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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 183199
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690161
Robert G. Bakula
The utility truck field requires many types of throttle controls, both remote and automatic, for the vehicle engine and auxiliary power source. This article reviews these applications from the aerial bucket truck used on overhead high voltage line work, to the underground equipment unit burying or reclaiming cable.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690157
R. M. Stewart, C. R. Spohn, W. A. P. Meyer
The influence of lubricating oil formulation on the winter hot-starting torque requirements of an automotive engine was investigated in a four part study. Commercial multi-grade oils, V.I. improved oils, oils containing oiliness agents, and experimental oils in the new and used condition were evaluated for their low speed, hot cranking torque requirements. These torque requirements were determined using a test stand engine equipped to measure cranking torques at selected cranking speeds from 5–236 rpm. The ASTMD 445 viscosities at 210 F were shown to be inadequate for predicting the low speed, hot cranking torque requirements of the oils evaluated in this study. Several oiliness agents effectively reduced the low speed, hot cranking torque requirements of a crankcase oil.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690155
Roger C. Knop
This paper discusses the adaptation of the Bromine 82 radiometric method of measuring oil economy to piston ring research and development testing. Comparisons are made with the conventional drain and weigh measurement method, showing that the radiometric method decreases testing time, while giving more and precise data. The radiometric method is uniquely capable of measuring the oil economy of each bank of a V-8 engine separately. Two banks of an engine do not have the same oil economy, but by establishing proper oil economy baselines for each bank, split engine tests could be conducted. Using data obtained by the radiometric method, it was found that the engine break-in period can be reduced from 11 to 6 hr. The radiometric method shows high oil economy under steady state low speed, high manifold vacuum engine operating conditions.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690156
F. F. Tao, J. K. Appeldoorn
A mathematical study has been made of the extent of viscous heating in the cold-cranking simulator. In all cases, the temperature rise is so small that it can be neglected. The instrument is therefore suitable for use as a practical viscometer within the range of 10–80 poise. The operating shear stress is constant at about 700,000 dynes/sq cm which is high enough to bring about almost complete shear thinning of a polymer-thickened (10W–30) oil.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690173
Marvin K. Stark
The development of radio telemetry instrumentation systems in the aircraft and missile fields has provided the automotive test engineer with a useful measurement tool. This paper describes the application of a telemetry system to the acquisition of vehicle handling data, and outlines some of the unique characteristics of the system.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690170
Richard K. Boyd, Steven E. Plotkin, Kenneth K. Tang
Because of its privacy, convenience, and flexibility, the private automobile deserves serious consideration as an element of any future door-to-door, interurban transportation system. This paper presents a description of a possible candidate system wherein automobiles as we know them today are used in conjunction with other major subsystems to provide high speed, high capacity, and high safety interurban transportation. The system incorporates several advanced subsystem concepts, including a deterministic control system, a functional train headway policy, high speed switching, and a unique station layout.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690165
R. R. Noble
Federal Safety Standards applicable to trucks are described in this paper. The major requirements of the nine truck standards effective on Jan. 1, 1969 are discussed as applied to complete vehicles, chassis-cab vehicles, and chassis-cowl and stripped chassis units which by subsequent modification, alternation, or addition are developed into vehicles specifically utilized in public utility type service.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690146
John T. Holloway
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690145
H. M. Jacklin
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690143
Robert Brenner
Many areas of automotive engineering safety remain to be explored. Only by the cooperative efforts of both government and industry working together can real progress in motor vehicle safety be achieved. A comprehensive plan must be developed between government, individual companies, and independent researchers for systematic research, testing and development of safety standards.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690138
James E. Eberhardt, John A. Beck
The advent of emission controls for automobiles in California in 1966 triggered a period of expansion in carburetion technology. The industry's design and application engineers have been diligently developing carburetors that satisfy the early California and the 1968 nation-wide emission limits while maintaining performance characteristics. The present paper explains the need for improved carburetor uniformity; describes a program currently in operation to achieve uniformity; and illustrates process changes being generated as a result of the program.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690139
E. N. Cantwell, I. T. Rosenlund, W. J. Barth, F. L. Kinnear, S. W. Ross
Exhaust manifold reactor systems using air injection have been developed to control exhaust emission levels of a variety of vehicles to less than 50 ppm hydrocarbons and 0.5% carbon monoxide. These systems have been shown to be compatible with other control systems used to reduce evaporative emissions and oxides of nitrogen. Manifold reactors were constructed which were sufficiently durable to control emissions, effectively for 100,000 miles when run in accordance with the mileage accumulation schedule suggested in the federal emission control device certification procedure. Problem areas hampering immediate application of reactor systems are described. Manifold reactor units are large and will not fit in the engine compartments of many vehicles; furthermore, some current engine configurations are not suited to the installation of reactors. Current reactor construction techniques are costly and materials of proven durability are relatively expensive.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690154
