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Viewing 241 to 270 of 42298
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0048
Syed Kaleemuddin, G. Ambaprasad Rao
The present work deals with Study of performance and emission on single cylinder air cooled naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. Same engine was converted into spark ignition engine with suitable compression ratio to adopt LPG and CNG as a dual fuel application. CFD analysis was done to review and subsequently increase the cooling capacity of the engine. Same spark ignition engine was further converted into water cool version to study improvement in engine performance. Engine performance comparison has shown 17% improvement in power with gasoline as compare to its parent diesel engine and there was drop in power by 12% with LPG and CNG as fuel when compared with gasoline engine. Engine has met proposed Bharat Stage-III emission norms with all fuel on chassis dynamometer. Substantial Reduction in CO2 emission was observed with CNG fuel.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0054
Manjunath Bhat, Kannan Marudachalam, C. Padmanabhan
Crank balance factor and phase of crank balance tuning to minimize an engine mount forces by experimental methods during vehicle development is a time consuming process. The degree of crank balance factor and phase of crank balance optimization achieved relying on this approach alone is highly dependent upon the development engineer's experience. This situation should be helped if the initial crank balance factor and phase of crank balance provided to the development activity is near optimum. Engine mount forces are very crucial as they are primarily responsible for vibration of the vehicle. This paper discusses a method of modeling a scooter engine mounting system to predict mount forces and to minimize the mount forces by optimizing the crank balance factor and phase of crank balance. The engine mounting system under study is for a single link toggle mechanism used for scooter engines.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0051
Hidenori Arisawa, Motohiko Nishimura, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Atsushi Ueshima, Kazuki Arima, Akiyuki Yamasaki
For the prediction of pumping loss in the engine crankcase at the early stage of engine design, a similarity law of the pumping loss on parallel cylinders with the phase difference of 180 degrees has been derived from the sum of the power loss due to the drag force of airflow through the cylinder bulkhead holes and the inertia force of fluid. It has been found that the mean effective pressure in the crankcase is in proportion to the square of the mean flow velocity at the bulkhead holes. Then, in order to validate the similarity law, by using a prototype engine with inline four cylinders, the pumping loss was estimated by subtracting the frictional loss with special pistons that had air holes, from the power loss in which the area of the bulkhead holes and engine speed were changed. The experimental results of the pumping loss were normalized by the similarity law. As a consequence, it has been shown that the pumping loss obeys the law.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0056
Daisuke Shiraida, Takefumi Maruyama, Minoru Ueda
For the throttle bodies for sport motorcycles, there is a need for a design giving importance to drivability and precise control. At the same time, various devices such as idle control and duct control are necessary in order to conform to recent environmental regulations. However, these added functions lead to an increase in the number of components, thus leading to disadvantages in both cost and weight. Therefore we have developed a throttle body where DBW (Drive By Wire) has been used to consolidate such parts, and functions. For the drive actuator, a modified actuator device from a passenger car DBW system was incorporated into a multi-cylinder link structure. In addition, specifications such as the gear ratios and the operation torque were optimized in order to satisfy the operability required for motorcycles.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0059
Toru Kisaichi
New 4-cylinder V-type engine has been developed with a concept of compact, low-vibration and pulse feeling. Traditional 4-cylinder 90-degree V-type engine places #2 and #4 cylinders on the V-type front bank while on the rear bank, it places #1 and #3 cylinders. On the other hand, new 76-degree V4 engine places #1 and #4 cylinders on the front bank while on the rear bank, #2 and #3 cylinders are placed for right-left symmetry. By adopting the OHC mechanism in which the intake valve is directly pressed by one cam and the exhaust valve is driven by the locker arm, higher rotation and output are enabled than those in traditional OHC engine while compared with a DOHC engine, the exhaust section at the top of cylinder head becomes compact, thereby reducing the longitudinal length of engine. The engine with V-bank angle of 76 degree can eliminate a primary vibration theoretically without the use of balancer by setting the crank pin phase to 28-degree.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0057
Masato UEDA, Masayasu TAKAMI, Tamon TANAKA, Koichi FUNAKI, Hideya MIYAZAKI
