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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 190398
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760460
Loyd C. Parker
A study of a Pilot Advisory System (PAS) concept for high density uncontrolled airports is described. The PAS concept will provide general aviation pilots with automatic audio voice airport and air traffic advisories in two-minute intervals and mid-air collision warnings as necessary. The system when installed will operate automatically without necessity for manual input. The PAS includes the options of fixed-base operator runway select, automatic restart and self-test, and remote inquiry of system status and messages.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760456
Gordon Gilbert
With the exception of a few airliner business jets that do not meet the noise limitations of Federal Aviation Regulations Part 36, the business jet fleet is getting quieter. Today, 80 percent of the 25 models of business jets flying in the United States are within the limitations of the present FAR Part 36. Furthermore, all business jets now in the design phase will be powered by quieter fanjet engines, and all will have sound levels well within the present FAR Part 36 guidelines. Noise rules in force for the current fleet of small propeller-driven business aircraft apply only to aircraft for which type certification application was made after October 10, 1973. All propeller-driven aircraft operating today applied for type-certification before 1973. However, propeller-driven aircraft operators and engineers were concerned with reducing the noise levels long before any regulations existed.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760632
R. E. Annis
A new light weight three-speed automatic transmission is being produced by General Motors Corporation. The unique features of this transmission are wide ratio gearing, a new mechanical throttle pressure system that protects against damage due to a disconnected operating cable, a new simple and more reliable governor mechanism, and a drive train in which all parts except the gears and shafts are made from sheet metal stampings joined together by welding.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760623
James T. Pott
Consideration of buses is as inevitable in any discussion of public transportation as consideration of automobiles in any discussion of overall mobility. Provision of bus transit, as a part of the functional hierarchy of transportation services, is addressed in terms of deployment strategy and bus technology lessons which have affected and will continue to affect bus transit programs in Santa Clara County. Traditional transit techniques need reevaluation in the light of enlarged and synergistic public service goals now impinging on transit activities. Bus transit services alone are probably not satisfactory to respond to overall mobility goals of large urban communities.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760458
Roger L. Winblade, Judy A. Westfall
An overview of the 1976 NASA Research and Technology efforts directly focused on general aviation is presented. Current status and accomplishments during the past year are described. An updated bibliography of technical reports generated by the NASA program is included as an Appendix to this report.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760625
S. M. Kowleski
This paper describes the growing automobile congestion within the Golden Gate Corridor and reviews an alternative means of public transportation through the use of buses and ferries. The paper outlines the planning and design criteria used in the selection of an optimum vessel and related terminal facilities. Three new Spaulding Class 165 foot, 750 passenger, vessels are presently under construction. These vessels will be all aluminum with a 25 knot power package consisting of gas turbine engines and waterjet pumps. Two modern marine passenger terminals have also been designed, with construction of one already completed.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760454
Frederick B. Metzger, Bernard Magliozzi, Robert J. Pegg
The initial results of a program to investigate the sources of noise in unshrouded propellers under forward flight conditions are reported. Tests were conducted using a three-blade, full-scale instrumented propeller mounted on a twin-engine aircraft. Measurements included 1) farfield noise at fixed ground stations and at two aircraft wing tip locations, 2) blade surface pressures at seven locations on one of the propeller blades, 3) atmospheric turbulence encountered by the aircraft in flight, and 4) aircraft operating conditions. The results confirm that significantly lower levels of propeller noise are produced in forward flight than at static conditions. The most significant reductions occurred at mid-frequencies which dominate Perceived and A-Weighted Noise Levels. Blade surface pressure data showed the presence of disturbances in the propeller inflow under static conditions which were seen to disappear as the aircraft started its takeoff roll.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760455
F. Cicci, A. F. Toplis
The paper describes the early experimental work, the flight test methods and the initial results of the noise measurements for a quiet STOL four engined turboprop aircraft. The target noise level of 95 PNdB at 500 ft sideline at takeoff set some six years earlier in the development process has been achieved.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760640
Thomas E. McHugh, Vern D. Overbye
In the past, the analysis of large, complicated steel frames has been extremely difficult, if not impossible. With the development of the computer and finite element analysis, the designer now has a tool to analyze the frame in detail and determine the potential areas of high stress before fabrication. This paper describes such a finite element model of the carrier frame of a rubber-tired mobile crane and how its analysis compares with actual test results.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760639
John A. Vananrooy