R. I. Potter, J. C. Gagliardi, W. J. Skutnick, O. K. Walthall
This paper presents three test methods used to evaluate rear axle lubricants: the Ford motored rear axle test, the high speed Timken test, and the rear axle score test. In each instance, results are described, including the development of new rear axle test methods. Lubricants successfully completing these tests are considered for further evaluation.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690153
W. R. Herling, E. G. Markow
The problem of designing wheels for vehicle operation on a variety of soil conditions has been approached in several ways. Each method generally tries to develop a large ground contact area to minimize soil bearing pressure and motion resistance. Tracks and large diameter wheels are commonly used to cope with off-road driving conditions. While they can effectively deal with the soil mechanics aspect of the problem, tracks and large wheels in certain design applications are unacceptable solutions because of their required size and weight. Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation has proposed as an off the road locomotion device a hybrid design that provides the required large soil bearing area and also approaches the stability and efficiency of a circular spoked wheel. Several models of this device have been built and tested, the latest of which is currently being developed under contract from the U. S. Army Tank-Automotive Command.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690152
G. H. Howe, C. G. Wells
Recent studies by Missiles and Space Division-Michigan, LTV Aerospace Corp., have quantitatively verified that the air cell track/suspension concept originally applied to the pneumatic all-terrain amphibian (PATA) vehicle offers a unique solution to off-road mobility problems of tactical vehicles. Analog computer simulation techniques were employed to determine ride characteristics and experiments with scaled models were conducted to analyze air cell performance in water and soft soils. This paper covers current efforts to develop and perfect the air cell concept, concentrating on analytical studies and recent significant design improvements that promise improved suspension capabilities.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690151
Roger R. Gay, Willard P. Harju
This paper addresses the problem of quantifying the cross-country speed capability of military vehicles. While numerous tests have been run to evaluate various aspects of cross-country speed, such as obstacle crossing capability and maximum speed over a specified standard course, quantitative evaluation of the total man-machine system has only been superficially attempted. Recognizing the complex interactions of the man-machine system within various environments, the project was designed specifically to allow separation of various factors in order to determine the relative cross-country performance of vehicles. Two separate tests were established. The first test determined the relative cross-country performance of nine different vehicles by utilizing 18 drivers and 27 test courses in three varied terrains for a total of 563 test runs.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690150
G. E. Bartlett, M. R. Belsdorf, J. N. Deutschman, R. L. Smith
Rationale is presented for improved off-road mobility performance prediction capability through mathematical modeling of the vehicle-terrain system. A hybrid model is described which combines the advantages of real time analog computation for vehicle dynamics with versatile digital function generation for terrain. The vehicle, either wheeled or tracked, is modeled as a rigid body with 5 deg of hull freedom and with a realistic suspension system (appropriate for the running gear) and power train. Model results are presented for a representative wheeled vehicle traversing off-road terrain. Also discussed are extensions of model capability to predict performance of advanced vehicle concepts, and to introduce the driver “into the loop” via a driving simulator which provides visual and motion cues.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690149
W. Brannon, R. H. David, W. Hodges, W. R. Janowski
A new, high-performance ground vehicle known as Twister has been built and tested. The vehicle incorporates features designed to meet military needs for a substantial increase in cross-country speed, all-terrain mobility, and platform stability. The design of TWISTER is based upon a dual body joined by a unique pivot yoke permitting three degrees of freedom between the bodies. Significant departures from current practice have been made in the application of a dual power supply, individual walking beam suspension, coordinated Ackerman/yaw steer and unique tire design and application. Aspects of the Twister development program presented in this paper include the design and development of a full-scale testbed and the results of three years of test operations in both engineering and natural terrain environments.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690148
O. Douglas, C. E. Burr
Some of the conditions encountered in off-road mobility are examined and the inherent abilities of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) to enhance mobility in these conditions are outlined. A marked degree of improvement in operating efficiency has been attained through the development of seals, control power, propulsion, and overall refinement. Specific configurations for both civilian and military tasks have been built and operated effectively. Analysis of an amphibious landing operation produces a ready assessment of the applicability of the vehicle to Southeast Asia beach areas and analysis of several typical missions conducted in South Vietnam shows a high degree of applicability in a widely varied terrain.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690147
Francis Armstrong