Very wide ranging applications or versatility are required to industrial diesel engines. Moreover, engines should be fitted the market trends, that are such as high reliability, low fuel consumption, and/or compact size with high output power (high power density). In addition, in recent years, exhaust emissions regulations have been getting strict; hence the further emission reduction is required in keeping and improving the above mentioned demands. From such backgrounds, we developed new direct injection turbo diesel engine for industrial use, that satisfies the market needs with a high level by adopting the new concept engine structure and the emission reduction devices.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0061
Ahmad Syazli MOHD KHALIL, Horizon GITANO-BRIGGS
In this paper we investigate well-to-wheel energy consumption of a conventional carbureted four stroke 110cc motorcycle and comparable electric motorcycle using lead acid batteries and Li-polymer batteries. The vehicles are tested on a chassis dynamometer using a steady-state test based on the ECER40 drive cycle. Vehicle energy consumption was measured and compared on a cost per kilometer basis. Vehicle life cycle analysis was performed based on expected or measured life times of the major components such as engines, batteries and electric motors. This study indicates that electric motorcycles cost less to operate than conventional motorcycles, but are unlikely to be competitive at current prices due to the cost and life span of the battery packs.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0063
Noritaka Yoshikawa, Koji Yoshida, Tatsuaki Suzuki
DME is alternate fuel for diesel engines, however DME has defects such as small lower calorific value, inferior lubricity and weak fuel penetration. To compensate disadvantages, In-direct injection 2-stroke diesel engine with low pressure fuel injection system was proposed. The fuel injection timing near TDC gave good performance because the heat loss of low temperature oxidation reaction reduced. The brake torque and brake thermal efficiency of 2-stroke IDI diesel engine were lower than those of 4-stroke engine. However, the exhaust gas emissions were very low level because the intake air leaked through the exhaust port and the exhaust gas was diluted.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0066
Yudai YAMASAKI, Masanobu KANNO, Yasuhiro TAURA, Shigehiko KANEKO
Autoignition and combustion characteristics of biomass gas were investigated experimentally. A mock biomass gas consisting of H2, CH4, CO, N2 and CO2 was used as a wood pyrolysis gas. Experiments were carried out with a modified gas engine varying equivalence ratio and fuel composition. High hydrogen content increases the combustion speed, but it hardly affects ignition timing. Carbon monoxide in fuels does not affect combustion speed largely. The autoignition temperature of biomass gas is about 1000K, which is the same as those of hydrocarbon fuels. The engine also realizes 42% of the indicated thermal efficiency and a maximum IMEP of 0.3MPa.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0065
Kenji Suto, Tomonori Saito, Sumitaka Watanabe
Ni-P-B plating applied to the piston of a general-purpose engine with an aluminum alloy cylinder contains some thousands ppm of Pb, which is used as the treating liquid stabilizer, in its plating. But, Pb is considered an environmental hazardous and it is necessary to reduce its amount in the plating. Our previous researches, however, reveal that Pb plays a major role in wear and seizure resistance. In order to obtain the sliding properties equivalent to Ni-P-B plating that contains Pb, therefore, it is necessary to review the composition of Ni-P-B plating. In this research, therefore, we specifically focus on the plating hardness of Ni-2%P plating subject to the temperature environment in which the piston operates, and discuss whether the same sliding effects as that of the Pb containing Ni-P-B plating is obtainable by restraining the hardness decrease.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0069
Jürgen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Roland Kirchberger, Helmut Eichlseder
Looking at the market for 2-wheelers driven by small capacity four stroke engines, it turns out that the legislation for exhaust emissions is mostly combined with a regulation of vehicle speed. Most of the vehicles in this category are still driven by engines equipped with carburetors which, unlike fuel injection systems, do not give the possibility to cut off fuel metering when high speed is achieved. When a carburetor is applied with a simple ignition unit, a reduction of spark advance is the only way to ensure correct vehicle speed, but there are a lot of disadvantages in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel economy coming up with this method of engine power restriction. This leads to the idea of using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to reduce engine power when necessary.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0068
Zulkhairi Salleh, Chan Ming-Yau, Wan Ahmad Nadzri