Trailer braking requirements are rapidly changing due to new vehicle design concepts and Federal, State and International Regulations and Standards enacted and being proposed. Also, SAE and Industry Standards and Procedures, present and proposed, are concentrating more on trailer braking requirements. This paper discusses in general the design evaluation and types of control systems for use with Hydraulic Caliper Disc Brakes. These systems properly applied to the various kinds of trailers listed will aid in meeting individual, and combined vehicle requirements.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760451
James D. Yost
A new method has been developed for using regression analysis to obtain equations for aircraft pressure coefficients. This method allows wind tunnel or flight test pressure survey data to be collected at a lower cost with accurate coverage of non-linear mach effects. An equation for a given structural location includes mach effects and all other significant independent variables for their full aircraft operational range. Many test conditions are reduced to a few composite variable coefficients which may easily be used for further aircraft design conditions for strength or fatigue.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760637
Fred W. Cords, John B. Dale
This paper will discuss the fundamentals of brake system design as they relate to industrial, agricultural and off-highway vehicles; providing a guide for the designer who finds himself with this engineering responsibility. However, it is also well to be aware that brake systems and system performance have come under surveillance and regulation in the last few years by International, Federal, State, Provincial and local Governments and their agencies, and that the designer consider this along with the data we are to discuss in this paper.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760452
J. A. Alic
While the mechanics of fracture in relatively thick sections of high strength materials is reasonably well understood, thin section fracture is not. Unfortunately, aircraft structures present the designer with many thin section fracture problems. Thus specialized techniques are necessary for fracture analysis of aircraft structures. Available methods of thin section fracture analysis are surveyed and critically discussed, with particular attention to crack growth resistance curves. The limitations of assuming linear elastic behavior in many types of thin section problems are pointed out. In such cases a one-parameter fracture criterion is unlikely to be realistic and improved procedures are required.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760638
Kenneth L. Williams, Peter Wolf
The Ausco Power Brake Valve has been developed to provide smooth, well modulated braking for low or medium pressure, open or closed center hydraulic systems. It provides power and manual mode functions. In the power mode, pedal effort yields a proportional brake line pressure which gives a definite “feel” to the pedal. The manual mode provides continuous braking in case of hydraulic system failure. Other features possible include, 1) self-equalizing directional control, 2) two-stage manual override, and 3) integrated flow controls for power beyond capabilities.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760470
D.G.M. Davis
The Ducted Propulsor is proposed as a means of quiet propulsion. In order to demonstrate that very low levels can be realistically achieved, a unit has been built based on a conventional 285 h.p. aircraft reciprocating engine. The problems associated with the design of such a power plant, which include keeping the cost and weight of a production unit in perspective, are discussed along with the chosen solution. The test results will be published later.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760643
Charles B. Hall, James S. Nerstrom
This paper summarizes the objectives and choices for various design alternatives in making a 200 horsepower production outboard motor. The discussion covers the choice of cylinder arrangement, selection of scavenging process, intake system, exhaust tuning system and cooling system operation. Other areas covered include hydrodynamic considerations for gearcase design, development of a new isolation system, a new hydraulic trim and tilt system, general structural requirements and considerations for corrosion protection.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760471
J.D. RAISBECK
Advanced technology in aerodynamics, both highspeed and lowspeed, are being applied to new airplane designs proposed by Boeing, Douglas, Lockheed, and other large aircraft manufacturers. New military aircraft employ the results of many years of exploratory research and development dealing with aerodynamics. Such items as supercritical airfoil technology, sophisticated high lift devices, and the optimum integration of various individual airframe components to increase the overall productivity of the larger jet and military aircraft are just now finding their way into the business jet design community. The Mark II Learjet, embodying advanced design features such as blunt wing leading edges employing supercritical aspects, trailing edge flap optimization, and overall wing aerodynamic clean-up was first envisioned by the Raisbeck team in 1973.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760468
Alvin C. Allen, Robert J. Wickline
Design, development and testing thrust reversers for a business jet airplane are described from program conception through Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certification. Mechanical design, reverser operation, failsafe features, actuation systems and aircraft integration are covered. Model tests, developmental taxi tests, static ground tests and flight tests required for configuration development and FAA type certification are discussed.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760644
G. P. Blair, M. C. Ashe
The theoretical modelling of the scavenge process for a naturally aspirated two-cycle engine is described and employed in conjunction with an unsteady gas dynamic analysis of flow in the engine ducting. Programmed for a digital computer, the results of this theoretical study are shown in relation to a 250 cm3 engine with values of predicted charging efficiency, scavenging efficiency, and delivery ratio given as a function of engine speed. These are compared with measured values of scavenging efficiency and the usual performance characteristics of power, mean effective pressure, delivery ratio, and specific fuel consumption. Also compared are the measured and predicted pressure diagrams taken in the cylinder, the crankcase, and the exhaust and inlet ducts. The design of a somewhat unique cylinder gas sampling valve of the mechanical type is described and its usage discussed both theoretically and practically.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760641
