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Viewing 271 to 300 of 190869
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2199
Leslie Bromberg, Daniel Cohn
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2200
Withit Chatlatanagulchai, Shinapat Rhienprayoon, Kittipong Yaovaja, Krisada Wannatong
From our experiences in converting diesel engine into diesel-dual-fuel engine with natural gas as primary fuel, accurate air/fuel ratio control is vital to the high engine performance, good vehicle drivability, and low emissions. Two components enter in calculating the air/fuel ratio, namely, the amount of fresh air and the amount of diesel and natural gas. Throttle and EGR valve are two actuators directly affect the amount of air, and the desired total fuel determines how much fuel should be injected at an instance. As opposed to inactive, fully opened throttle in typical diesel engine, the throttle in diesel-dual-fuel engine is regulated to cover wider range of desired air/fuel ratio. As a result, the problem of controlling the amount of air in diesel-dual-fuel engine becomes that of multi variables in which both throttle and EGR valve are involved. We present a novel algorithm that breaks the multi-variable control problem into two single-variable problems.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2202
Umut Uysal, Ozgen Akalin
A timing drive model was developed based on computer-aided simulation methods and used to calculate the contribution of each system component to the overall timing drive friction loss at various engine operating conditions. Combining the analytical results and statistical methods, an optimization study was performed to calculate the ideal system design parameters such as hydraulic tensioner spring force and flow rate, sprocket tooth profiles and circularity, and oil supply pressure. The simulation results revealed that while the plastic guide - timing chain friction is responsible for the most part of the frictional losses, the contribution of timing chain friction increases with increasing speed. It was found that the tensioner guide is the key element in the guiding system that causes friction losses. Furthermore, tensioner spring force and engine oil pressure were identified as major design parameters that influence the efficiency of the timing drive.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2201
Daniel Alberer, Luigi del Re
Transient emission peaks have become an important fraction of the total emissions during the standardized test cycles for passenger car Diesel engines. This paper is concerned with their reduction, in particular of nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, by online receding horizon optimal control. It is based on former works in which alternative target quantities for engine control were proposed, namely in-cylinder oxygen concentrations before (O2,BC) and after combustion (O2,AC). The actual work is concerned with testing an in-cylinder oxygen concentrations based control in simulation as well as by a real-time implementation on a turbocharged common rail passenger car production Diesel engine. The promising results confirm the choice of these concentrations as sensible control references and the feasibility of a real-time use in a model predictive control implementation.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2204
Yue Ma, Ho Teng, Marina Thelliez
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are becoming widely used high-energy sources and a replacement of the Nickel Metal Hydride batteries in electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). Because of their light weight and high energy density, Li-ion cells can significantly reduce the weight and volume of the battery packs for EVs, HEVs and PHEVs. Some materials in the Li-ion cells have low thermal stabilities and they may become thermally unstable when their working temperature becomes higher than the upper limit of allowed operating temperature range. Thus, the cell working temperature has a significant impact on the life of Li-ion batteries. A proper control of the cell working temperature is crucial to the safety of the battery system and improving the battery life. This paper outlines an approach for the thermal analysis of Li-ion battery cells and modules.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2203
Johan Wahlström, Lars Eriksson
In diesel engines with EGR and VGT, the gas flow dynamics has significant nonlinear effects. This is shown by analyzing DC-gains in different operating points showing that these gains have large variations. To handle these nonlinear effects, a nonlinear state dependent input transformation is investigated. This input transformation is achieved through inversion of the models for EGR-flow and turbine flow. It is shown that the input transformation handles the nonlinear effects and decreases the variations in DC-gains substantially. The input transformation is combined with a new control structure that has a pumping work minimization feature and consists of PID controllers and min/max-selectors for coordinated control of EGR-fraction and oxygen/fuel ratio. The EGR flow and the exhaust manifold pressure are chosen as feedback variables in this structure. Further, the set-points for EGR-fraction and oxygen/fuel ratio are transformed to set-points for the feedback variables.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2205