In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and marketplace. In today's very competitive market environment, fuel producers also have to continuously develop and renew their products performance and capability in order to improve their business competitive edge and market share. With more consumer awareness on environment concerns, fuel producers require a better mean of assessing their product performance for internal combustion engine market including motorcycle for improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. Fossil fuel resources depletion and uncertainty in oil prices further worsen the situation. Advancement in internal combustion engine measurement technology allows engineers to have access to improve evaluation tools in enhancing their understanding and knowledge on the effect of fuel properties on engine performance.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0072
S. M. Begg, D. J. Mason, M. R. Heikal
The results of an experimental study of the low speed and low load operation of an optical research engine are presented for spark-ignition (SI) and spark-assisted, controlled auto-ignition (SA-CAI). A direct injection gasoline engine was modified for optical access into the combustion chamber. At 1000 rpm and 3 bar NIMEP, stable SA-CAI combustion was achieved with predicted EGR rates in excess of 45%. The coefficient of variation (CoV) in NIMEP was 4.8% compared to 6.5% recorded in the SI case, with no EGR. Particle image velocimetry measurements of the airflow showed lower mean and turbulent velocities in the SA-CAI case at the end of the compression stroke. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of the fuel vapour signal in the air-fuel-residual distribution were significantly lower than in the SI case. Indicating analysis showed that the main combustion burn duration was considerably greater in the SA-CAI case.
2009-11-03
Journal Article
2009-32-0070
Akira Iijima, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of low-temperature reactions on the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Specifically, an investigation was made of the effect of the residual gas condition on low-temperature reactions, autoignition and the subsequent state of combustion following ignition. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements were made in the combustion chamber in order to investigate low-temperature reactions in detail. In addition, chemical kinetic simulations were performed to validate the experimental results and to analyze the elemental reaction process. The results made clear the formation behavior of the chemical species produced during low-temperature HCCI reactions.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0073
M. Sacchi, R. Ferrara, J. Beeker, Neng-Hau Ching
The high level of pollution in urban areas and the growing significance of emissions from two-wheel vehicles is forcing many governments to enact stricter pollution regulations for these small motorcycle engines. In order to satisfy these new stringent exhaust emission levels, manufacturers are considering replacing traditional mechanical carburetors with electronic controls, but the strict target costs for two-wheel vehicles requires manufacturers to develop innovative designs for these electronics. This paper presents a new solution to reduce the total cost of the small engine electronic control unit: It is based on the integration of many necessary analog functions into a single chip.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0076
Satoru SUWA, Daiji KAWAGUCHI, Atsushi MURAKAMI, Kazuyoshi KIMURA, Masato TADA
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0075
Brent Dohner, Ewa Bardasz, Mike Brenner
Phosphorus is known to reduce the effectiveness of the three-way catalysts commonly used by automobile manufacturers by deactivating the catalyst. This process occurs as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP) decomposes in the engine oil, creating many phosphorus species, which provide excellent wear protection of the engine but can also interact with the active sites of the three-way catalyst. This reactivity has led to API specifications for engine oils with lower concentrations of phosphorus. In order to further minimize catalyst deactivation without compromising wear protection, a novel ZDP technology was designed for engine oil applications. This novel ZDP was designed to minimize the amount of phosphorus produced via volatilization during engine operation while maintaining engine wear protection.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0077
Ryosuke SHIINA, Hideaki SUZUKI, Mikiya ARAKI, Hisao NAKAMURA, Seiichi SHIGA, Hideo KISHIMOTO
In a boat two-stroke two-cylinder engine, SC-port fuel injection of CNG was applied at running condition in comparison with the fuelling with a gas-mixer. Three methods of tests were employed; operation at a test-bench, at an anchored condition and on a running boat. In a lower engine speed, the beneficial effect of higher thermal efficiency was obtained, while in higher engine speed range especially at the running condition, it has the inverse effect of lower thermal efficiency. It is based on the limited range of lower injection rate of the fuel injectors, and thus the fuel injection rate of this type of fuel injectors has a key role of developing the technology of the SC-port injection.
