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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 169854
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
PAUL E. ALLEN
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
W. W. EDWARDS
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
R. H. OWEN
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
DAVID E. BREHM
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
WALTER C. JAMOUNEAU
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
F. LANDGRAF
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
F.P. Zimmerli, W.P. Wood
ENDURANCE limits and load losses at various temperatures from -75 F to 650 F for several spring materials are reported in this paper. The materials tested were in the form of helical springs, both shot peened and unpeened. Some general observations made by the authors include: 1. Shot-peened springs had higher endurance limits and greater relaxation than unpeened springs at -75 F and 75 F. 2. As test temperatures rose above atmospheric, endurance limit of all unpeened springs tended to hold steady or increase somewhat, while that of shot-peened springs tended to decrease. 3. Except for high-speed steel and stainless steel, chrome-silicon steel showed lowest load loss in both static and dynamic tests in the temperature range from atmospheric to 450 F. 4. Both unpeened and shot-peened high-speed-steel springs showed high endurance limits at all test temperatures. 5. Endurance limits at -75 F were similar to those at atmospheric temperature, but the amount of set was less, on the average.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Joel Warren
RESULTS of an investigation directed toward determining why deposits increase antiknock requirement are discussed here. Data are presented which indicate that substantially 100% of the increase in octane-number requirement caused by deposits results from a combination of thermal and volume effects. An analysis procedure is given which indicates that deposit-thermal effects may result entirely from the heat that is stored in the deposits. Thus, the deposits absorb heat during the combustion process in one cycle and transfer it to the fresh charge during the intake and compression portions of the next cycle. The findings reported in this paper show that those engines with the smallest area of combustion-chamber surface, for a given displacement, would be expected to have the smallest thermal effects and hence should have minimum deposit effects.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
P.H. Schweitzer, C.G.A. Rosen
SEVERAL 2-stroke-cycle diesel engines of European manufacture are described in this paper. The 2-stroke-cycle diesel was late to appear in the automotive scene in Europe, but noteworthy developments have taken place recently, according to the authors. In England, a couple of successful uniflow engines were placed on the market, while on the Continent the loop-scavenged engine is receiving most of the attention. The authors feel that this is not a step backward dictated by European poverty, but perhaps a step forward toward compactness and simplicity.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
S.K. Chen, N.J. Beck, O.A. Uyehara, P.S. Myers
THIS paper discusses a method of measuring compression temperature by means of the absorption of light. An optical-electronic system measures the change in color of a trace of iodine gas that has been added to the intake mixture. From these measurements the temperature of the iodine and by inference, the temperature of the gases, is determined. The apparatus used is described briefly and the test results obtained in measuring compression and end-gas temperatures in a spark-ignition engine are also presented.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
C. F. Taylor, A. R. Rogowski
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
W.R. Rodger, A.J. Syrovy
THE design and construction of the PowerFlite automatic transmission are described by the authors. It is of the torque converter type, some models being water-cooled, while others are direct air cooled. Details of the hydraulic controls are explained, including the one-piece shift valve and the shuttle valve for controlling closed-throttle shifts. It is claimed that this transmission has relative simplicity, light weight, and smoothness of operation.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
G.H. Millar, O.A. Uyehara, P.S. Myers
THIS paper presents flame temperature and pressure data taken on a spark-ignited CFR engine. Data are presented for the four variables of cyclic reproducibility, knock, air/fuel ratio, and ignition timing. The data indicate that cycle-to-cycle irreproducibility may be caused by variations in the initial rate of flame propagation from the spark.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
A.L London
THE history of the free-piston and turbine compound engine development is reviewed briefly. After consideration of the status here and abroad, the salient features of the free-piston engine concept are considered. These are mechanical simplicity, compactness, and an excellent torque-speed characteristic, coupled with a fuel economy comparable to the conventional diesel, the modern record holder in this respect. Some prognostications for the future of the development in this country are also presented.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
R. L. Mattson
EXPERIMENTAL analyses of residual stresses as related to fatigue properties and to the surface failure known as spalling are discussed in this paper. How those processing operations such as heat-treatment, machining, grinding and straightening contribute the factors causing residual stresses and what are the practical methods of measuring these stresses are also described here.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
D.N. Meyers, Z.M. Ciolkosz
A DETAILED analysis of the weight-saving possibilities of shaft-turbine installations on helicopters is presented in this paper, which won the 1953 Wright Brothers Medal for its authors. They point out that this weight saving helps to counteract the disadvantage of high fuel consumption. They also discuss helicopter flight characteristics and how they are related to shaft-turbine power characteristics. Finally, they propose some methods of obtaining better matching characteristics between helicopters and shaft-turbines.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
E. J. Premo
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Walter E. Lay
WHY one gets that aching neck and those tired eyes after driving for long stretches is explained in this paper. A brief qualitative study of the motion of the driver and passenger in the front seat of an automobile is given here. The author provides a reasonable explanation for some of the commonly observed kinds of driver fatigue and points the way for some improvement in the dynamic comfort of automobile seats.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Carl W. Georgi
MANY rather intriguing claims have been made about reduction of engine friction and increase of power and fuel economy through the use of certain types of motor oils and motor-oil additives. However, this paper shows that engine fuel-consumption measurements to determine the effects of different oils and oil treatments indicate that the only significant property of the engine lubricant relating to engine power, friction, and fuel economy is viscosity. The data also indicate that the “engine viscosities” of some motor oils may be somewhat different from their “laboratory viscosities” as measured in conventional Saybolt or Kinematic viscosimeters.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
