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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 181988
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680108
Ȧke O. J. Larborn, Folke E. S. Zackrisson
The Volvo Exhaust Emission Control System is an engine modification system employing the dual manifold principle, lean mixtures, idle spark retard, deceleration bypass valves, and increased idle speed. The design and performance of the system are described, including the influence on the Federal cycle results of various factors such as idle speed and idle mixture adjustment. Fuel economy, octane requirement, etc, is also discussed. Results of durability test are reported.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680102
W. T. Lyn, E. Valdmanis
The effects of physical factors on ignition delay have been studied on a motored research engine using a single injection technique. The fuels used included a high cetane number reference fuel, gas oil and M. T. 80 petrol. The primary factors investigated are those pertaining to the fuel spray, such as injection timing, quantity, and pressure (affecting drop size, velocity and injection rate); hole diameter (affecting drop size and injection rate) and spray form (nozzle type); and those pertaining to the engine, such as temperature, pressure and air velocity. Engine operating variables such as speed and load affect the ignition delay because they change the primary factors such as injection pressure, compression temperature, pressure and air velocity. It has been found that under normal running conditions, compression temperature and pressure are the major factors. All other factors have only secondary effects.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680103
T. W. Biddulph, W. T. Lyn
The unaided starting behaviour of seven diesel engines of different sizes and designs has been studied in some detail. It has been established that the cranking time required to achieve an ignition (the first fire) depends on (a) the compression temperature available for a given ambient temperature and cranking speed, (b) the increase in compression temperature per cycle when the engine is cranked and fuelled and (c) the temperature required for ignition which can be obtained from ignition delay data. The time taken from first fire to starter-off depends on a number of factors, and these are discussed and the differences in this respect between the direct injection (D.I.) and the indirect injection (I.D.I.) engines pointed out. Based on the above facts, the starting behaviours of the seven engines are shown to be predictable from the respective three sets of data described above and obtained experimentally.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680099
Richard E. Wong, Louis Galan, Lynn L. Bradford
The first part of this paper defines lunar environmental factors which are pertinent to the design of a lunar surface mobility system. The second part discusses the design techniques required to solve the problems imposed by these environments. The definition of lunar environment includes only those data that are presently considered to be acceptable for the design of equipment for lunar use. The environmental factors defined are: extreme temperature range between lunar day and night, pressure, lunar gravity, surface characteristics (that is, terrain, soil), radiation, dust and micrometeorite impact. The effects of these environments upon the design and material selection for mobility system and subsystems are discussed. Specific examples of design techniques are demonstrated for the design of traction drive mechanisms, wheels, thermal control, and vehicle dynamics.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680098
C. H. Hoppe
A good design requires knowledge of the inputs to the system as well as a means of evaluation of the result. For cross-country vehicle speed limits due to the vehicle's vibrational activity, the terrain profile becomes the important system input. A statistical technique for classification of this input has been developed and is presented as an analytical expression. With this definition and standard mathematical modeling techniques, a tool can be developed for aiding in the concept phase of the design process. Vehicle design trends for better cross-country speeds are discussed in terms of improving the ride comfort of a vehicle asevaluated in this way. Hardware examples of vehicle improvements are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680100
Edward G. Markow
This paper identifies some significant relationships between vehicle characteristics, operating modes and the capability of the human operator associated with a remote control mission. These studies were primarily addressed to controlling a wheeled vehicle on the Lunar Surface, from an Earth Base. However, the information related to visual, motion, and sound cues to the operator, and modes of steering and velocity control of the vehicle, are general in nature and have potential Earth application. A significant improvement in the remote control of a vehicle is suggested by supplementing the visual cues with vehicle motion cues on the driving station (seat of pants) and sound cues related to work load or speed on the power train.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680101
W. H. Kind, J. S. Logan
This paper examines specific design characteristics of the new 5 ton tactical truck M656. This vehicle will serve a multitude of purposes such as cargo truck, personnel carrier, and prime mover for missiles and artillery. The M656 was developed with an eye toward specific requirements which had to be met in the areas of reliability, durability, mobility, and ease of maintenance. Human factors incorporated in the design provide for ease of operator control, maximum driver safety, and comfort. Reviewed in detail are factors considered in development of the powerplant assembly, cab design, drive train, suspension systems, and steering assembly. By designing the M656 from the start to military specifications, a new generation of tactical trucks was developed. By this direct approach the military was able to acquire a vehicle that had swimming capability, air transport feasibility, severe off-road operating ability, and extended maintenance intervals.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680095
Anthony Rieli
U.S. involvement in the limited warfare of Southeast Asia has imposed a new set of environmental problems on automotive engineers engaged in the design and development of military equipment. This paper is addressed, in general, to the identification and solution of the mobility related problems encountered in limited warfare and, in particular, to describing LTV’s approach to providing a response to the specialized and immediate needs of the armed forces in Southeast Asia. Essentially, LTV’s approach involves an initial analysis of the environmental conditions being encountered, and logically identifies the vehicular design parameters necessary to cope with these factors within the framework of the tactical situations encountered in limited warfare.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680094