2009-11-03
Journal Article
2009-32-0079
Kiyoshi KAWASAKI, Kazuki HIROTA, Shingo NAGATA, Koji YAMANE, Hiroyuki OHTSUBO, Toru NAKAZONO
To control natural-gas HCCI combustion, internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) by exhaust valve reopening (EVRO) during the induction stroke was applied to a single-cylinder test engine. The results demonstrate that combustion phasing can be controlled successfully by adjusting the EGR ratio, and so improvement of thermal efficiency and reduction in unburned exhaust emissions are feasible. In addition, the results of the EVRO method were compared to those of intake-valve pilot opening (IVPO) during the exhaust stroke. It was shown that EVRO is more useful than IVPO as a heat-recovery method for HCCI combustion.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0080
Nobuaki Watanabe, Moritsugu Kasai, Akira Mitara, Masatoshi Akagi
As well as a four-wheeled vehicle, in the field of motorcycle, development of the CO2 reduction technology and practical use are required for global environment. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Ito1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods: JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0083
Satoshi IIJIMA, Ryo KUBOTA, Kazunori KIKUCHI
A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0086
Chao Shi, Kenichiro Nagai, Norimasa Iida
Delaying CA50(Crank Angle of 50% Heat Release) of the HCCI engine to expansion stroke can lead to high indicated thermal efficiency as well as the avoidance of knocking. However, this method could induce the problem of cycle variability. In this study, the cycle-to-cycle variation of a HCCI engine fueled with DME was investigated. Experimental parameters of each cycle, such as in-cylinder temperature, pressure and gas flow rate, were recorded by fast response system, and analyzed consequently. Moreover, the interdependency between the combustion and the performance parameters were evaluated.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0085
Daisuke Shirota, Norimasa Iida
Thermal and mixing stratifications have been thought as one of the ways to avoid an excessive pressure rise on HCCI combustion. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential of thermal and mixing stratifications for reducing PRR (Pressure Rise Rate) on HCCI combustion. The pre-mixture with thermal and mixing stratifications is charged in RCM (Rapid Compression Machine). After that, the pre-mixture is compressed and in that process, in-cylinder gas pressure and chemiluminescence images are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, experimental results are compared with the computational results calculated by using multi-zone model for analyzing these mechanisms.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0059
Michihiro Kato, Masamichi Suzuki, Yoshihito Kamata, Makoto Hayami, Kenji Inoue, Takeshi Nagaya
The main purposes of the KB variant engine development were not only to reduce fuel consumption or to enhance reliability & quality but also to make better productivity for global manufacture. This paper introduces technical approaches of KB, higher thermal efficiency, better performance and emissions, and well balanced product design with such high energy efficiency, and low-cost and global application. Maximum brake torque per displacement is 7% higher and overall engine weight is lighter by 24kg than an existing 1.3L engine. Design feature includes compactness, low noise characteristics and universal production design considered with globally purchasable materials and simple manufacturing requirement. These contribute short production preparation period and short production task time at Suzuki's key overseas local factories e.g., Maruti Suzuki India Limited.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0053
S M Shariff, Manish Tak, G Padmanabham, S Shanmugam
The present work involves systematic study on identification of process parameters and processing conditions for effective laser surface-hardening of automotive crankshaft and its implementation in the industry, utilizing a diode laser integrated to a 6-axis robot and a turn/tilt table. The crankshaft chosen was made of low-alloyed 0.52% C steel and required hardening at two contact regions of bearing/flange seat areas and a pin area (on a different axis than the actual shaft). The subjected areas had features like oil holes, sharp corners and wide areas. The target was to develop laser hardening process resulting in hardened case-depth of above 200 µm with a hardness of 500 - 650 HV at different locations mentioned. Additionally, It was targeted to minimize the processing time and also eliminate any post process machining operations.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0014
Chun-Hsien Wu, Pei-Jen Wang