W.P. Michell
THE truck engine of the future will be capable of producing more horsepower and will operate at higher rpm, according to Mr. Michell. This means, he said, that new problems will arise in connection with the clutch, transmission, propeller shaft, and rear-axle design. The author discusses some of these problems as far as each of the above parts of the drive line is concerned.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Ross A. McFarland
HIGHWAY safety-an important problem in the truck and bus industries - is governed by many factors, one of the most important being the human element. This paper describes the Harvard School of Public Health research program concerning the human factor in vehicle design and operation. The project is Sponsored by the Commission on Accidental Trauma of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board, Department of Defense; the National Association of Automotive Mutual Insurance Companies; the American Trucking Associations, Inc.; and the National Association of Motor Bus Operators. Some items of this investigation include the study of near accidents; detection of the accident repeater; personal adjustment and morale of drivers; human body size and capabilities with relation to controls, instruments, seats, and vision; the effects of temperature, ventilation, noise, and vibration; and desirable safety features to protect the operator if an accident occurs.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
M. Ware, R.E. Taylor, J. Witzky
THE new Packard automotive diesel engine is reported to feature reductions in weight and space occupied, while maintaining good life expectancy. It is available in 6-cyl in-line, V8, V12, and V16 models. These models all have a large number of interchangeable parts. They all have the same bore and stroke. According to the authors, noteworthy points of these engines include: 1. Extensive use of aluminum. 2. Turbosupercharging. 3. One-piece cylinder and head assembly. 4. Four valves per cylinder, with stellite seating surfaces on valves and seats in the head.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
R.I. Potter, E.H. Scott, H.J. Gibson, G.W. Stanke
SEVERAL factors are involved in the answer to the question, “How do atmospheric conditions affect the ability of a fuel to satisfy the antiknock requirement of automotive engines?” As is well known, an increase in atmospheric temperature increases the octane-number requirement of engines. This paper points out, however, that this causes little change in the road octane-number ratings of commercial fuels. Increasing the absolute humidity has the opposite effect to increasing the temperature and tends to counteract the undesirable effects of changing temperature throughout the various seasons of the year. Increasing the barometric pressure or decreasing the wind velocity both increase the tendency of commercial fuels to knock. Factors indirectly related to weather conditions, such as the coolant or thermostat used in an engine, also affect the knocking tendency of a fuel. Conditions requiring maximum antiknock quality in a fuel are found when the atmospheric effects of low humidity and high temperature are combined with the engine-cooling effects of high-temperature thermostats and glycol antifreezes.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Richard M. Carlson, F. David Schnebly
FATIGUE failure is now one of the most serious hindrances to satisfactory service life for helicopters. To help the industry bring the fatigue failure problem under control, these authors summarize what they have learned from studying 169 fatigue failures that occurred during 58,000 hr of helicopter flying operations. They have classified these failures as being caused by: 1. Design error. 2. Manufacturing error. 3. Field error. They discuss specific examples in each group and what was done to correct the cause of the failure.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
George E. Holback, James L. Burridge
USE of adhesives to join metal skins to low-density cores results in major weight, manufacturing time, and cost savings, according to the authors. They report here that such sandwich structures have been used in several projects, the most advanced being the B-61A Matador. To achieve a bonded joint between two aluminum sheets or between sheet and core, four generally similar steps are required. The sheet must be cleaned, coated with adhesive, force-dried to remove volatile materials, and finally cured under temperature and pressure. The authors conclude that production adhesive bonding of flat and contoured primary structures, with all its inherent advantages, is now available to the industry.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
W.L. Badger
STRESS corrosion cracking is a combination of stress and corrosive action that results in individual cracks of a brittle, intergranular nature. The author discusses such failures in compressor rotor blades made of a 12% Cr, type 403 stainless steel. A laboratory technique was worked out for producing similar failures at will. As a result of this study, it was recommended that compressor blades be stress relieved at 950 F. Since this has been done, no further cracking of the blades has been reported. Tests with three alloys in addition to the type 403 showed the former alloys to be superior to 403 in regard to stress corrosion cracking.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
P.A. McGee
THE inherent simplicity of the gas turbine and its well-known success in aircraft applications is leading to its consideration for locomotive use. As a matter of fact, gas turbine locomotives have already found limited use by a few railroads throughout the world. The author discusses these applications and some of the lessons learned from them. He points out that, although the first gas turbine locomotive to be put in service was built in 1941 - the same year that the first commercial diesel locomotive was placed in service -the latter has forged rapidly ahead, so that today the railroads are about 75% dieselized. What, then, has held the gas turbine locomotive back? Mr. McGee points out that two of the most significant factors responsible are: 1. Metallurgical problems - the need for materials capable of withstanding the high temperatures encountered. 2. High fuel consumption. He discusses both these factors - what has been done and what, in general, is still to be done- to solve them.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
F.C. Matthaei
THE universal positioning seat track is said to be the answer to the problem of providing suitable automotive seating for practically all drivers. It allows each driver to adjust the car seat to the position that best satisfies him. The author points out that providing these adjustments gives a number of advantages, such as: 1. The visibility of the driver can be at a maximum. 2. Each driver of a car can adjust the seat to suit his own individual size-and taste. 3. Less driver fatigue.
Technical Paper
1954-01-01
Bruno Loeffler
INCREASING fuel prices and fuel taxes have forced engine builders to find ways to better engine specific fuel consumption in order to help operators survive the onslaught of increased operating costs. This paper explains how an improved combustion system has yielded up to 15% improvement in fuel consumption. This system was arrived at by analysis of those previous combustion systems which held most promise. The resulting direct-injection open combustion chamber is described here.

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