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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 190669
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760238
Robert B. Schultz
High temperature ceramic materials are expected to play a major role in the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) Highway Vehicle Heat Engine Systems Program to develop advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The development of corrosion resistant and reliable regenerator heat exchangers will be continued, but with renewed emphasis on improving the effectiveness and operating temperature capability. New structural ceramic technology programs will be initiated by ERDA to test current materials and components to 3500 hours, and to develop new materials and fabrication methods for critical turbine and Stirling engine components.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760243
J. H. Schlag
Calibration testing of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU), a sophisticated analog computer which controls injector operation in the recently introduced domestic-passenger-car Electronic Fuel Injection system, is accomplished at a series of test stations equipped with specially designed, computer-controlled Automatic Test Equipment (ATE). This paper outlines the overall test sequence to which an ECU is subjected following manufacture, and then describes in detail the design logic, hardware, and software associated with the two ATE systems used. Particular emphasis is given to the Trim Station ATE, which not only performs complete functional testing but also computes optimum values for 28 resistors incorporated into the circuit at this stage to optimize circuit performance. These values are transmitted to the Laser Trimmer, which cuts individualized resistance modules for each ECU. After module insertion, the ECU is retested, packaged, and final-tested.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760244
C. J. Ahern, J. H. Tarter, W. G. Wolber, G. T. Bata
Electronic engine control has recently been introduced as standard equipment on a domestic passenger car in the form of the Bendix Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system. This system is controlled by the Electronic Control Unit (ECU), a sophisticated electronics package the mass production of which required the development of special-process test equipment capable of ensuring necessary levels of performance, throughput, reliability, and maintainability. This paper details the development of one part of the overall test facility, the Final Test Station. The Test Station accepts control units at several stages of production completion and applies to them simulated manifold-vacuum pressures in a computer-directed sequence. The 100-torr (13-kilopascal) pressure steps propagate pressure surges of less than 0.2 torr (26 pascals) back to the source tanks; total system settling time is 0.6 second or less.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760241
J. Tomas
Optimum turbine wheel geometry for passenger car gas turbine has been calculated for two ceramic materials: hot pressed silicon nitride and densified silicon carbide. Two iterative strategies, coupling the mathematical programming techniques with methods of finite elements and finite differences, were used for finding the disk with minimum failure probability. The influences of mean strength, Weibull modulus, and the disk form on the failure probability are presented. The results distinctly show that an improvement in material quality is necessary if the ceramic gas turbine wheel is to become a dependable component.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760242
J. G. Rivard
This paper presents a functional description of the 1975 production Electronic Fuel Injection system, relating system performance to automobile performance requirements. It addresses in particular the architecture and physical design of the heart of the system, the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). Accuracy requirements and environmental and durability constraints imposed on ECU design are discussed. The extensive on-line testing that must be performed to ensure necessary levels of accuracy on a cost-effective basis and at throughput rates consistent with automotive production scheduling is shown to have presented a major manufacturing challenge. Design modifications expected to result from present and anticipated technological advances are overviewed.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760247
C. A. Mounteer, L. M. Lockie
A unique system has been developed for evaluating the performance of large numbers of pressure transducers with minimal operator interaction. The system implements the determination of zero-set, slope, linearity, and temperature coefficient, and prints out the raw data--as well as a histogram--at the end of each 200-unit run, with out-of-tolerance conditions annotated. Such a run, on the present test line, requires approximately 3.5 to 4 hours, most of which is spent bringing the units to the specified test temperatures.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760251
W. H. Gollwitzer
The Ford Motor Company's automatically controlled transportation system now installed in the Fairlane Town Center in Dearborn, Michigan and Bradley International Airport, Hartford, Connecticut, represent a coming together of a host of proven technical disciplines which form a mode of transportation that can move people effectively and efficiently within a confined urban setting. This paper reviews the design parameters of Ford's automatically controlled transportation (ACT) from the viewpoint of the traveling passenger and from the visual impact the system has on the surrounding environment in which it must live.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760245
W. G. Wolber, G. T. Bata, C. V. David, B. Gollomp, P. R. Kudlaty
