. Furthermore, MFB50 allows determining the kind of combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber, therefore knowing such quantity is crucial for newly developed low temperature combustion applications (such as HCCI, HCLI, distinguished by very low NOx emissions). The aim of this work is to develop a virtual combustion sensor, that provides MFB50 estimated value as a function of quantities that can be monitored real-time by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU).
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1419
Nicolo Cavina, Enrico Corti, Luca Poggio, Daniele Zecchetti
The paper presents the development and real-time implementation of a combustion control system based on optimal management of multiple spark discharge events, in order to increase combustion stability, reduce pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, and avoid partial or missing combustion cycles. The proposed approach has been developed as a cost-effective solution to several combustion-related issues that affect Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines during cold start and part load operation. The problem of optimizing combustion efficiency and improving its stability during such operating modes is even more critical for high performance engines, which are designed to maximize charge efficiency especially at medium-high engine speeds.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1418
Seongeun Yu, Han Ho Song, Kyoungdoug Min, Hoimyung Choi, Sunghwan Cho, Kyoungchan Han
Emissions regulations are becoming more severe, and they remain a principal issue for vehicle manufacturers. Many engine subsystems and control technologies have been introduced to meet the demands of these regulations. For diesel engines, combustion control is one of the most effective approaches to reducing not only engine exhaust emissions but also cylinder-by-cylinder variation. However, the high cost of the pressure sensor and the complex engine head design for the extra equipment are stressful for the manufacturers. In this paper, a cylinder-pressure-based engine control logic is introduced for a multi-cylinder high speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The time for 50% of the mass fraction to burn (MFB50) and the IMEP are valuable for identifying combustion status. These two in-cylinder quantities are measured and applied to the engine control logic.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1417
Bastian Maass, Jiamei Deng, Richard Stobart
More and more stringent emission regulations require advanced control technologies for combustion engines. This goes along with increased monitoring requirements of engine behaviour. In case of emissions behaviour and fuel consumption the actual combustion efficiency is of highest interest. A key parameter of combustion conditions is the in-cylinder pressure during engine cycle. The measurement and detection is difficult and cost intensive. Hence, modelling of in-cylinder conditions is a promising approach for finding optimum control behaviour. However, on-line controller design requires real-time scenarios which are difficult to model and current modelling approaches are either time consuming or inaccurate. This paper presents a new approach of in-cylinder condition prediction. Rather than reconstructing in-cylinder pressure signals from vibration transferred signals through cylinder heads or rods this approach predicts the conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1422
Ying Huang, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang, Lin Chen, Xueqing Yang
In-cylinder pressure sensor, which provides the means for precise combustion control to achieve improved fuel economy, lower emissions, higher comfort, additional diagnostic functions etc., is becoming a necessity in future diesel engines, especially for chemical-kinetics dominated PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) or LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) engines. In this paper, new control strategy is investigated to utilize in-cylinder pressure information into engine start process, in order to guarantee the success of engine start and in the meantime prevent penalty of fuel economy or pollutant emissions due to excessive fuel injection. An engine start acceleration model is established to analyze the engine start process. “In-cylinder Combustion Analysis Tool” (i-CAT), is used to acquire and process the in-cylinder pressure data and deliver the combustion indices to ECU (Engine Control Unit). Feedback control is accomplished in ECU based on this information.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1421
Yashodeep Lonari, Christopher Polonowski, Jeffrey Naber, Bo Chen
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1402
Akemi Ito, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Masaaki Nakamura
Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1400
Emin Yusuf Avan, Robin Mills, Rob Dwyer-Joyce
An essential part of the total parasitic loss in an IC engine is due to the piston ring and liner friction. In this work, a piston ring-liner reciprocating test rig combined with ultrasonic film thickness measurement system was used to understand frictional characteristic of the lubricant that formed in the contact. Two test procedures were carried out for two lubricants with different viscosities. These procedures were a step load increment at a constant speed and a step speed increment at a constant load. The results showed that the piston ring-liner contact was in boundary lubrication regime for low operating speeds at high load. This was consistent with the oil film thickness data. However, mixed lubrication regime was observed for high operating speeds at low loads. The lubricant film thicknesses increased with speed and decreased with load.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1404
Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1407
Fanghui Shi
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1401
Yoolkoo Kim, Hyundal Park, Jeong Uk An, Tae-Suek Kan, Joonsung Park
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1408
Tao Chen, Hui Xie, Le Li, Weifei Yu, Zhihua Li, Hua Zhao
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1405
Pranay Nagar, Scott Miers
