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Viewing 151 to 180 of 42298
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1886
U. S. Usinin, M. A. Grigoriev, K. M. Vinogradov, A. N. Gorojankin, S. P. Gladyshev
The electric drive with the synchronous electrical machine of independent excitation differs by high specific parameters, adaptability to manufacture, simplicity of a design, and reliability. These properties of the electric drive allow using it in heavy conditions of operation. In particular, it can be recommended to use in electrical vehicles. The electric motor for this electric drive can be executed with two separate stator windings. Therefore, there are additional benefits connected to an opportunity of change of geometry of an iron stator stamp of the given type motor. In this report, the principle of operation of the electric drive with control system is considered. The different variants of a stator design of the electrical machine are discussed. The stator design allows improve of the mass and weight parameters of the electric machine. For the offered stator designs, the comparison of specific parameters (relationship of the nominal torque to load current) is carried out.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1889
Zhili Chen, Tomoya Iwashina
Since the mixture become relative lean and homogeneous when ignition occurs in PCI engines, NOx and PM can be reduced simultaneously. However, HC and CO emissions in PCI engines are higher by one order than conventional direct injection diesel engines. The influence factors of HC and CO emissions for conventional direct-injection diesel engines have been analyzed by a lot of studies. In spite of the mechanism of HC formation in PCI would different to conventional direct-injection diesel because of injection timing in PCI engine is considerably earlier than that of a conventional diesel engine, there are not many works on HC and CO emissions of PCI engine. In this study, the characteristics of HC and CO emissions in a PCI engine were investigated by changing combustion chamber geometry (cavity diameter), topland volume, and injection timing. At the same time, the simulations of spray and air-fuel mixture formation were conducted by using GTT code.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1885
Daniel L. Flowers, Nick J. Killingsworth, Francisco Espinosa-Loza, Joel Martinez-Frias, Salvador M. Aceves, Miroslav Krstic, Robert Dibble
We have converted a Caterpillar 3406 natural gas spark ignited engine to HCCI mode and used it as a test bed for demonstrating advanced control methodologies. Converting the engine required modification of most engine systems: piston geometry, starting, fueling, boosting, and (most importantly) controls. We implemented a thermal management system consisting of a recuperator that transfers heat from exhaust to intake gases and a dual intake manifold that permits precise cylinder-by-cylinder ignition control. Advanced control methodologies are used for (1) minimizing cylinder-to-cylinder combustion timing differences caused by small variations in temperature or compression ratio; (2) finding the combustion timing that minimizes fuel consumption; and (3) tuning the controller parameters to improve transient response.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1884
D. I. Handford, M. D. Checkel
Natural gas is a challenging fuel for HCCI engines because its single-stage ignition and rapid combustion make it difficult to optimize combustion timing over a significant load range. This study investigates direct injection of a pilot quantity of high-cetane fuel near TDC as a range extension and combustion control mechanism for natural gas HCCI engines. The EGR and load range is studied in a supercharged natural gas HCCI engine equipped with external EGR, intake heating and a direct injection system for n-heptane pilot fuel. The operating range and emissions are of primary interest and are compared between both the baseline HCCI engine with variable intake temperature and the direct injected HCCI (DI-HCCI) engine with constant intake temperature. Test results show the EGR and load range at fixed intake temperature can be extended using pilot direct injection.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1871
Massimo Manni, Arcangelo Pedicillo
A test procedure was set up in our laboratories to evaluate the propensity of fuels and lubricating oils towards the soot accumulation in Diesel Particulate Filters. The experimental work was carried out with the use of a passenger car diesel engine, retrofitted with an aftertreatment system composed by an oxidation catalyst and a DPF. The soot propensity was evaluated by means of repeated measurements of differential exhaust backpressure gradient, during a running period at mid load and speed. The specific fuel consumption gradient was also measured to find a correlation between both the variables. After each soot loading period, a burning off period at full load was operated for the purpose of filter regeneration. A two-phase experiment was undertaken to assess repeatability and discrimination capability of the test procedure. During the first experimental phase, repeated tests were conducted on a fuel matrix containing some surrogate fuels.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1872
Daichi Shimokoji, Yosuke Okuyama
The research discussed in this paper clarified the effect of biodiesel fuel (BDF) on two effective deterioration indexes of engine oil, the base number (BN) and the oxidation induction time (OIT). The results of rig tests of oil deterioration using an engine oil mixed with BDF showed that BDF, which contains a large number of unsaturated bonds, accelerates engine oil deterioration.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1879