Thomas Edward Briggs, Robert Wagner, K. Dean Edwards, Scott Curran, Eric Nafziger
In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 45%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2206
Scott Curran, Vitaly Prikhodko, Kukwon Cho, C. Scott Sluder, James Parks, Robert Wagner, Sage Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline with diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 5.5 bar net mean effective pressure (NMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2207
Kenichi Akiyama, Akemi Nakayama
Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2210
Withit Chatlatanagulchai, Nitirong Pongpanich, Krisada Wannatong, Shinapat Rhienprayoon
In this paper, we investigate a multivariable control of air path of a diesel-dual-fuel (DDF) engine. The engine is modified from a CI engine by injecting CNG in intake ports. The engine uses CNG as its primary fuel and diesel as its secondary fuel, mainly for initiation of combustion. The modification is economically attractive because CNG has lower price than diesel and the modification cost is minimal. However, for DDF engine, control of the air path becomes more difficult because the engine now has combined characteristics of the CI and the SI engines. The combined characteristics come from the fact that diesel is still directly injected into cylinders (CI engine) while CNG is injected at the intake ports (SI engine.) In pure CI engine, throttle is normally fully opened for maximum air intake, while EGR valve is actively actuated to obtain low emissions. In pure SI engine, however, throttle is an active actuator, driven by pedal.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2209
K. Dean Edwards, Robert Wagner, Thomas Briggs
Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2211
Fabrizio Ponti, Vittorio Ravaglioli, Davide Moro, Gabriele Serra
Proper design of the combustion phase has always been crucial for Diesel engine control systems. Modern engine control strategies' growing complexity, mainly due to the increasing request to reduce pollutant emissions, requires on-board estimation of a growing number of quantities. In order to feedback a control strategy for optimal combustion positioning, one of the most important parameters to estimate on-board is the angular position where 50% of fuel mass burned over an engine cycle is reached (MFB50), because it provides important information about combustion effectiveness (a key factor, for example, in HCCI combustion control). In modern Diesel engines, injection patterns are designed with many degrees of freedom, such as the position and the duration of each injection, rail pressure or EGR rate. In this work a model of the combustion process has been developed in order to evaluate the energy release within the cylinder as a function of the injection parameters.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2214
Xianjing Li, Liguang Li, Yongzheng Sun, Zongjie Hu, Jun Deng
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) provide significantly improvement in fuel economy over conventional vehicles as well as reductions in greenhouse gas and petroleum. Numerous recent reports regarding control strategy, power train configuration, driving pattern, all electric range (AER) and their effects on fuel consumption and electric energy consumption of PHEVs are reported. Meanwhile, the control strategy for engine start-stop and mileage between recharging events from the electricity grid also has an important influence on the petroleum displacement potential of PHEVs, but few reports are published. In this paper, a detailed simulation model is set up for a plug-in series hybrid electric vehicle (PSHEV) employing the AVL CRUISE. The model was employed to predict the AER of the baseline PSHEV using rule-based logical threshold switching control strategy.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2213
Forrest Jehlik, Eric Rask, Martha Christenson
For this work, a methodology of modeling and predicting fuel consumption in a hybrid vehicle as a function of the engine operating temperature has been developed for cold ambient operation (-7°C, 266°K). This methodology requires two steps: 1) development of a temperature dependent engine brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map, and, 2) a data-fitting technique for predicting engine temperature to be used as an input to the temperature dependent BSFC maps. For the first step, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to generate brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps as a function of the engine thermal state. For the second step, data fitting techniques were also used to fit a simplified lumped capacitance heat transfer model using several experimental datasets. Utilizing these techniques, an analysis of fuel consumption as a function of thermal state across a broad range of engine operating conditions is presented.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2218
Alberto Boretti