R. H. Heyer, J. R. Newby
The response of low carbon steel sheets to biaxial tension forces was studied in stretch cup tests of 3 and 8 in. diameter. Three levels of lubrication were obtained by the use of mineral oil, drawing compound, and hydraulic bulge pressure. The mineral oil and drawing compound were applied to hemispherical steel punches and a 0.004 in. thick polythene sheet was placed between these and the metal under test. Hydraulic bulge tests were relatively insensitive to plastic anisotropy changes in sheet metal. It was found that improving the lubrication in mechanical punch tests or lowering the plastic strain ratio r̄ had similar effects in increasing the height of the cup at fracture, transferring the maximum strains closer to the pole, and increasing the amount of strain which could be developed before fracture. Material with high strain hardening capacity distributed the strains more uniformly and therefore had better biaxial stretchability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680096
Paul E. Jaquish, Glenn B. Erickson
An analytical technique has been developed which uses operational and physical environmental factors as design criteria for earthmoving equipment. A computer program that employs these factors is used in the design optimization of an integrated family of military construction equipment. Total environmental factors considered include: soils, vegetation, climate, transport, deployment, operation, service, supply, etc. Analytical design studies already conducted have produced a hypothetical equipment system that performs its mission at substantially less cost than existing military equipment systems.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680097
I. Robert Ehrlich, Howard Dugoff, George M. Worden
This paper discusses the problems facing military vehicles operating in the riverine environment. Attention is given to studies conducted of water speed, drag and propulsion, vehicle egress, and methods for determining the nature of the environment. Also examined are the influences of the riverine environments on the vehicles designed to operate in them.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680090
Bruce D. Van Deusen
This paper reviews experiments for determining human response to vibration and interprets them in the vehicle vibration context. It reviews the author's research and compares it with findings of other investigators. From the results of vehicle tests, it is concluded that properly weighted “acceleration variance” is a meaningful measure of vehicle vibration. For a single vehicle subjected only to surface profile changes, a single number summed over all frequencies can be used. For two or more vehicles with different vibrational characteristics, acceleration variance must be computed in several frequency bands to yield correction factors that define the nature of the vibration.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680087
Arnold J. Thibodeau
The miniaturization and reliability associated with microelectronic circuits has allowed the alternator voltage regulator to be made an integral part of the alternator. This concept overcomes past limitations inherent in electromechanical and discrete component transistor regulators. Advantages gained from the concept include wiring simplification, reduced system complexity, greater reliability and longer life.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680086
Vincent F. Ambrosiani
Warp knit fabrics are accepted as automotive trim materials for seats and side panels. This preference is based upon consumer comfort and automotive manufacturer’s application and design advantages. These advantages are related to basic properties of warp knit fabrics. Solutions to current textile-automotive cooperative research programs will result in greater use of warp knits in automobiles.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680089
Erwin Eisele
The modern, small, high-speed, 4-stroke diesel engine above all owes its development of today’s speeds of 4500 rpm to the objective of making it applicable to the passenger car. In 1936 Daimler-Benz was one of the first companies to bring out a passenger car equipped with a diesel engine. Its 4-cyl, 4-stroke engine with a displacement of 2.6 liter delivered 45 bhp at a speed of 3500 rpm, which was considered remarkably high at that time. This first diesel-engine-powered passenger car was so well accepted that after World War II a special development program was started, which in the last few years has led to production diesel engines with a top speed of 4500 rpm.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680088
E. J. Newill, R. L. Larson, G. E. Harland
Recent development work has led to production of two new families of integral charging systems featuring semiconductor voltage regulators designed to employ integrated circuit electronic techniques. The severe application conditions defined by the environment under the hood of heavy-duty vehicles and passenger cars and the tight electrical performance specifications have been satisfied by integrated circuit techniques not previously used in an automotive application. Successful voltage regulator designs open the way for other vehicular applications of integrated circuits.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680083
C. E. Strigle
The wide base light truck tire is a new low profile, wide rim tire concept, which significantly improves vehicle performance. The wide base tire also simplifies and standardizes tire and rim usage, making obsolete the variety of tire sizes, types, and rim styles previously available.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680082
N. A. Cook
The recent increase in smog and other air pollution problems traceable to internal combustion engine exhausts have created public interest in the search for new power sources for automobiles. An old favorite, the electric car, has received renewed attention, but battery technology is unable to offer a power source for a vehicle that will meet contemporary consumer demands for speed, range, and acceleration. The fuel cell has emerged from the laboratories as a practical electrical power source with much promise for vehicular application. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of fuel cells as related to electric automobiles and discusses fuels and economics.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680084
Charles Lipson, Narendra J. Sheth
This paper discusses the development of a practical engineering tool to be used in predicting the per cent failures of mechanical components. In order to predict the per cent failures, it is necessary to convert life data of conventional S-N diagrams into strength data. The distribution function of these strength data is then determined. It was found in the present investigation that the three parameter Weibull distribution fits these data best. After finding the distribution function (Weibull) and its parameters for strength, the problem of distribution of stress is considered. On the basis of past experiences, the stress distribution is assumed to be normal. After values of the parameters of these interfering distributions of stress and strength have been determined, probabilities of failure of parts are calculated. An example is solved to demonstrate the application of the interference technique developed to predict per cent failures.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680085
