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Viewing 211 to 240 of 42295
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1946
Federica Franzoni, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi, Valeri Golovitchev
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1947
J. Michael Langham
The purpose of this document is to introduce the design of a new type automobile engine & powertrain. The engine emulates, as closely as possible, the operation of the electric vehicle, and, as such, uses no starter and develops 100% torque at zero speed. It is lighter in weight and operates at a higher compression ratio than the standard automobile engine, while running on lower-octane gasoline. It only runs when power is needed at the wheels. Because it is more efficient than either the standard engine or the hybrid when running, and because it is off considerably more of the time than the hybrid, it can obsolete both.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2065
Claire Chaufour, Erik Gustavsson, Arvid Norberg
This Paper is evaluating the development and effectiveness of using a Shearplate, a new and innovative approach to reduce powertrain noise and vibrations. The results show that the approach is offering monumental improvements in terms of reduced noise and vibrations. Sound quality evaluations also show very clearly that the approach is an effective countermeasure to the targeted problems. With the knowledge gathered during the development and with what is partly presented in this paper we now have an additional tool that car manufacturers can deploy in their efforts to design more fuel efficient and cleaner burning engines without sacrificing NVH performance.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2060
Abdelkrim Zouani, Thomas Smith, Frank Valencia, Changshen Gan, Mamta Sabharwal, Chul Lee, Ankur Bhosale, Prasanna Kondapalli
The increased demand to reduce cost and weight is forcing engine manufacturers to replace some metal under hood components with high performance polymers. The use of these materials has often been avoided in this type of applications due to concerns around their long-term strength and temperature performance. In particular, the materials of choice for the oil pans in the gasoline engines, at the present time, are aluminum and stamped steel. This paper presents a case study to evaluate the NVH performance of a plastic oil pan designed to replace a stamped steel pan in a gasoline engine. Emphasis is given to the design features and material characteristics that were considered to achieve the required NVH performance.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2057
Bernard Van Antwerpen, Diego d’Udekem, Jean-Luc Bourachot, Jean-Pascal Leandre, Alain Walbott, Benoît Bouvier
High pressure pipes of the diesel injection system seem to represent a weak point in terms of vibration and acoustic radiation of the whole injection system. Investigations have highlighted this phenomenon. The injectors induce acoustic waves which propagate in the viscous diesel contained in the injection pipes. A strong coupling can occur sometimes between these acoustic waves and the duct structural modes leading to intensive mechanical vibration and acoustic radiation; and sometimes to a possible failure of the pipe. Numerical simulations offer a good platform to predict such vibration and can be used in order to prevent any structural component failure and to decrease the resulting acoustic radiation. This paper presents a vibro-acoustic study performed with the finite element code ACTRAN to estimate which parameters play a role in this process and to provide some guidelines for avoiding problems.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2062
Hu Jianjun, Qin Datong, Zhao Yusheng, Liu Yonggang
The working principle of dual mass flywheel - radial spring (DMF-RS) type torsional vibration damper was analyzed, and the design method of natural torsional vibration characteristics control of DMF-RS type torsional damper for automotive powertrains was studied herein. Based on the multi-freedom lumped mass - torsional vibration spring analysis model of powertrain, the natural torsional vibration characteristics of the system with DMF-RS type torsional damper were analyzed, and compared with the clutch type torsional vibration damper, the effectiveness of DMF-RS type torsional damper on the torsional vibration control was verified.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2053
Charlie Teng, Steve Homco
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2056
M. Flekiewicz, P. Fabiś, B. Flekiewicz
The availability of gaseous fuels such as natural gas and propane butane mixtures has led to worldwide popularity of internal combustion engines running dual fuel or alternatively gas powered. These gaseous fuels are known as fuels more resistant to knocking than conventional liquid fuels and as less ones pollutant. Their better mixing with air is also well recognized. There are some works published on the use of gaseous fuels, but the problem of the combustion noise, as a very important source of information regarding the combusted fuel, is not receiving much attention. Combustion noise occurs in two forms, direct and indirect. It is transmitted throughout the engine block as a vibration at a different spectrum of frequencies. In this study an attempt is made to relate the combustion noise to the operating parameters for LPG, CNG and Hydrogen enriched CNG powered engine as compared to petrol fueled engine.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2048
I. J. Lee, A. Selamet, H. Kim, T. C. Kim, J. Kim
A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2049
Ming Une Jen, Ming-Hung Lu
We assessed the feasibility of weight reduction concerning noise and vibration characteristics for engine components. Three alternatives were plastic intake manifold, stamped steel oil pan, and no balance shaft. The assessment indices were engine noise level, engine mount bracket vibration, and engine block vibration. Reducing the reciprocating mass and applying design alternatives made the removal of balance shaft feasible. The lightweight plastic intake manifold was beneficial to the engine vibration with a little improvement to the engine noise. The stamped steel oil pan, with optimal structural ribs design and EMS calibration, offered all the benefits of weight, vibration, and noise improvements.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2052