This paper studies the dynamic model and associated control methods of a single cylinder four-stroke internal combustion (IC) engine attached with a variable intake-valve actuation mechanism. First, pertinent data of intake and exhaust ports, valve-timing cam, output torque, frictional torque, and crankshaft dynamics obtained from a 125 cc IC engine constitute the dynamic model for further control of the engine performance. Then, calculated data from specific conditions confined by volumetric efficiency and specific fuel consumption generate control commands for intake-valve actuation for various loads governed by a genetic algorithm. For quest of the best fuel economy, MatLab/Simulink programs simulate and evaluate the effective efficacy of the proposed control system under ECE-R40 driving cycle.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0010
Hiroyuki Omura, Tatsuki Yonemaru, Jo Asada, Hideharu Nakashima
Magnesium alloys have been used and developed in applications for various motorcycle components and others such as cylinder head cover, crankcase and oil pan due to light weight, high specific strength and recycles ability. However, many of those alloys suffer from inferior die cast ability and high temperature properties, such as creep resistant. Ryobi limited has developed the creep resistant alloy in order to be utilized for the various motorcycle components and so forth. The properties of new die cast creep resistant alloy have been introduced. The targets for development of the properties of new alloy are the same creep resistant as aluminum die cast alloys and the same diecastability as ASTM magnesium alloys, such as AZ91D or AM60B alloys. Specific approaches of development with several types of evaluation have been performed for the purpose of fulfillment of this goal.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0013
Kai Schreer, Kai W. Beck, Sören Bernhardt, Ulrich Spicher, Werner Geyer, Stephan Meyer
The trend of higher specific power and increased volumetric efficiency leads to unwanted combustion phenomenon such as knocking, pre-ignition and self-ignition. For four-stroke engines, the literature reports that knocking depends, to a large extent, on the ignition angle, the degree of enrichment and the volumetric efficiency. In recent research, knock investigations in two-stroke engines have only been carried out to a limited extent. This paper discusses an investigation of the influence of various parameters on the knock characteristics of a small, high-speed, two-stroke SI engine. In particular, the degree of enrichment, the volumetric efficiency and the ignition timing serve as the parameters.
2009-12-13
Technical Paper
2009-28-0064
Ravindra R. Malagi, Shivakant N. Kurbet, N. Gowrishenkar
The paper presents the results of the finite element study conducted by developing a 3D model of piston assembly with its components. The complete 3D model of the crank, connecting rod, piston, wrist pin, piston rings are developed using UG-Nx-3 software and finite element models of all these components are generated using Hypermesh software to solve in L.S.DYNA solver. The piston assembly is simulated by providing proper boundary condition to impose the true working condition. The effect of hydrodynamic lubrication on the piston skirt is introduced by solving 1D Reynolds equation. The inter ring gas pressure is calculated by using appropriate models and applied on the piston rings. In this work piston assembly component motions are studied. The piston and ring motions in axial and lateral directions along with piston tilt are studied. The finite element study results are compared with results obtained from the earlier developed numerical model.
2009-11-03
Technical Paper
2009-32-0030
Kai W. Beck, Thomas Heidenreich, Steve Busch, Ulrich Spicher, Tim Gegg, Armin Kölmel
This paper demonstrates the potential of optical sensors in the combustion chamber of a small two-stroke SI engine to detect conditions that hinder an optimal combustion process using emission bands and/or emission lines. The primary focus is on the spectroscopic examination of the combustion radiation emissions cycle-by-cycle. For this purpose, spark-ignition type combustion events, as well as the influence of both the air-fuel-ratio and the fuel type, are investigated on a crank angle resolved basis. Furthermore, an assessment of the radiation emissions of the OH, CH and C2 radicals is made. As a next step, the calculation of a temperature profile inside the combustion chamber is attempted by means of the line-emission-method regarding the thermally excited alkaline metals sodium and potassium. These data enable recognition of diffusion combustion and the detection of inadequate mixture quality.
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