This paper discusses the implications of applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Performance Standards issued under provisions of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 and other provisions of this law relating to defects of notification and corrective recall campaigns. Bureau action is taken in the following areas: manufacturer's certification, defects review, the repair and “after-market,” and the responsibility of the parts manufacturer.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690122
Jean Nouaille Degorce
This paper describes briefly the structure of the European automobile industry and some of the inroads of plastics in automobiles in Europe. It also provides some ideas about the trend for plastic uses in typical applications.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690124
B. W. Firth
Numerous conceptual and feasibility studies have been published for transportation systems involving revolutionary departures from established systems. Such proposals can be assessed properly by comparison not with systems existing today but only with such systems as they might be at an appropriate future date given the same environment and management as assumed for the novel system. The public highway/free-ranging vehicle system is studied on the assumptions that it is operated as rewardingly as its limitations allow and that these limitations are extended continuously by the normal process of technical innovation. It appears that the system is fully able to meet the needs of a country having a well-developed air transport system, and that further development of the existing system is advantageous compared to introduction of a novel system. The only radical change needed is the introduction of good management.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690125
Irving J. Rubin
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690126
Charles M. Wheeler
D-C series motors have historically been used for driving electric vehicles. Solid-state control has made it possible to operate a–c motors from d-c power sources. Controllers for a–c motors must invert, modulate voltage and frequency, and commutate the d-c power. Although d-c motors are larger than a–c motors because commutation devices are self-contained, controllers for d-c motors are much less complex. Thus, d-c drive systems are usually simpler and less costly than a–c systems. Unlike internal combustion engines, the continuous torque rating of a motor is considerably less than its maximum torque. Several kinds of enclosures are available for d-c motors for matching average torque capability with load requirements and d-c motors are well adapted to highway vehicles. Brush life is no problem; more than 50,000 miles between brush changes is easily obtained. Regenerative braking generally does not prove economical for passenger type highway vehicles.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690127
A. W. Hartman
The author describes the speed controllers used in the Henney Kilowatt car and in the old and more recent Mars II electric cars. The latter now utilize series-paralleling of the batteries, plus intermediate steps of series-paralleling of two series fields, to obtain a wide range of running speed control.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690129
Giovanni Caprioglio
The requirements of a vehicle are classified into performance, economy, and convenience factors. Advances in the present battery technology provide the conditions for the competitive existence of electric vehicles for special uses. Several systems being developed in order to overcome the weight limitation of the lead-acid battery are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690134
F. J. Wallace, P. V. Langell
This paper describes a detailed analysis of flow conditions in the various ducts, volumes, and passages of a small, high speed, crankcase compression, two-stroke gasoline engine, using the method of characteristics to assess pressure wave effects and the associated gas motion in the exhaust duct. The scavenging process and the mixture composition are analyzed in detail and compared with experimental values.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690136
Kazunari Komotori, Eiichi Watanabe
In order to increase the air charge of crankcase-scavenged two-stroke cycle engines, the relations between delivery ratio and engine speed were investigated on a rotary disc-valve inlet port engine and on a conventional piston-valve inlet port engine by varying through wide limits the angle area and timing of the inlet port. For the inlet port configuration tested on the first engine, it was found that there was an optimum cut angle of the rotary disc valve, which produced a certain angle area. To improve the delivery ratio characteristics at a given speed, it was not necessary to change this angle area; it was effective to change only the timing of the inlet port by shifting the disc valve around the crankshaft. For the piston-valve inlet port engine, the results showed that a wide, low port, which was also found to have a higher flow coefficient, produced a higher delivery ratio over the entire engine speed range than a narrow, high port.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690103
T. W. Cowan, W. B. Aufderhaar
Sulfidation attack of nickel-base superalloys operating in salt air environments has received major technical attention in recent years due to the rapid and catastrophic nature of such attack. Also, structural stability of nickel-base alloys subjected to long exposures at elevated temperatures has received considerable technical interest because of the often associated property degradation with structural changes, and the need to produce reliable material behavior over longer periods of time. This paper briefly reviews the technology of sulfidation attack and structural stability and discusses the application of knowledge gained to the design of a new nickel-base superalloy, Udimet 710.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690106
John D. Kelley, William R. Woodall
A completely new tire concept has resulted in a development which goes far beyond body constructions, cord materials, compounds, and tread designs. Basically this is a new, shaped tire that offers significant improvements in tire safety, durability, and performance. Since this new tire, the “LXX, “ utilizes a new rim which is large in diameter and low in stresses, the automotive engineer is afforded greater latitude in optimizing braking systems.

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