Simulating manifold absolute pressure for the calibration and test of domestic Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) controls demanded an absolute-pressure-source-system stability, accuracy, and speed of response not previously required for automotive-component manufacture. A 36-point pressure source having a root-mean-square stability of ±0.002 pound per square inch (±13 pascals) absolute, an accuracy of better than ±0.002 pound per square inch (±13 pascals) absolute, and a response time of 500 milliseconds into a 1-cubic-inch (16-cubic-centimeter) switched volume was developed to meet this need. Source-system design drew heavily on aircraft flight-line-check-out test-equipment experience. The system is used for 100 percent production calibration and test of EFI Electronic Control Units.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760246
A. E. Young, D. H. Locher, W. G. Wolber
This paper describes an on-line pressure-monitoring system, designed to meet an urgent need for constant accuracy surveillance on the precision pressures that are applied to EFI Electronic Control Units during production calibration and test. Design requirements and approach are discussed, and system implementation and performance are detailed. The Pressure Monitor, which operates in both a SCAN and a SET mode, detects and measures pressure deviations in up to 39 precision pressure sources, and activates an alarm to alert test personnel should an out-of-tolerance condition develop. It has significantly reduced the incidence of test-operator error, and has played a major role in substantially increasing production yields.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760177
Heinz-Gerd Reinkemeyer
Based on the merits of cross linked polyethylene foam, i.e. good thermoformability, low weight, strength, and laminability to other materials, Dynamit Nobel has developed new techniques and components for the trim in automotive vehicles. We have described trim parts such as roof linings, floor coverings, seats, trunk lining, and hood lining which are either being tested or already installed on standard models. They offer advantages over traditional components with regard to weight, comfort and price.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760432
W. W. Blake, J. M. Gorrell
This paper describes the concept and design of the Caterpillar “G” series motor grader transmission and transmission controls. Comments on vehicle performance, power train, and oil system requirements are included. Countershaft directional clutches are combined with six or eight speed planetary ranges for this family of articulated motor graders. The pilot-operated hydraulic control provides smooth rapid gear ratio changes and “inching” modulation for the pressure lubed directional clutches.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760175
N. Brand, G. Menges
Based on their viscoelastic properties, the temperature of plastic structural members under oscillatory loads rises during the loading time. For the case that this temperature reaches a constant value, i. e. an equilibrium between the supplied and the delivered heat is established, the temperature rise can be calculated in the presented manner. Below the critical strain limit, the behaviour of the self-heated material is similar to its behaviour at corresponding increased environmental temperature. With the knowledge of this facts, the consideration of the self - heating of plastics is easily possible.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760178
Robert E. Bell
Multiplexing has recently become a subject of considerable interest to the automotive industry. Although the idea is not new, it has only found wide application in other fields in recent years through the power of modern electronics. Perhaps, the time is at hand for its application in the automotive field. It may be the only answer to the increasing complexity of automotive wiring. This paper reviews the history of the early and more recent developments of multiplexing along with the reasons for its development. It also covers current applications with particular emphasis on the automotive field. Vehicular applications are reviewed with respect to their potential advantages over conventional wiring systems. Consideration is given to cost effectiveness, reliability and feature availability. Prerequisites for choosing multiplexing over conventional wiring are defined.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760172
Michael Ospring, Dean Karnopp, Donald Margolis
The effect of exhaust system configuration upon performance of two-stroke engines is explored. Computer predictions of gas dynamic behavior in the exhaust pipes are compared to experimental results of real pipe tests. Predicted pressure, velocity and temperature histories at key points in the exhaust system explain the relative power differences for the test pipes. Predicted volumetric flow rates show the effectiveness of exhausting gases at larger pipe cross sectional areas in reducing noise output. The application of the computer predictions to a Yamaha RS 100 offers an explanation for the experimentally measured loss of power at mid-range engine speeds encountered using one of the two test pipes. A relative comparison of the two systems shows that the differing pipe geometries cause predicted pressure and velocity histories to change. These changes are correlated to actual power curves.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760176
B. Meffert, G. Wiegand, G. Menges
Investigations of the mechanical behaviour of materials have proved the existence of critical strain limits for plastics. The exceeding of these limits leads to the formation of irreversible damages in the microstructure of the materials. Measuring procedures for the determination of the first material damages are pointed out and evaluated. By means of a special example, the investigation of the microcracks development of a chopped strand glass mat reinforced UP-resin under uniaxial tensile loading up to high rates of deformation, it can be proved that even for extremely quick deformation processes, unequivocal determination of the critical strain is still possible.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760173
Hermann Hablitzel
When the sudden shortage of a material and the resulting price escalation put regular vehicle production in doubt, users think twice about its current and future application. The oil crisis caused the European automotive industry to double-think its use of once cheap and plentiful plastic. Full exploitation of this material became an economic necessity, and careful, long-range planning made the situation liveable. Plastic with a high use-value factor increased in use, and certain ‘expensive’ plastics have become more appealing. But only those projects that are within the foreseeable future will stay on the front burner.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760171