Longxin Zhen, Zijun An, Qiang Li, Baocheng Wang
With ever-increasing oil and gasoline prices, automotive manufacturers are striving to improve fuel economy. There are many factors that affect vehicle fuel consumption, such as engine size, vehicle weight, driving habits, and more. For a particular vehicle, engine combustion quality is one of the most important factors that affect fuel economy. Engine combustion quality also directly affects engine emissions, vehicle drivability, and vehicle NVH. Automotive manufacturers have been using different technologies to control engine combustion quality, such as using low cost pressure transducers to measure and control engine combustion in real time. In this paper, the authors have proposed a method that could directly use the Crank Position Sensor (CPS) signal to measure engine combustion quality.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1984
Emiliano Pipitone
Internal combustion engine modeling is nowadays a widely employed tool for modern engine development. Zero and mono dimensional models of the intake and exhaust systems, combined with multi-zone combustion models, proved to be reliable enough for the accurate evaluation of in-cylinder pressure, which in turn allow the estimation of the engine performance in terms of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In order to evaluate the net engine output, both the torque dissipation due to friction and the energy drawn by accessories must be taken into consideration, hence a model for the friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) evaluation is needed.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2077
D. Siano, F. Bozza
The paper illustrates both numerical and experimental methodologies aiming to characterize performances and overall noise radiated from a light duty diesel engine. The main objective was the development of accurate models to be included within an optimization procedure, able to define an optimal injection strategy for a common rail engine. The injection strategy was selected to contemporary reduce the fuel consumption and the combustion noise. To this aim, an experimental investigation was firstly carried out measuring engine performances and noise emissions at different operating conditions. Contemporary, a one-dimensional (1D) simulation of the engine under investigation was performed, finalized to predict the in-cylinder pressure cycles and the overall engine performances. The 1D model was validated with reference to the measured data. In order to assess the combustion noise, an innovative study, mainly based on the decomposition of the in-cylinder pressure signal, was utilized.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2081
Shanjin Wang, Christophe Chalu, Nicolas Duclaux, Marc Paquien
The Euro 6 emission standard requires a strong reduction of NOx and soot emissions for future Diesel engines. One of the ways to reach the Euro 6 standard for new Diesel engines is to adopt the low NOx combustion concept with new injection strategy, but this kind of combustion can give higher combustion noise and worse stability in transient conditions. This paper describes some of the new methodologies developed by Renault for controlling and optimizing Diesel combustion noise, particularly for engines with low NOx combustion modes. In steady working conditions, it was found that a homogeneous combustion mode gave high level of combustion excitation particularly in the 1000 Hz octave band. Thus improvement should be made in the engine structural attenuation (SA) in this frequency range in order to limit engine noise deterioration. This requires not only the technical solutions for improving the structural attenuation, but also reliable methods for measuring engine SA.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2080
Thomas E. Reinhart
Tier 2, bin 5 diesel engines may use multiple combustion modes to achieve stringent emissions requirements. Unfortunately, switching between different combustion modes can cause step changes in noise that will be unacceptable to consumers. In this paper, several sound quality metrics are evaluated for their ability to quantify the NVH issues that arise during a rich pulse event. In addition, techniques are presented that allow an engine developer to reduce the NVH effects caused by changing combustion modes. Careful calibration tuning in close cooperation with performance and emissions development engineers is required to solve noise problems that arise from combustion mode switching events, since an NVH improvement may often come at the expense of a performance or emissions issue.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2079
L. Arnone, S. Manelli, G. Chiatti, O. Chiavola
Many efforts are being currently devoted to the development of diagnostic techniques based on nonintrusive measurements aimed at defining the injection parameters able to optimize the combustion process. Previous papers of the authors have demonstrated a direct relationship between in-cylinder pressure and engine block vibration signals. Besides, it was also shown sensitivity of the engine surface vibration to variation of injection parameters, when the accelerometer is placed in sensitive location of the engine block. Moreover, in the accelerometer signal, a frequency band in which such a relationship is very strict has been selected. The aim of the present work is to establish a reliable relation between the main characteristics of the in-cylinder pressure curve and the vibration trend, by means of a deeper insight into the engine block signal. The final objective is to monitor the combustion behavior by means of a non-intrusive transducer.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2078
Till Papenfus, Klaus Genuit, Peter Blaschke, Koo Tae Kang, In-Soo Jung, Jaemin Jin