John T. Parrett, S. K. R. Iyengar
A new method for the structural study of long hydraulic cylinders has been developed. The rational analysis, taking cognizance of most known conditions and disturbances, is capable of an iterative type solution by computer. Some examples of its use are given, illustrating the effects of stroke length and mounting position on stresses, deflections, internal bearing loads, and critical axial load.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760469
W. A. Menard, P. I. Moynihan, J. H. Rupe
Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is under study in a new NASA program. The objective of the program is to determine the feasibility of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. A catalytic hydrogen generator will be incorporated as part of the air induction system of a Lycoming turbocharged engine and will generate hydrogen by breaking down small amounts of the aviation gasoline used in the normal propulsion system. This hydrogen will then be mixed with gasoline and compressed air from the turbocharger before entering the engine combustion chamber. The special properties of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline allow the engine to operate at ultralean fuel/air ratios, resulting in higher efficiencies and hence less fuel consumption. This paper summarizes the results of a systems analysis study.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760642
Kojiro Yamaoka, Kenichi Kitagawa, Yoshitsugu Hamada, Teruo Morimoto, Ryoichi Yamanouchi
A new chain saw powered by rotary engine has been developed with a view to prevent the current injuries due to vibration from chain saws. This paper covers the construction of the rotary engine and performances of the new chain saw including vibration measurements. Vibration acceleration of the new chain saw shows so low level compared with reciprocating engine saws that it would be quite promising for prevention of the vibration injuries.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760463
Terrill W. Putnam, Frank W. Burcham
Operational techniques for reducing approach noise from business jet aircraft were evaluated in flight by measuring the noise generated by five such aircraft during modified approaches. Approaches with 4° glide slopes were approximately 4.0 EPNdB quieter than approaches with standard 3° glide slopes. Noise reductions for low-drag 3° approaches varied widely among the airplanes tested; the fleet-weighted reduction was 8.5 EPNdB. Two-segment approaches resulted in noise reductions of 7.0 EPNdB to 8.5 EPNdB 3 nautical miles and 5 nautical miles from touchdown. Pilot workload increased progressively for the 4°, low-drag 3°, and two-segment approach.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760647
Bryant Trenary
The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760466
Ashok N. Rudrapatna, Ira D. Jacobson
Based on flight test data gathered in general aviation aircraft, a composite motion-noise, passenger comfort model has been developed which enables the assessment of cabin interior noise impact on passenger acceptance. Relationships between special subject responses and passenger responses are given, as well as the effect of comfort on passenger acceptance. The importance of comfort and noise on the overall passenger reaction is discussed.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760648
Stanley B. Adams
A new Caterpillar Wheel Loader has been developed as a replacement for the current production 988. This paper provides a review of the machine objectives, summarizes the development program, and provides an introduction to the major features.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760461
Bruce D. Fisher, H. Paul Stough, David D. Kershner
This paper discusses an NASA-developed trailing airspeed anemometer system which permits high-accuracy airspeed calibrations to be made at low airspeeds (M ≤ 0.2). Both the anemometer system and its use in flight tests are described.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760645
G. P. Blair
Previous papers published by the author have described unsteady gas flow through a naturally aspirated two-cycle engine and the most recent of these publications details a theoretical modelling of the gas exchange or scavenge process for the cylinder of this type of power unit. This results in the ability to predict the trapped charge state, mass, and purity characteristics. With such information it becomes sensible to apply a closed cycle thermodynamic analysis to it and to further predict directly power, torque, and fuel consumption characteristics. This paper describes such a simple closed cycle analysis and compares the theoretical results of power, mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption, and cylinder pressure diagrams with corresponding measured data from two engines.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760462
G. M. Gregorek, M. J. Hoffmann, G. S. Weislogel
Details of the design and development of an airborne data acquisition system for in-flight evaluation of airfoils are presented. The system was designed to be flown aboard a single engine general aviation aircraft and to measure and record airfoil surface pressures, airfoil wake pressures, and aircraft angle of attack and airspeed. Included are descriptions of the instrumentation, calibration and data reduction techniques, illustrations of the raw data and comments on the operational experience gained during the flight evaluation of the GA(W)-2 airfoil.
1976-02-01
Technical Paper
760646
Stanley Jacoby
The type of surface that is used in the cylinder bore of a small aluminum engine is a critical item. This paper describes all the techniques presently used: the iron liner, the chrome plated cylinder, the nickel-silicon carbide composities, the Reynolds 390 aluminum alloy, and aluminum cylinders with chrome plated pistons. The emphasis is on the electrodeposits used in cylinder bores.

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