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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 188467
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740441
John J. Breslin, Richard J. Anderson
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740439
Allan E. Nagel
This paper describes the work performed in three distinct noise studies on typical diesel-powered strip mining equipment and discusses their results. Mufflers lowered diesel exhaust noise exposure for adjacent workers and the community at large, but had little effect on the noise level at the operator's position. Properly designed and installed noise control kits can be an effective method of reducing the operator's exposure to an acceptable level, and can simultaneously dampen vibration inside the cab.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740440
J. Fructus, C. Eline
The decree of 11 April 1972 has introduced stringent limitation on bystander noise of industrial equipment in France. The maximum permissible level of 80 dB(A) at 7 metres constitutes today's lowest limit imposed by any legislation. The specificity of the decree is analyzed and an attempt has been made to review the situation from a manufacturer's standpoint. Various difficulties encountered by the manufacturers have resulted in extensive development programs and longer lead time to produce the modified equipment. Thus, the effective date of 2 May 1973 initially adopted in the decree could not be met by most manufacturers, and general or individual deviations have been accepted by the Ministry of Protection of Nature and Environment. The general deviation of 21 December 1973 indicates ultimate dates of availability accepted for each machine. The noise reduction on four wheel drive loaders is presented as an actual example of application of the decree.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740429
Richard K. Liess
This paper describes the design and development of the new 60 hp class 910 wheel loader, D3 crawler tractor, and 931 track loader. Special emphasis was placed on designing all vehicles concurrently to achieve lowest possible cost by utilizing a high degree of commonality.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740427
Harry R. Wilson
The 560 PAY loader design includes the normal engineering requirements of performance and reliability. It also presents some interesting problems of subjective operator evaluation and vehicle appearance. This paper deals with the identification and solution of these problems.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740428
Victor C. Pierrot
The diminishing labor supply and the increasing demand for wood products are forcing the timber industry to look for new machines to provide less expensive ways of bringing in the wood. The grapple skidder is one such machine. This paper describes the design of a 145 hp grapple skidder and the test procedures used to evaluate its reliability.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740425
Jack W. Martz, Wayne A. McClelland, Jason R. Lemon, Donald W. Kinsey
A proved concept in dynamic analysis of complex machinery is the “building block” approach. Individual components, or building blocks, of the total system are analyzed separately, and then mathematically combined to predict the total system dynamic behavior. The building block concept has become a practical design tool with recent developments in sophisticated finite element techniques and computer interfaced testing equipment. This paper describes the state-of-the-art analytical and experimental methods used to determine the component properties and assemble total system models. Specifically, the application of these methods to the dynamic analysis and design of earthmoving equipment is demonstrated.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740424
Paul D. Sandberg
Numerical optimization is a new, powerful, flexible tool which can aid engineers in the design process. This paper presents guidelines for the selection and formulation of optimization problems. It also provides insight into how to choose and program an optimization algorithm for the computer. Two example problems are solved to illustrate the use of optimization in earthmoving equipment design.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740472
Martin Lieberman, Alan Beerbower, Ronald H. Kroop
The disposal of waste lubricants and fuels at U.S. Air Force and Navy facilities is discussed in this paper. The waste products covered include: synthetic turbine oil, aviation piston engine oil, hydraulic fluids, and contaminated JP-4 and JP-5. Technical feasibility and the economics of various disposal alternatives, including use as a fuel, rerefining, and recycling, as well as entrepreneurial outlets are presented. Waste lubricants and fuels handling, classification, and storage are also discussed in connection with the disposal problem.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740487
D. L. Button
The Canadian Ministry of Transport has embarked on a program to provide a downtown-to-downtown scheduled IFR STOL service between Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa, Ontario. As part of the total systems approach to the development of the service, two STOLports were designed and built. Preliminary standards and criteria were developed to enable the design to be carried out. New electronic approach aids and modified visual aids are incorporated into the system. The STOLports will be completed and operating by March 1974.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740447
John C. Tucker
Trade deficits in recent years led the U.S. government to take a hard look at its international trade policy. The result was a dollar devaluation and other government incentives to industry to increase exports. These increased exports mean more problems to corporations already selling overseas and new problems to corporations who have not previously marketed overseas. This paper will examine some of the problems involved in overseas marketing as opposed to domestic marketing.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740449
Donald Hess