Yung-Jin Kim, Ki-Bum Kim, Ki-Hyung Lee
In present days, most of researches concerned with vehicle engines have been performed to reduce vehicle emissions and to improve engine efficiency. For the requirements, LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) engine which has lots of advantages such as low emission level, cheaper fuel cost and enough infrastructures has had lots of interest as an alternative fuel engine. What is more, it has a low emission level of CO2 well-known as the factor of ‘Global Warming’, thus the use of LPG engines has been increased. Especially since MPI(Multi Point Injection) type LPLi(Liquid Phase LPG injection) system was used for the fuel supply system, disadvantages of LPG engine such as low engine performance, decreased charging efficiency and cold starting difficulty have been improved and prejudices against LPG engines have been changed a lot. In light of this, the motion to use LPLi engines instead of diesel engines has been increasing.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1878
Steve Cook, Paul Richards
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment combined with the change to ULSD and bio-blends have resulted in increased reports regarding deposits within injectors and filters. A review of known fuel degradation mechanisms and other relevant chemistries suggests the effects of high pressure and high shear environments should be examined as the most probable causes of increasing deposit formation. Existing fuel quality tests do not correlate with reported fouling propensity. Analytical studies have shown that there are only subtle chemical changes for the materials within the standard diesel boiling range. The implications for further scientific study are discussed.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1876
Mathieu Petiteaux, Guy Monsallier
From the end of the 90's, the use of biodiesel fuel (FAME) in blends with petroleum diesel fuel is increasing year after year with a minimum share of 10% defined by the European Parliament for 2020. In parallel, vehicle fleets working with B30 (EN590 - RME) have been developed in France under the impulsion of biodiesel fuel producers. The aim of this investigation program was to determine the impacts of biodiesel fuel blends (higher than 20%) on diesel fuel filters regarding filter clogging and water separation efficiency. Experiments show that high efficiency material with MFP 8μm are not presenting accelerated clogging during laboratory filtration tests with oxidized biodiesel fuels and this is confirmed by analysis of used diesel fuel filters from Euro 4 vehicle field tests using EN590 and B30 fuels.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1877
Jim Barker, Paul Richards, Mark Goodwin, Jonathan Wooler
Recent developments in diesel engines and fuel injection equipment together with the move to ULSD and bio-blends have seen an increase in reports regarding deposits in both injectors and filters. Historically deposits have been generated from a number of sources: bio-contamination, both aerobic and non-aerobic, water contamination, lube oil adulteration, additives, dirt, metals in fuel, and biodiesel degradation. These may be ascribed to “poor housekeeping,” incorrect additivation, deliberate adulteration or some combination. However the recently observed deposits differ from these. The deposits are described and indicate possible precursor molecules that support proposed mechanisms and their ability to form filter deposits.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1936
Zheng Xu, Jianwen Yi, Eric W. Curtis, Steven Wooldridge
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1935
P. Rounce, A. Tsolakis, J. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. P. E. York, R. F. Cracknell, R. H. Clark
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1938
M. Yusri Yusof, Fadhlan Nik Abdul Aziz, M. Faizan Zuhdi, Phil Carden, David Bell
The authors have published SAE paper 2008-01-0088 on the analytical comparison between 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts for an I4 gasoline engine. This paper showed that for a particular design of a 4 counterweight crankshaft, the differences in bearing force and oil film thickness were very small and the only major difference in terms of bearing shaft tilt angle occurred at mains 2 and 4 (increase of ∼20% compared with 8 counterweight version). The 4 counterweight crankshaft has a significant mass advantage as it was 1.42kg lighter than the 8 counterweight crankshaft. This new paper addresses the testing performed to validate the analysis results in bearing durability by subjecting the engine to a mixture of high speed and general durability cycles. A comparison was made on the bearing conditions after running a total of 100 hours through prescribed durability cycles on a gasoline engine with both 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1937
Yusuke Imamori, Kenji Hiraoka, Shinsuke Murakami, Hiroyuki Endo, Christopher J. Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1940
Mitsunori Ishii
A turbo-compound engine system is considered to be an effective way to improve the thermal efficiency of diesel engine. In this study, the sensitivity of the design parameters of turbo-compound system, such as the compressor pressure ratio and the turbine expansion ratio, has been analyzed using a numerical analysis. And the potential of the improving effects of the thermal efficiency by turbo-compound system has been also examined. As the results, it was found that there are the optimum values of compressor pressure ratio and turbine expansion ratio to maximize the thermal efficiency of turbo-compound engine.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1939