Kenneth R. Lauterer
Developments in the plastic industry are increasing at a rate that makes it difficult for one to keep abreast of, and utilize these new concepts to advantage in his particular area of endeavor. Incorporated in one presentation is a summary of current developments in the ABS plastic industry, with particular thought given to how they may apply to future automotive applications.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680078
Mason Noble
Gear development is covered in a step-by-step manner including fitting the development to the vehicle. The type of machines and equipment used are briefly outlined. The controls necessary for producing uniform axle gears are covered in detail.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680081
John H. Lienesch, Wallace R. Wade
Continuing Stirling engine development at General Motors has uncovered advantages of the powerplant never before fully appreciated. Smoke, odor, noise, and exhaust emission measurements indicate the attractiveness of the engine for applications in a “social” environment. Design details, particularly the external combustion system, are described here only in relation to low emission level. Measurements indicate that smoke and odor are practically undetectable. Sound measurements demonstrate the relative quietness of the engine. Additional data show that exhaust emissions, while very low, exhibit a strong dependence on burner design, air-fuel mixture ratio, burner inlet temperature, and exhaust recirculation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680001
Roger P. Daniel
The injury-reducing functions of crash padding are discussed as they relate to head impact. The bony structure of the cranial vault (above eyebrows) is strong under localized impact compared with the face. Padding used to protect the cranial vault from impact has the primary function of absorbing energy to reduce the possibility of brain damage. On the other hand, padding for facial protection has the primary function of providing uniform load distribution on the face. The pad understructure then supplies the needed energy absorbing capacity. Test procedures to measure both energy absorption and load distribution are described, and evaluation criteria are shown. Other factors that affect padding, such as temperature and cover stock material, are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680009
Willard B. McCardell, John Mahoney, Dugald Cameron
This paper covers the detail considerations between the initial decision specifying the use of a spline or serration and the final specified tooth proportions. Spline requirements and the manufacturing processes with their associated limitations are discussed. The selection of the spline parameters are explained with respect to the requirements along with spline testing, drafting standards, inspection, and specified situations. Examples of current industry application and practice are presented.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680007
R. W. Shiffler, P. B. Sullivan, L. J. Ertle
The hygroscopic tendencies of several types of motor vehicle brake fluids are compared in both bench tests and in simulated service equipment. The effect of moisture on the boiling point and vapor pressure of some new types of brake fluid are discussed with respect to the specific safety aspects of each fluid. Vapor lock temperature data for conventional and less hygroscopic brake fluids are developed which help to translate laboratory data into information of use to automotive engineers.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680006
Alan Ker
The new brake fluid, called LMA (low moisture avidity) fluid, which complies with the SAE 70R3 specification, has the distinct advantage of absorbing less moisture than conventional glycolether brake fluids. No malfunctioning of components has been experienced in brakes or clutches over a test period of 2-1/2 years. Brake trials also show that the tendency to vapor lock under severe braking has been reduced with LMA fluid. Furthermore, the low temperature viscosity of LMA fluid is hardly affected by increase in water content, whereas with conventional fluids this viscosity can be more than doubled.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680005
A. Lloyd Nedley
One cause of vehicle disturbance is smooth road shake. Manufacturers are attempting to reduce vehicle sensitivity to shake input forces from tire-wheel assemblies by changing suspensions and body-frame structure, stiffness, by tuning engines on rubber mounts, relocating body mounts, and so forth. The similarity of tire nonuniformity and wheel radial runout, and the laboratory and production techniques for matching tire and wheel are described. The conclusions reached are that matching tires to wheels would be an effective stop-gap measure; that the ultimate goal is improvement in tire uniformity and wheel runout to the point where matching would be unnecessary; that tire lateral force variation and lateral wheel runout are not related to smooth road shake.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680004
John A. Main
Abstract Wheel runout can be reduced by better wheel design, coupled with improved manufacturing processes. For example, it appears that runout is less if the spokes are eliminated, providing a continuous flange, thus permitting a reduction in press fit. The resulting disc is easier to form, tooling and maintenance of dies have been simplified, and when the disc is assembled to the rim, it should be more uniform, with less concentrated distortion. A new machine, to be used on a semiproduction basis, is proposed for measuring wheel runout more accurately.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680003
Douglas D. Maclntyre
Abstract The problem of wheel/tire induced vehicle vibration is now of such proportions as to be of interest to both vehicle builders and users. This paper includes a description of the factors involved in generating the vibrations and a discussion of several approaches and/or solutions to the problem.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680002
S. A. HEAP, E. P. GRENIER
Concept and engineering feasibility of a new child restraint system has been demonstrated by various dynamic tests. These tests indicate that the restraint system will retain a child-like dummy in rollovers, side impacts at 17 mph, and in frontal impacts as severe as a 30 mph barrier crash. This unique system that can be used in any passenger seat position having a lap belt consists of a partially encapsulating shield and an internal box-like 3-inch high seat.

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