During the last decade, performance of earthmoving equipment has improved tremendously, but changes to increase operator comfort and ease of operation have not always kept pace with these improvements. The intent of this paper is to spotlight some of the problem areas that can affect operator comfort or performance and suggest possible improvements.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740466
E. A. Green
The secondary power systems on the L-1011, that is, the hydraulic, electrical power, pneumatic systems and their components, were all designed with the total aircraft system operation integrated into each subsystem as a firm design requirement. In some cases where supplier components had a major effect on systems design, the supplier was given responsibility to integrate some or all of a secondary power system. A detailed analysis of aircraft operation, including the required redundancy, was developed as a portion of each system design. Then the interaction of the systems was considered in determining the final design configuration. This paper deals with the design philosophy used in each of these power systems, and their description and operation. It draws conclusions concerning the improvements in system or design approach which may be proposed for future designs.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740468
Robert G. Dorsch
The Lewis Research Center cold-flow model externally blown flap (EBF) noise research test program is summarized. Both engine under-the-wing and over-the-wing EBF wing section configurations were studied. Ten large scale and nineteen small scale EBF models were tested. A limited number of forward airspeed effect and flap noise suppression tests were also run. The key results and conclusions drawn from the flap noise tests are summarized and discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740457
Dale A. Sherman, William J. Usab
An experimental test program was conducted to determine the engine environment which results from STOL operation with blown flaps and thrust reversers. Testing was conducted in a low speed wind tunnel with a 1/11 scale model of a STOL transport consisting of a fuselage and high-lift wing with triple-slotted externally blown flaps, leading edge slats, and powered model engines. Steady-state and dynamic total pressure distortion were moderate at takeoff and approach conditions with blown flaps. The cascade type STOL thrust reversers tested produced severe dynamic distortion due to unstable interactions of the reversed streams with the oncoming flow and vortex ingestion. Comments on methods to alleviate these problems are presented.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740464
Dennis Stein
The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical, developmental, and test efforts used to achieve an integrated system responsive to the U.S. Army's heavy-lift helicopter (HLH) needs. A comprehensive discussion of various approaches which were examined with particular emphasis on elements unique to this aircraft are presented. The methodology used in interfacing various components in determining the final design configuration is also presented.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740669
R. N. Smith
For many years European farmers have used Tractor Oils Universal (TOU)-suitable for use in both engine and power train. Generally, these lubricants have been MIL-L-2104B engine oils containing sufficient additional zinc dithiophosphate to satisfy the mild extreme-pressure requirement of the power train. However, when such lubricants were used in the oil-immersed brakes introduced on tractors in recent times, experience showed that they were incapable of preventing ‘squawk’. A ‘new generation’ of universal tractor lubricants has been developed to overcome this problem. As well as providing acceptable anti-squawk performance in wet brakes, these lubricants-known as Super Tractor Oil Universal (STOU)-give improved performance in naturally aspirated and turbocharged diesel engines and in gasoline engines, and are suitable for use in fluid-immersed power take-off units. The history of universal lubricants is briefly reviewed, and the deficiencies of early STOU fluids are noted.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740677
Harold E. Hollnagel
The increasing popularity of snowmobiles and the need for snowmobiling safety will require more sophisticated snowmobile suspensions. A history of the suspension development, a definition of the engineering problems, and an understanding of the latest designs provide an excellent background for further research.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740678
Richard C. Cline
Various applications of the familiar tubular hydraulic shock absorber to recreational vehicles are reviewed. There is a brief of operating characteristics of hydraulic shock absorbers as a preliminary to discussing damping requirements for suspensions, steering dampers, sway controllers, and stabilisers found on recreational vehicles. The review covers present use of shock absorbers on motorcycles, snowmobiles, golf carts, boat trailers, trailer brakes, outboard motors, travel trailers, sway control motor homes, and camper stabilizers. For some of these, possibilities for future developments are indicated.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740679
H.R. Vermie
The advantages and disadvantages of radial off-the-road earthmover tires are discussed with comparisons to the bias ply tire. The radial tire advantage of “COOLER RUNNING Higher Ton-Mile-Per-Hour” is elaborated. Radial tire design trends and applications are covered with preference given to the sidewall protective Rock Lug designs at all non-skid levels.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740681
E. K. Henry
The development of a line of tires designed specifically for log skidder application is described in this paper. Extreme operating conditions led to the abandonment of regular agricultural drive tires for this application. Direct performance comparisons of the new lines of log skidder tires with standard agricultural drive tires are presented.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740684
Melvin H. Chiogioji