Mehdi Abarham, John Hoard, Dennis N. Assanis, Dan Styles, Eric W. Curtis, Nitia Ramesh, C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1944
Michael Boye, Marcus Döring, Frank Van der Staay, Jorge Raposo, Chava Jucker, Miguel Morales, Sjoerd Hermens
One reliable way to measure the research activity in the field of engine technology is through the number of patent applications that are submitted to different patent offices in the world. This paper offers a thorough statistical analysis of the innovation trends related to downsizing in Europe, USA, Japan, China and Korea in the field of internal combustion engines during the last 10 years, as seen by the European Patent Office. It demonstrates which technical fields (e.g. super- and turbocharging, direct fuel injection systems, hybrid technology, variable valve actuation, exhaust gas recirculation, etc.) are the most active, who are the most important players and which country attracts the highest number of applications. Subfields of certain technical fields are also analyzed. The technical fields discussed are chosen according to the International Patent Classification (IPC) scheme.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1943
F. Brusiani, G. M. Bianchi, M. Costa, R. Squarcini, M. Gasperini
This paper deals with a CFD three-dimensional multiphase simulation of rotary vane pump. The paper presents a suitable methodology for the investigation of the cavitation effects and/or incondensable gases. All the 3D simulations were performed by using Fluent v12 (Beta version). A moving mesh methodology was defined to reproduce the change-in-time shape of the internal pump volumes. In particular, the pump analysis was focused on the generation, and evolution of the cavitation phenomena inside the machine to identify the locations where this phenomena could occur. Moreover, the influence of incondensable gas dissolved inside the operator fluid on both pump performance and cavitation evolution was evaluated. Significant results were obtained about the analysis of incondensable gas influence on the cavitation evolution showing that, today, CFD analysis can provide detailed information on such harmful phenomena which can not be achieved by experiments.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1925
Aly H. Gadallah, Elshenawy A. Elshenawy, Aly M. Elzahaby, Hafez A. El-Salmawy, Ahmed H. Bawady
The present work examines experimentally the effect of different direct water injection strategies on NOx emissions and performance in a direct injection hydrogen fueled engine. Three water injection strategies were considered including; injection at the suction, compression and expansion strokes. Both injection timing as well as quantity were varied for each strategy. The water injection configuration relative to the spark plug has been also evaluated. The results showed that water injection during expansion stroke has a minor effect on NOx emissions, which has been already formed. Noticeable effect could be achieved when water is injected at the later stages of the compression stroke. Reduction of NOx emissions is strongly dependent on the injection timing as well as quantity of the injected water. Optimum injection timing, for maximum NOx reduction, advances with the increase of the quantity of water being injected.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1930
Sebastian Fischer, Jens-Olaf Stein
Previous research has shown that elevating fuel injection pressure results in better air-fuel mixture formation, allowing for a further increase in maximum exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate while consequently reducing NOx emissions. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is an optimum injection pressure for lowest soot-NOx emissions at a given boost pressure in high-speed diesel engines. Experiments are carried out on a single-cylinder research engine with a prototype common-rail system, capable of more than 200 MPa injection pressure. The effect of injection pressure on soot-NOx formation is investigated for a variety of boost conditions, representing the conditions of single to multi-stage turbocharger systems. Analysis of the data is performed at the application relevant soot to NOx ratio of approximately 1:10. It is observed that above a critical injection pressure, soot-NOx emissions are not reduced any further.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1931
Hironori Saitoh, Kouji Uchida
This study deals with the development of compression ignition DI alcohol engine with higher efficiency and lower emissions comparing to the conventional internal combustion engines. In order to establish such high performance alcohol engines, development of controlled ignition technology is required. This paper focuses on the main factors that govern auto-ignition phenomenon of alcohol spray from the view point of fuel properties. The reason of poor auto-ignition quality of alcohol spray was theoretically and experimentally revealed. That is difficulty of simultaneous attainments of ignition-suitable concentration and temperature in a spray mixture formation due to their smaller stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and larger latent heat for evaporation in comparison with conventional diesel fuels.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1934
Dorothea Liebig, Richard Clark, Juliane Muth, Ingo Drescher
Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1933
Ryoji Nishiumi, Toshiya Nakajima, Koji Kitano, Ichiro Sakata, Richard H. Clark