Improvements of vehicle fuel economy are being considered using a mechanically driven flywheel to reduce the amount of mechanical energy produced by the thermal engine recovering the vehicle kinetic energy during braking. A mechanical system having an overall efficiency over a full regenerative cycle of about 70%, about twice the efficiency of battery-based hybrids, is coupled to a naturally aspirated gasoline engine powering a full size sedan. Results of chassis dynamometer experiments and engine and vehicle simulations are used to evaluate the fuel benefits introducing a kinetic energy recovery system and downsizing of the engine. Preliminary results running the new European driving cycle (NEDC) show KERS may reduce fuel consumption by 25% without downsizing, and 33% with downsizing of the 4 litre engine to 3.3 litres.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2223
Alessandro di Gaeta, Umberto Montanaro, Silvio Massimino, Carlos Ildefonso Hoyos Velasco
Nowadays, developing of effective camless engine systems, allowing Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), is one of the fundamental automotive challenge to increase engine power, reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, as well as improve the engine efficiency significantly. Electromechanical devices based on double electromagnets have shown to be a promising solution to actuate engine valves during normal engine cycle due to their efficient working principle. Conversely, this solution requires special care at the key-on engine for the first valve lift, when the valve must be shifted from the middle equilibrium position to the closing one with limited coil currents and power requirements as well. Despite the central role of the first catching problem, few attempts have been done into the existing literature to tackle it systematically.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2220
Alessandro di Gaeta, Umberto Montanaro, Veniero Giglio
Idle Speed Control plays a crucial role to reduce fuel consumption that turns in both a direct economic benefit for customers and CO\d reduction particularly important to tackle the progressive global environmental warming. Typically, control strategies available in the automotive literature solve the idle speed control problem acting both on the throttle position and the spark advance, while the Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR), that strongly affects the indicated engine torque, is kept at the stoichiometric value for the sake of emission reduction. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines, working lean and equipped with proper mechanisms to reduce NOx emissions, overcome this limitation allowing the AFR to be used for the idle speed regulation.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2225
Alberto Boretti
Downsizing and Turbo Charging (TC) and Direct Injection (DI) may be combined with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) to better deal with the challenges of fuel economy enhancement. VVA may control the load without throttle; control the valve directly and quickly; optimize combustion, produce large volumetric efficiency. Benefits lower fuel consumption, lower emissions and better performance and fun to drive. The paper presents an engine model of a 1.6 litre TDI VVA engine specifically designed to run pure ethanol, with computed engine maps for brake specific fuel consumption and efficiency. The paper also presents driving cycle results obtained with a vehicle model for a passenger car powered by this engine and a traditional naturally aspirated gasoline engine. Preliminary results of the VVA system coupled with downsizing, turbo charging and Direct Injection permits significant driving cycle fuel economies.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2224
Efthimios Zervas, Eleni Panousi
Methane is a simplest hydrocarbon and is a gas with a strong greenhouse effect. Methane is emitted from the exhaust gas of passenger cars, among other hydrocarbons. This work examines the emission of methane from several European passenger cars. The impact of fuel (gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas), of the emission technology/driving cycle (Euro1, Euro2, Euro3, Tax Incentives Euro4, Euro4 and some non European regulations) and of mileage on the methane emissions is studied in this work. For all the above parameters, the emission of methane, but also its percentage in the other hydrocarbons is analyzed. The results show a significant impact of all the above parameters on methane emissions.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2228
Alberto Boretti
Recovery of braking energy during driving cycles is the most effective option to improve fuel economy and reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Hybrid electric vehicles suffer the disadvantages of the four efficiency-reducing transformations in each regenerative braking cycle. Flywheel kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) may boost this efficiency up to almost double values of about 70% avoiding all four of the efficiency-reducing transformations from one form of energy to another and keeping the vehicle's energy in the same form as when the vehicle starts braking when the vehicle is back up to speed. With reference to the baseline configuration with a 1.6 liters engine and no recovery of kinetic energy, introduction of KERS reduces the fuel usage to 3.16 liters per 100 km, corresponding to 82.4 g of CO₂ per km. The 1.6 liters Turbo Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine without KERS uses 1.37 MJ per km of fuel energy, reducing with KERS to 1.13 MJ per km.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2226