This paper focuses on waste automotive and industrial oil as a prospective candidate for greater recycling and reclamation. Although lubricating oils represent only 1% of the total domestic petroleum production, conservation can result in significant gains. For example, to produce this oil from new crude reserves would take an investment of perhaps $80 million in refinery capacity and an exploration, development, and production investment exceeding $3 billion. The present primary end uses of waste oil and the techniques required to reclaim waste oil are described. The major impediments to greater waste oil usage are analyzed including the following factors: economics, technology, waste oil collection, government actions, and environment quality problems. Federal policy proposals are presented to encourage more widespread reclamation of waste oil.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740686
Ross A. Little
SAE Recommended Practice XJ331a, Sound Levels for Motorcycles, was developed to represent vehicle operation and is well suited for determining noise levels of new motorcycles offered for sale. Similar procedures have been used for this purpose since 1969. SAE Recommended Practice XJ47, Maximum Sound Level Potential for Motorcycles, was developed as a manufacturing tool to determine a vehicle's maximum sound level potential and is an excellent tool for manufacturers. Because of its severe operating requirements, SAE XJ47 is not suited or recommended to be used as an enforcement standard.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740687
Robin T. Harrison
Noise from motorcycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, and dune buggies is seen as causing problems-both according to the setting of the off-road vehicle and with reference to health (auditory and nonauditory) effects. Results of testing these vehicles and the noise they cause are presented; why this noise should be a concern and what to do about it are also discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740689
James A. Mosier, F. Nelson Jarrett
Cooling systems for agricultural and construction equipment evolved from engine cooling only to those requiring oil cooling, charge air aftercooling, and control of cab environment. Cooling air flow analysis using computer design techniques eases the design of these multi-component systems. With consistent rating methods for comparison of options and correlation of calculated results to vehicle tests, the analysis system adapts to most vehicle types.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740966
Ralph K. Hillquist
Several independent studies of sound level variation with nominal microphone distance are reported for a variety of equipment types tested in accordance with SAE exterior sound level test procedures. Good correlation between levels and distance is shown, although dependent on equipment type and mode of operation. It is concluded that predictions of sound levels at distances closer to the source than the normally-specified microphone distance can be made with reasonable accuracy.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740965
William J. Burger
Twelve passenger and three truck rear vision systems were evaluated under real-world driving conditions using driver looking behavior as performance measures. Glance duration and frequency at each rear vision device, as well as glances made directly to the side/rear scene, by six experienced drivers during 22 traffic maneuvers were recorded using direct video recording of eye movements. Over 20,000 rear information gathering glances were analyzed with regard to glance location, frequency, duration, total glance time per maneuver, and number of glances per maneuver for each system. Superior rear vision systems were identified and design implications regarding multiple device systems, convex devices and field of view were drawn. Ground plot field of view maps and Docket 71-3a target field of view coverage for each system was determined. A secondary study used expert judgment techniques to obtain estimates of rear scene zone criticality.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740976
G. F. Busetto, U. Giulio, E. Volpi
A study on the temporary viscosity loss under high shear rates of engine lubricants was started in order to: 1. Set up a new viscometer, more correlate with the engine than the present ones. 2. Clarify the influence of this phenomenon on the lubricant performances. Preliminary results on a pressoviscometer are discussed. Namely it is underlined that the temporary viscosity loss affects both multigrade and unigrade oils, even if at different levels, and in different ways.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740979
R. A. Vogelei
This paper traces the more than 20-year history of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) as the primary body material for the Chevrolet Corvette. Reasons for the original decision to use FRP are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the difficulties encountered in design, manufacturing techniques, and material compounding. These problems, and the solutions to them, include the progression from the original wet-mat material to low-profile systems. Sheet molded compounds (SMC) are discussed as non-low profile and low-profile applications. Unresolved production problems and outlined with a review of industry attention necessary to assure continued FRP application to Corvette body panels. This paper also discusses the design and application of flexible facias used on both front and rear-end bumper systems and the use of plastic as a bumper energy-managing system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740972
A. Marciante
The European passenger car engine lubrication requirements are not the same as the American requirements. The differences are determined by the eingine design trends, the nature of fuels used and the type of service. The European engine and petroleum industries have undertaken the study of engine oil evaluation tests that meet European requirements. On the basis of the present standardized tests, engine manufacturers have recently proposed a specification for crankcase oils. This paper discusses particularly the European tests as to repeatability, reproducibility and correlation with service. Mention is also made of the recent European proposals for revision of the SAE Crankcase Oil Viscosity Classification.

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