The development of a new method to evaluate the NVH quality of diesel combustion noise bases upon following questions by regarding typical driving modes: Driving behavior with diesel vehicles Which driving situation causes an annoying diesel combustion noise Judgment of diesel combustion noise as good or bad A suitable test course was determined to regard typical driving situations as well as the European driving behavior. Vehicles of different segments were tested on that course. The recorded driving style and the simultaneously given comments on the diesel combustion noise results to a typical driving mode linked to acoustics sensation of diesel combustion noise. The next step was to simulate this driving mode on the chassis dynamometer for acoustical measurements. The recordings of several vehicles were evaluated in listening test to identify a metric. The base of metric was objective analyses evaluating diesel combustion noise in relevant driving situations.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2083
Dhanesh Purekar, David Moenssen
Diesel engine NVH is an important characteristic of light and medium duty vehicles in today's market. Typical NVH related issues like idle gear clatter, gear whine and cab shake at low speed and load conditions are perceived as unpleasant and are unacceptable to the end customer. The root cause of many of these NVH concerns is frequently associated with powertrain structures and the excitation of different mechanical components within the engine. This paper focuses on development of robust and self-contained engine test stand which can help both for troubleshooting NVH concerns and for setting relevant targets at the subsystem levels to mitigate NVH risks. The motivation behind developing this unique test stand is given with examples and the advantages are demonstrated for relevant engine NVH testing applications.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2082
Jung-Yel Hwang, Dae-Woon Kim, Won-Jo Jeong, Dal-Heun Shin, Koo-Tae Kang
In accordance with the characteristics of the engine structure and of combustion excitation, diesel engines have distinctive noise characteristics in comparison to gasoline engines. In particular, the combustion excitation of the diesel engine produces significant excitation of high frequency noise. This paper describes the influence of the piston pin clearance, bed-plate design, and transmission bell housing structure, using a variety of experimental methods. Design solutions to improve the high frequency noise of diesel engines are also provided, beginning with identification of the root cause for noise generation, through the design modification of the engine structure, to the control of combustion excitation forces.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2114
Valerie G. Caryer Cook, Ahad Ali
Control of annoying noises such as buzzes, squeaks and rattles (BSRs) is particularly important for complex products such as automobiles. This importance has become even more significant as electric vehicles become more popular, eliminating much of the ambient background vehicle noise. A customer's perception of the durability and solidness of a vehicle is based largely on sensory responses such as sound. Recent advances in beamforming technology have the potential to change the way BSR audits and vehicle development testing are done. This paper introduces the application of spherical beamforming technology to BSR testing and provides test results showing the localization accuracy of a rigid spherical array system in a vehicle cabin.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2121
Cheol-hyun Hwang, Byung-hyuk Lee, Pan-ki Jung
Applying BSM (Balance shaft module) is a very common and effective way to reduce the 2nd-order powertrain vibration which is caused by the ill-balanced inertia force due to the oscillating masses inside an engine. However, the adoption of a BSM can also produce undesirable things especially in cost, fuel economy, starting performance, and so on. Therefore, for small vehicles, in which case cost and weight are key factors at the development stage, it is often required to develop competitive NVH performance without the expensive apparatus like a BSM. In this paper, in order to develop interior noise and vibration of a 4-cylinder vehicle without a BSM, we analyzed the contribution of some transfer paths for powertrain vibration, and could reduce interior booming noise by tuning the dynamic characteristic of the engine mount which was one of the largest transfer paths.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1854
Yutaka Masuda, Zhili Chen
This study investigates the mechanisms of solubility, ignition, combustion and emission of ethanol diesel blend fuel for the prospect of using ethanol diesel blend in a Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) engine. Ethanol diesel blend fuel of ethanol blend ratio 20vol% (E20) does not solubilize in atmospheric temperature, though will solubilize when heated to 323K. When applying ethanol diesel blend fuel to a PCI engine, combustion characteristics changes, which increases ignition delay and decreases the rate-of-pressure-rise. We speculated that the above combustion characteristics were shown as a result of the following three reasons: a leaner mixture caused by increase in ignition delay, fuel adhesion to cavity wall by ethanol and diesel fuels evaporation characteristics, and a decrease in combustion rate by adding ethanol.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1852
M. Husnawan, H. H. Masjuki, T.M.I. Mahlia, M. G. Saifullah, M. A. Kalam
Nowadays, engine problems such as higher NOx, increase in smoke content and low brake power output due to biofuel fueled engine have been reduced by several improvements by using additives or modifications on engine itself. This paper presents a type of compositions and proper combination of selected chemical components which may be used in palm olein-diesel blends namely “Envo-Diesel”. The blended component was designed as an additive package which was blended with diesel-biofuel at 99:1 up to 95:5 percent ratios. Blended fuels with additive have been used in the single cylinder engine which operated under 2000 rpm for 100 hours. Engine performance and emissions tests were conducted as well as engine deposit analysis was done after 100 hours engine operation time.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1853
J. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Tsolakis, K. Theinnoi, J. Snowball, A. Sawtell, A.P.E. York