Efthimios Zervas
Passenger cars emit exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants (CO, HC, NOx in the case of gasoline engines and also particulate matter (PM) in the case of diesel engines); however, they also emit several other pollutants which are not regulated (non-regulated pollutants, NRP). These pollutants are emitted in much lower concentrations than the regulated ones; however, they are sometimes much more dangerous for the environment and the human health. This work shows the emissions of several non-regulated pollutants of gasoline and diesel European passenger cars tested on the New European Driving Cycle. The pollutants studied in this work are individual HC and HC families, N₂O and NH₃, carbonyl compounds, PAH and nitro-PAH. The impact of emission technology from Euro1 to Tax Incentives Euro4, which are related with the emission level of regulated pollutants, and of mileage are presented and discussed.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0029
Hiroshi Kuribara, Junya Saito, Hideki Saito, Daisuke Sekiya, Hidenori Arisawa
In motorcycle engines with aluminum crankcases, fatigue fractures at the roots of the internal threads of the fastening bolts used for the cylinder head and crankshaft main bearing often occurs during the durability tests at the prototype stage. A technology that evaluates the fatigue strength of the entire crankcase including the roots of internal threads using a large-scale and nonlinear finite element method (FEM) analysis is established by this research. Parallel process computation by a cluster server enables the evaluation of the fatigue strength of the crankcase in a short time suitable for the development process even when using a model that faithfully reproduces the shape, the contact property, and the elasto-plastic material characteristic of the threads. This technology enables the efficient design of crankcases that are light and durable.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0028
Daniela Siano, Fabio Auriemma PhD, Fabio Bozza
Automotive exhaust systems give a major contribution to the sound quality of a vehicle and must be properly designed in order to produce acceptable acoustic performances. Obviously, noise attenuation is strictly related to the used materials and to its internal geometry. This last influences the wave propagation and the gas-dynamic field. The purpose of this paper is to describe advantages and disadvantages of different numerical approaches in evaluating the acoustic performance in terms of attenuation versus frequency (Transmission Loss) of a commercial two perforated tube muffler under different conditions. At first, a one-dimensional analysis is performed through the 1D GTPower® code, solving the nonlinear flow equations which characterize the wave propagation phenomena. The muffler is characterized as a network of properly connected pipes and volumes starting from 3D CAD information. Then, two different 3D analyses are performed within the commercial STS VNOISE® code.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0027
Darrell A. Wiatrowski, Peter E. Lucier
Advances in motorized vehicle vibration control have increased consumer expectations to feel minimal vibration when operating vehicles in any environment; on and off road. Small outboard marine engines have a heightened need for vibration isolation, since the user often steers using a tiller arm connected to the outboard. Traditional engine mount systems allow the mount reaction loads to create a periodic torque about the steering axis and result in significant tiller arm shaking forces. This paper presents a novel mount arrangement that minimizes the shaking couple about the steering axis and isolates the tiller from engine vibration. The concept was first modeled using rigid body dynamics software to predict vibration of the tiller arm. Testing confirmed the simulation, and demonstrated a significant reduction of vibration transmitted to the tiller arm and boat seat compared with a traditional focused mount system.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0025
Masao Ishihama
This paper reports development of a measuring device built in a camshaft drive chain sprocket for detecting precise torque fluctuation with minimum change on the valve drive system dynamical characteristics. This torque measuring device (TMD) was designed to measure torque with minimum cross-talk with bending force or lateral force. To realize these functions, the disc portion of a chain sprocket that connects the teeth and the camshaft was carved to make thin plate area so that the strain gages placed on the area may have enough sensitivity to torque fluctuation. The signal from the circuit goes through frequency modulation and is transmitted to demodulation circuit via coil antennas. By this arrangement, almost perfect linearity was observed in the relationship of the TMD output voltage and the applied torque. Using a model cylinder head unit of an in-line four cylinder gasoline engine driven by a variable speed electric motor, the TMD performance was evaluated.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0023