David A. Fulghum
The 1975 line of Cub Cadet tractors incorporates several new design features aimed at reducing the noise and vibration levels of these machines. These features include an iso-mounted engine and an engine enclosure. The drive train is modified to accommodate the iso-mounted engine, and several changes have been made to provide for adequate engine cooling.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760371
Richard F. Smith
Self-lubricating plastic bearing materials can be produced by adding a small quantity of silicone fluid directly to the thermoplastic melt. The result is a substantial increase in the critical load-speed (limiting pressure-velocity or LPV) limit of the plastic, above which rapid wear takes place. The magnitude of the improvement in lubricity suggests the possibility of replacing metals with plastics, or replacing expensive plastics with silicone-modified, inexpensive plastics. LPV of some plastics has been raised as much as 1000 percent by the silicone additive, where LPV was measured at high speeds. At low speeds, less improvement is noted, but results are still significant. Data on the effect of the additive on various thermoplastics will be presented, along with a discussion of the correlation between wear rate and LPV. The additive also improves the handling properties of plastics, producing better flow, easier release from low-draft molds, and other advantages.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760370
D. F. Huelke, T. E. Lawson
Injuries to the lower torso (abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine) were studied in front seat, lap-belted, outboard occupants involved in frontal crashes. The data indicate that the “no injury” category is increased by 50% in belt users over unbelted occupants. Of injured lap-belted occupants, only one in five was injured in the lower torso area. Of these injuries, 7 out of 10 were rated as minor. Belts reduce the occurrence of serious injuries in all lower torso regions except the lumbar area. The more serious injuries occur at impact speeds of over 30 mph. Only 5% of the injured lap-belted occupants had critical to life-threatening injuries in the lower torso area. The angle of the seat belt does not appear to be related to lower torso injury severity.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760368
H. W. Poston, Joseph Seliber
This paper provides a description of automated test procedures and equipment used by the City of Chicago. Two idle testing modes are used. Emission averages for CO and HC are given for different model year range vehicles and different makes of vehicles based on tests of approximately 190,000 vehicles in 1974. The “cause of failure,” (high CO only, high HC only, or both,) is statistically analyzed and emission averages are given. A method of calculating air quality improvement from idle emission averages and other data is illustrated. The effects of seasonal variations is shown to be minimal. Results are given for a 12 month testing period in which approximately 25% of low mileage 1975 model year vehicles failed the City test. The importance of emission surveillance as a tool in improving air quality is indicated by the relatively high emission averages of “failed” vehicles in the 1970-74 model year range.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760369
E. R. Sternberg
Truck suspensions for heavy-duty trucks perform complex and conflicting functions and have been the subject of much development. This paper provides information on many types of suspensions presently in use and indicates those applications for which the particular types of suspensions in use are best suited. While primary emphasis is placed on leaf spring suspensions, data are also provided on other types of suspension such as rubber, air, torsion bar, and solid mount suspensions which are in current use.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760377
R. T. Johnson, R. K. Riley
A two phase test program was carried out on a single cylinder, fuel research engine (CFR) to determine the octane, emissions, and fuel economy characteristics of methanol-gasoline blends. The first phase of the work was an evaluation of the octane characteristics of methanol blended with unleaded gasoline. Blends ranging from 2% to 100% by volume methanol for four different base gasolines were knock rated. A simplified mathematical model of the results was developed to aid in comparing the effects of methanol on the octane ratings of the various base fuels. The results indicate that methanol can substantially increase both the Research and Motor Ratings of a relatively low octane unleaded gasoline. However, as the octane rating of the base gasoline is increased, the octane increase produced by the addition of methanol is reduced. For base fuels with Motor Ratings over 85 the addition of methanol has little effect on the Motor Octane rating.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760374
William J. J. Liu, Michael W. Monk
Many impact tests use some type of pendulum. For example, the compliance test of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 215, the bumper standard of automobiles, is usually conducted by using a parallel linkage pendulum. Since the center of percussion as well as the equivalent impacting mass of the test device are mentioned in the standard, some dynamic characteristics of the pendulum need to be examined. It is found that for a parallel linkage pendulum: (1) There exists no center of percussion regardless where the impact line is on the impacting block; but nevertheless, the summation of horizontal reaction forces in the top supporting hinges reduces drastically when the mass ratio of the impact block and the total masses of the supporting linkages is greater than one. (2) There does exist an optimum impact point to eliminate the rotational effect of the vertical reactions.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760376
W. S. Affleck, G. A. Harrow, W. D. Mills