Engine friction serves as an important domain for study and research in the field of internal combustion engines. Research shows that friction between the piston and cylinder accounts for almost 20% of the losses in an engine and therefore any effort to minimize friction losses will have an immediate impact on engine efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The two most common methods to experimentally measure engine friction are the floating liner method and the instantaneous indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) method. This paper provides a detailed review of the IMEP method, presents major findings, and discusses sources of error. Although the instantaneous IMEP method is relatively new compared to the floating liner method, it has been used by many scientists and engineers for calculating piston ring assembly friction with consistent results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1406
Mahesh Puthiya Veettil, Fanghui Shi
The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1412
Jerzy Merkisz, Marek Waligorski, Maciej Bajerlein, Jaroslaw Markowski
The paper describes the problem of the combustion process diagnostics dedicated for CI engines with direct injection of HDV vehicles in the aspect of misfire detection monitor application for OBD and EOBD systems. The monitor is based on the vibroacoustic signal utilization. Because of that, frequency method and the method of time-frequency parameterization map a(t,f) of vibration accelerations generated by combustion engine were used. The above article is directed to get a diagnostic monitor that would detect faults and incorrect runs in the combustion process (including also its lack) in the real time with the help of vibration accelerations estimators. Point estimators of the process and research stages and conditions are presented. The signal analyses and limits of a method use, criteria of the process qualification and its accuracy were also write down.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1411
Fan Zhang, Hongming Xu, Jun Zhang, Guohong Tian, Gautam Kalghatgi
Conventional diesel-fuelled Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) engines have been investigated by many researchers previously. However, the ease of ignition and difficulty of vaporization of diesel fuel make it imperfect for PPCI combustion. In this study, dieseline (blending of diesel and gasoline) was looked into as the Partially Premixed Compression Ignition fuel for its combination of two fuel properties, ignition-delay-increasing characteristics and higher volatility, which make it more suitable for PPCI combustion compared to neat diesel. A series of tests were carried out on a Euro IV light-duty common-rail diesel engine, and different engine modes, from low speed/load to middle speed/load were all tested, under which fuel blend ratios, EGR rates, injection timings and quantities were varied. The emissions, fuel consumption and combustion stability of this dieseline-fuelled PPCI combustion were all investigated.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1410
Andrea Catania, Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Alessandro Catanese, Gerhard Landsmann
A new predictive zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model has been applied to both PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and conventional diesel engines to simulate HRR (Heat Release Rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces on the basis of the injection rate. The model enables one to estimate the injection rate profile by means of the injection parameters that are available from the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit), i.e., SOI (Start Of main Injection), ET (Energizing Time), DT (Dwell Time) and injected fuel quantities, taking the injector NOD (Nozzle Opening Delay) and NCD (Nozzle Closure Delay) into account. An accumulated fuel mass approach has been applied to estimate Qch (released chemical energy), from which the main combustion parameters that are of interest for combustion control in IC engines, such as, SOC (Start Of Combustion), MFB50 (50% of Mass Fraction Burned) have been derived.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1409
José Carlos Zavala, Charles Folkerts
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1415
Enrico Corti, Claudio Forte
Combustion control is assuming a crucial role in reducing engine tailpipe emissions and maximizing performance. The number of actuations influencing the combustion is increasing, and, as a consequence, the control parameters calibrations is becoming challenging. One of the most effective factors influencing performance and efficiency is the combustion phasing: gasoline engines Electronic Control Units (ECU) manage the Spark Advance (SA) in order to set the optimal combustion phase. SA optimal values are usually determined by means of calibration procedures carried out on the test bench by changing SA values while monitoring Brake and Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP, IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and pollutant emissions. The effect of SA on combustion is stochastic, due to the cycle-to-cycle variation: the analysis of mean values requires many engine cycles to be significant of the performance obtained with the given control setting.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1416
Jerzy Merkisz, Marek Waligorski, Maciej Bajerlein, Jaroslaw Markowski
The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1413
Akira Yamashita, Hisashi Ohki, Terutoshi Tomoda, Koichiro Nakatani
Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1414
Ferdinando Taglialatela-Scafati, Nicola Cesario, Mario Lavorgna, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Increasing demands on emissions reduction and efficiency encouraged a progressive introduction of cleaner combustion concepts. "Advanced" diesel combustions offer a high potential for simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot within the engine through high inlet charge dilution and mixture homogenization. However, the potential benefits of these combustions in terms of emissions are counterbalanced by their high sensitivity to in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions. This sensitivity makes the engines require closed loop combustion control with real-time information about combustion quality. The parameter widely considered as the most important for the evaluation of the combustion quality in internal combustion engines is the cylinder pressure. However, this kind of measure involves an intrusive approach to the cylinder, expensive sensors and a special mounting process.
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