Toshiaki Taguchi, Makoto Aoki, Youta Katsukawa, Masahiro KOGA, Tohru Koshimizu, Masahito Saitou
Motorcycle exhaust mufflers are important devices which influence not only exhaust noise and engine performance but also appearance of motorcycle. Since the improvement of engine performance often contradicts the attenuation of exhaust noise in designing mufflers, it is necessary that both the exhaust noise and the engine performance are predicted simultaneously. Recently, unsteady-state one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (1-D CFD) analysis is being applied to this problem. We have developed the technique to predict engine performance and exhaust pulsating sound by adopting unsteady-sate 1-D CFD analysis (here, we treat the exhaust pulsating sound which is a discrete frequency component of exhaust noise). In this paper, firstly, as a result of a preliminary study, it is shown that our prediction technique can predict the acoustic transmission loss of a muffler.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0022
Jüri Lavrentjev, Hans Rämmal
Today, catalytic converters are widely used in small engine exhaust systems to reduce pollutants. Besides reducing harmful pollutants, these devices have a significant effect on the acoustical performance and the pressure drop of the engine exhaust system. A catalytic converter is known to have two distinct acoustic effects: the reactive effect originating from the acoustic wave reflections caused by cross-sectional area changes within the unit and the resistive effect which results in the acoustic wave dissipation caused by viscous losses. The pressure drop in the narrow tubes in the catalytic converter element results in frequency dependent resistive effects on the transmitted sound. In this paper the passive acoustic effect which treats the sound attenuation in the catalytic converters has been investigated. An experimental investigation on small engine catalytic converters treated as acoustic two-ports is carried out.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0021
Shital Shah, Saisankaranarayana Kuppili, Kalyankumar Hatti, Dhananjay Thombare
Exhaust noise from engines is one of component noise pollution to the environment. Exhaust systems are developed to attenuate noise meeting required db (a) levels and sound quality, emissions based on environment norms. Hence this has become an important area of research and development. Most of the advances in theory of acoustic filters and exhaust mufflers have been developed in last two decades. Mufflers are important part of engine system and commonly used in exhaust system to minimize sound transmissions caused by exhaust gases. Design of mufflers is a complex function that affects noise characteristics, emission and fuel efficiency of engine. Therefore muffler design becomes more and more important for noise reduction. Traditionally, muffler design has been an iterative process by trial and error. However, the theories and science that has undergone development in recent years has given a way for an engineer to cut short number of iteration.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0020
Paul Ravenhill, Jeffrey Allen, Benajmin Smither, Gavin Farmer, Eric Demesse, Philippe Grosch
The ideal attributes of light weight, low cost and high power density have made the 2-stroke engine unrivalled in the scooter and moped market for many years. However, the challenges of meeting new emissions regulations, especially the latest Euro III emission test cycle have reduced the 2-stroke's dominance and it is now often considered to be too dirty and inefficient to have a future. As a result its product placement is on the decline. This paper introduces and discusses the latest application of a low-cost high-frequency injection system (Pulse Count Injection [ 1 , 2 ]) to both the fuel flow and lubrication oil flow of a 2-stroke scooter; allowing both fluids to be individually mapped and optimised for the complete engine operating range. This in turn enables the 2-stroke engine to pass the latest Euro III test whilst improving the fuel economy by a considerable margin, without changing the architecture of the engine.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0019
Roland Oswald, Andreas Ebner, Roland Kirchberger
The Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics at Graz University of Technology has developed a low-pressure (5 bar) direct injection (LPDI) combustion system for 50 cm₃ two-stroke engines during the last years. The 50 cm₃ two-stroke engine is a specific European engine class. Worldwide the 125 cm₃ class is more important. In order to investigate the potential of higher displacement engines equipped with the LPDI combustion process, a demonstrator engine with 250 cm₃ has been developed. The results of this demonstrator from the engine test bench and from the chassis dynamometer are discussed to show the potential of this two-stroke technology. In order to ease the interpretation, the results of a homogenously scavenged two-stroke engine and of a naturally aspirated four-stroke engine serve as reference. The results show that the LPDI technology is a real alternative to expensive four-stroke engines.
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