A two litre compact car originally designed to run on gasoline has been converted to run on LNG. Comparative measurements of fuel economy and exhaust emissions were made for the same car running on each fuel under normal on-the-road and simulated taxi service. When tuned to its maximum economy configuration the LNG car gave significant improvements in fuel economy when expressed on an energy basis. For inter-urban journeys the savings would be of the order of 5% and for taxi type service in excess of 20%. Whether or not these savings would justify fleet conversion would depend on local fuel cost and taxation conditions. When set for maximum economy the LNG car gave significantly lower emissions of CO and hydrocarbons than its gasoline counterpart. Emissions of NOx were, however, higher with LNG than with gasoline. A tenfold reduction in NOx emissions could be obtained by re-tuning the LNG engine to run at air/fuel ratios up to 30:1.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760373
Henry J. Wasik
Wheel bearings for cars and trucks continue to receive the interest and study of vehicle designers and builders. Bearings must maintain their historic reliability in the face of changing design requirements and environmental conditions. Designers are under pressure to reduce unsprung weights and component costs. The basic considerations for wheel bearing performance are reviewed and new approaches for design, calculation and standardization are introduced. The fatigue life of the bearings is the first consideration. Bearing setting, lubrication, and mounting practices are other key factors in a successful wheel bearing mounting.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760360
William H. Park, James C. Wambold
This paper describes the use of a measurement and data reduction system for objective ride quality assessment which can be used in all types of transportation systems. The basis of the data handling is the use of the absorbed power criteria developed by Pradko and Lee, modified by using the Amplitude Frequency Distribution (AFD) method, and incorporating a human simulator to obtain the objective parameters used in the ride calculations. The AFD method was originally developed by the authors as a better description of road roughness than commonly used random data descriptions. The method is a joint probability density of amplitude and frequency and therefore maintains both spectrum data and amplitude distribution. The human simulator was developed to eliminate the need for extensive subjective testing. The study showed that in the frequency range of interest to ride quality work, a two-degree-of-freedom simulator adequately modeled human response.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760358
Ed S. Cheaney
This paper examines three policies for standardization within the urban mass transportation industry and investigates the feasibility of using benefit-cost analysis to establish which of these would be most effective. Standardization is viewed as being aimed at improving passenger welfare (safety, security, health, and comfort), service levels, and economic performance. Policies considered are (1) voluntary standardization by individual properties, (2) voluntary standardization within a framework of guidelines, goals, and leadership provided by an outside authority, and (3) universal standards imposed on all properties by an outside authority. A benefit-cost approach is tentatively found feasible, and a qualitative analysis of passenger welfare standardization is described.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760359
Ray MacDonald
The development of Automated Guideway Transit Systems has already followed the classical patterns exhibited by other transit technologies in the early stages of their development. It is important for AGT systems, and in particular for PRT that this evolutionary process should be condensed into as short a time frame as possible consistent with a full investigation of all practical options in technology. The object of this paper is to discuss those elements of AGT systems which are susceptible to standardization and to propose a course of action which would rationalize the wide range of hardware and software presently under development. The nature of this paper is necessarily philosophical; however, it is intended to produce a catalytic effect which will stimulate thought rather than present an analytical solution.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760357
T.B. Deen
There is little doubt that there is a desire for transit standards to assist in decision making across the entire range of planning, designing, constructing and operating the transit system. Even discussing this broad range is difficult, since both the breadth and depth of potential application areas for standards is of such scale as to be outside the expertise of any single individual. A general classification scheme is developed for structuring the discussion which distinguishes between standards for different transit modes, as well as between fixed facilities and vehicles. Transit standards are divided into input standards -- relating to those system attributes under the control of the planner, designer, or operator -- and output standards -- which reflect the ultimate objectives which the system is designed to satisfy.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760366
J. A. Gunderson, L. Resnick
A total of 600 (1968-1974) randomly selected vehicles were screened by engine parameter, safety, and idle tests. Those cars requiring major engine repairs or safety defects were rejected. Five hundred and seventy-six (576) were selected for testing and incorporated into four test groups. Each group contains 144 vehicles and are designated as the Baseline Control Group (Group I), the Inspection Group (Group II), a Manufacturer's Specification Group (Group III), and a Mandatory Maintenance and Parameter Inspection Group (Group IV). All vehicles entering the test program received a baseline 1972 Federal CVS emission test, followed by a hot-idle test (low and 2,500 rpm). Adjustment or repair of vehicles was accomplished by Olson Laboratories for Group II and Group III vehicles. Class A garages performed maintenance on Group IV vehicles. Following the necessary maintenance, the Federal and idle tests were repeated for Group II, Group III, and Group IV vehicles.

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