Biofuels development and specification are currently driven by the engine (mainly gasoline- and diesel-type) technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. The ability to use biofuels with conventional fuels without jeopardising the standard fuel specifications is a very effective means for the implementation of these fuels. In this work the effect of dual fuelling with in-cylinder injected ULSD fuel or synthetic second generation biofuels (a Gas-To-Liquid GTL fuel as a surrogate of these biofuels as its composition, specifications and production process are very similar to second generation biofuels) and with inlet port injected bioethanol on the engine performance and emissions were investigated. The introduction of anhydrous bioethanol improved the NOx and smoke emissions, but increased total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1850
Pat Y. Geng, Andrew E Buczynsky, Anke Konzack
Biodiesel has become a major alternative fuel for automotive applications demonstrated by its increasing presence in the market place. This paper summarizes test results for recently collected retail samples of biodiesel (B100) and blended biodiesel from the U.S. and the European Union to provide a snap shot of current fuel quality in each market. Properties reported included biodiesel content, oxidation stability, acid number, water, metals, and glycerin content. For B100, only total contamination measured as particulates was significantly lower for the EU than the U.S. For blends containing up to 5% biodiesel, there were significant differences between the U.S. and the EU in sulfur content, oxidation stability (Rancimat), cetane number, and cloud point. For blends higher than B5, present only in the U.S., pump labeling was found to be a poor indicator of biodiesel content.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1851
Ratanavalee In-ochanon, Chonchada Tipdecho, Rinaldo Caprotti, Siong Leng Lim, Tristan Tang
Diesel fuel is a major grade in the Thai market used in transportation of goods and in most light duty vehicles. Over the last fifteen years the quality of this fuel has continuously increased. This is one of the major factors that have allowed a substantial improvement in air quality. The improvement in diesel fuel quality has been achieved by using a mix of measures, some well known like reduction in sulphur content, whilst others are unique to this market. Since 1993, in Thailand it has been mandatory to use a diesel detergent. This has ensured best driveability and lowest emissions due to the control of injector deposits. This measure was unique in the world and although not mandatory any longer, this market has a large proportion of automotive diesel treated with this type of additive. Another action has been the evaluation of Palm Oil Methyl Ester (PME) and its potential impact in the market. However, experience with PME is limited.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1848
Murari Mohon Roy, Eiji Tomita, Nobuyuki Kawahara, Yuji Harada, Atsushi Sakane
This study investigated the effect of some pilot fuel injection parameters, like injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual fuel engine. The engine has been tested to be used as a co-generation engine and its power output is an important matter. Experiments have been done to optimize the injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity for the maximization of engine power. At constant injection pressures, there is an optimum amount of pilot injection quantity for that maximum engine power is developed without knocking and within the limit of maximum cylinder pressure. Above or below of that amount engine power is decreased. Higher injection pressures generally show better results than lower ones. However, good results can also be obtained with lower injection pressure, if maximum power timings can be selected.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1847
Jinyoung Jang, Kiseon Yang, Choongsik Bae
Dimethyl ether (DME) as a high cetane number fuel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a high octane number fuel were supplied together to evaluate the controllability of combustion phase and improvement of power and exhaust emission in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. Each fuel was injected at the intake port and in the cylinder separately during the same cycle, i.e., DME in the cylinder and LPG at the intake port, or vice versa. Direct injection timing was varied from 200 to 340 crank angle degree (CAD) while port injection timing was fixed at 20 CAD. In general, the experimental results showed that DME direct injection with LPG port injection was the better way to increase the IMEP and reduce emissions. The direct injection timing of high cetane number fuel was important to control the auto-ignition timing because the auto-ignition was occurred at proper area, where the air and high cetane number fuel were well mixed.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0087
Hiroki Iino, Kenji Shigetoyo, Mari Nagae, Norimasa Iida
In HCCI Engine, HCCI combustion characteristics come under the influence of change of compression speed corresponding to engine speed. The purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism of influence of engine speed on HCCI combustion characteristics by using numerical analysis. At first, the Influence of engine speed was showed. And then, In order to clarified the mechanism of influence of engine speed, results of kinetics computations were analyzed to investigate the elementary reaction path for heat release at transient temperatures by using contribution matrix.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0047
Azmi Osman
A novel combustion cycle involving oxygen and water is proposed as a potential replacement to the existing Otto and Diesel cycles. The cycle involves a compression ignition 2-stroke engine equipped with poppet exhaust valves and 2 high pressure gas injectors. Novel exhaust valve timing and lift strategy is applied to control the cylinder temperature for optimal fuel auto-ignition. High purity oxygen is used to replace air. Water having high specific heat capacity and gas constant is used as a working medium. In theory, relatively higher engine output from a comparable size of engine displacement can be expected as lesser heat is rejected to the environment.
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