Gas To Liquid (GTL) fuels synthesized from natural gas are known as clean fuels. Therefore, GTL fuels have been expected to be a promising option that can reduce the NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines and contribute to the energy security. In this study, in order to clarify the emission reduction potentials, the improvement of DI diesel engine and aftertreatment systems were investigated by utilizing GTL fuels characteristics. To achieve a further reduction of both NOx and PM emissions, the combustion chamber, injection pattern and EGR calibration were modified. From the results of tests, the engine out NOx emissions were reduced to the Euro 6 regulation level and in parallel the expected deteriorations of HC emission and fuel consumption were suppressed because of the characteristics of high cetane number and zero poly-aromatics hydrocarbons. Additionally, an aftertreatment system was optimized to GTL fuel in order to improve NOx conversion efficiency.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1917
Eric Doran, Heinz Pitsch, David J. Cook
A general model framework for investigating various injection strategies in compression ignition engines with both mixture and thermal inhomogeneities is presented using an extended representative interactive flamelet model. The equations describing evolution of chemistry are written for a scalar phase space of either one or two dimensions and an approach for modeling multiple injections is given. The combustion model is solved interactively with the turbulent flow field by coupling with a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. The model is applied in the simulation of a split-injection diesel engine and results are compared to experimental data obtained from a single cylinder research engine.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1919
Massimo Rundo, Raffaele Squarcini
The paper presents an experimental procedure for comparing different families of IC Engine lubricating pumps in terms of total consumed energy in a NEDC driving cycle. Measures are performed on a test rig able to reproduce the oil temperature profile, the lubrication circuit permeability and its variation during the engine warm-up. The pump under test is driven by a variable speed electric motor supplying the engine velocity profile of the driving cycle. The load on the pump is generated by means of a variable restrictor controlled in a closed loop by a proper combination of speed, temperature, flow rate and pressure signals in order to replicate the typical permeability of the lubricating circuit.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1918
M. Cagri Cevik, Stefan Pischinger, Martin Rebbert, Franz Maassen
This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1920
Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Abhijeet M. Nande, Jeffrey Naber
Hydrogen is widely considered a promising fuel for future transportation applications for both, internal combustion engines and fuel cells. Due to their advanced stage of development and immediate availability hydrogen combustion engines could act as a bridging technology towards a wide-spread hydrogen infrastructure. Although fuel cell vehicles are expected to surpass hydrogen combustion engine vehicles in terms of efficiency, the difference in efficiency might not be as significant as widely anticipated [1]. Hydrogen combustion engines have been shown capable of achieving efficiencies of up to 45 % [2]. One of the remaining challenges is the reduction of nitric oxide emissions while achieving peak engine efficiencies. This paper summarizes research work performed on a single-cylinder hydrogen direct injection engine at Argonne National Laboratory.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1921
M. F. Rosati, P. G. Aleiferis
Hydrogen has been largely proposed as a possible alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Its wide flammability range allows higher engine efficiency with leaner operation than conventional fuels, for both reduced toxic emissions and no CO2 gases. Independently, Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) also allows higher thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption with reduced NOX emissions when compared to Spark-Ignition (SI) engine operation. For HCCI combustion, a mixture of air and fuel is supplied to the cylinder and autoignition occurs from compression; engine is operated throttle-less and load is controlled by the quality of the mixture, avoiding the large fluid-dynamic losses in the intake manifold of SI engines. HCCI can be induced and controlled by varying the mixture temperature, either by Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) or intake air pre-heating.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1922
Atsuhiro Kawamura, Tadanori Yanai, Yoshio Sato, Kaname Naganuma, Kimitaka Yamane, Yasuo Takagi
A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1923
Changwei Ji, Shuofeng Wang, Hao Yan
In the view of low thermal efficiency and high emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines, this paper investigated the effect of hydrogen blending at intake ports to a SI engine on improving its economic and emissions performance. The experiment was carried out on a modified 4-cylinder SI engine on which hydrogen could be injected into the intake ports sequentially via an ECU based control system and mixed with gasoline on-line. The combustion and emissions characteristics of a hydrogen-blended IC engine were investigated under the conditions of 1500 rpm and the stoichiometric equivalence ratio with four different hydrogen volumetric fractions of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3%. The test results demonstrated that the average brake thermal efficiency increased from 25.12 to 28.35% and the average coefficient of variation in peak in-cylinder pressure decreased from 6.8% to 3.62% when hydrogen fraction changed from 0% to 3%.
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