Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 184298
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700277
W. L. Bulkley, I. Ginsburgh
The Static Charge Reducer, a device to reduce static charges in distillate fuels to safe levels during loading or fueling operations, has been in commercial service for over five years and is now being used in several hundred installations. The field experience and laboratory tests accumulated over this time have now been analyzed to show how operation is affected by such variables as the dimensions of the reducer, the flow rate and electrical characteristics of the fuel, and the configuration of the tankage. To date, the principal applications involve the use of 4 or 6 in. diameter Reducers for the loading of distillate fuels into commercial tank trucks at flow rates of 400-800 gpm. However, available data for Reducers up to 12 in. in diameter, for flow rates up to 2000 gpm, and for various tank sizes are sufficient to indicate how the Reducer will perform under a wide variety of conditions.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700278
R. G. Davies, R. W. Knipple
This is a review paper summarizing much that has appeared elsewhere on the nature of the electrostatic fuel charging hazard, but more particularly describing the background to the flight evaluation of and subsequent service experience with aviation fuels containing static dissipator additive ASA-3. Although first introduced into aviation turbine fuel on a test basis by the Royal Canadian Air Force eight years ago, static dissipator additive has been increasingly used, particularly since its mandatory requirement in the British D. Eng. R.D. 2494 specification in the fall of 1968. With a number of major international airlines calling for fuel supplies to contain the approved additive as an additional safety measure, some 8000 million gal of such fuel have now been supplied by various fuel suppliers at over 150 airfields outside the United States.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700273
W. T. Figart, R. L. Leisenring, W. B. Silvestri
The military's demand for greater mobility, accurate surveillance systems, heavy and precise firepower, and rapid response capability is reflected in both the quantity and characteristics of its tactical and combat material requirements. To satisfy this demand, it has been necessary to improve system and power plant performance and maintain logistic requirements without incurring excessive life cycle costs. Because of the inherent simplicity of its design, the rotating combustion engine automatically becomes a power plant of very few parts with a high degree of commonality between models utilizing low cost noncritical materials. The effect of these unique characteristics on life cycle costs for a variety of military applications will be discussed in this paper.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700276
E. D. Ayson, R. R. Dhanani, G. A. Parker
The fuel system installed in the Boeing Model 747 airplane is described in general, and the pressure fueling system treated in detail. The general treatment includes description of fuel tanks, engine fuel feed system, fuel jettison system, defueling system, fuel quantity indicating system, and fueling system. The component parts of the pressure fueling system are described, and performance of the system is evaluated. In the design of the 747 airplane, surge pressures and static electrification, possible problem areas associated with refueling large airplanes, have been minimized. The fuel system of the 747 meets applicable Federal Aviation Regulations and customer requirements.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700279
L. Gardner
The Water Separation Index, Modified, has been accepted as the standard procedure for assessing the water separating characteristics of a fuel. The significance of this test in relation to filter/separator performance and life, however, has not been well established. An evaluation of the WSIM test has been made in an attempt to establish this significance. This evaluation has shown that the test is sensitive to the presence of surface active materials in a fuel. The response to such materials is reasonably quantitative, although all materials do not respond in the same manner. Filtration tests confirm the sensitivity and indicate that a WSIM rating of less than 100, possibly as low as 75, can be considered acceptable.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700280
Paul T. Astholz
The control system, operational procedures, aircraft guidance, and basic runway design factors necessary to greatly reduce the lateral separation of independent operating parallel runways, and the longitudinal separation between approaching aircraft are discussed. Included are the basic performance characteristics required for the approach and landing systems. To obtain the necessary increase in runway utilization rates, a higher degree of automation will be required in the air traffic control system and in the airborne flight control system. In addition, a new approach and landing system which can provide curved approaches is proposed. The resulting capacities for various levels of automation, reduced separations, and runway configurations are listed.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700285
Dwayne K. Jose
This paper will discuss a brief history of corporate aviation, identify the primary advantages of aviation to the business community, will identify several current trends having a profound effect upon business transportation, and will discuss the impact of aviation upon corporate transportation, including the influence of the jet age. It will identify the problems and constraints confronting fixed-wing corporate air transportation and will identify which of these problems are amenable to solution by rotorcraft, and review the growth of the corporate/executive market in use of aircraft and rotorcraft. General characteristics of some of the most commonly used business helicopters are reviewed, including those expected to be in use in the period 1970-1975.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700286
W. Z. Stepniewski, F. H. Schmitz
Noise from the aircraft may prevent the establishment of VTOL ports near population centers-the locations which can provide a significant contribution to mass transportation. To determine how annoying these aircraft may be, a total community annoyance measure (TCAM) has been developed. The TCAM can indicate flight trajectories which minimize the annoyance of the aircraft and the type of aircraft which are acoustically acceptable for operations from a V/STOL port. Low disc loading rotors seem best for operation near terminals while low tip speed propellers are best for cruise.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700284
E. E. “Tug” Gustafson
A new era of vertical lift technology was introduced with the development of the Skycrane. The first crane, designated S-60, was designed to carry six tons of cargo, was powered by two reciprocating engines, and evolved from the military S-56. It promised unlimited versatility in transporting suspended loads for industrial, commercial, and military operations. With the experience and design information provided by the S-60, a larger version was developed. The twin turbine S-64 Skycrane has a lift capability of 10 tons. The U. S. Army recognized the potential of such an aircraft for use in combat areas to transport heavy equipment and personnel pods nested under the fuselage, and to retrieve many types of aircraft which were downed in areas inaccessible to surface transportation.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700357
E. Fiala
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700356
Peter Kyropoulos, Ronald W. Roe
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700354
Allan Katz
In this paper it is suggested that the technical constraints of the road-vehicle system, rather than cultural factors, have become the chief determinants of driving behavior in both developed and developing countries. This could explain why the traditional programs of propaganda, punishment, selection and improvement have become relatively ineffective in influencing driving behavior. Further it would appear that at present the most feasable approach for reducing the human factor in road accidents is through the research and implementation of programs which seek a “technical fix” of drivers' problems through engineered simplifications of the driving task. The establishment of policy and implementation of such programs, or any others, in the field of accident countermeasures is a matter of constant negotiation and renegotiation, in which the actors are government officials, scientists, application experts (traffic engineers, doctors, etc.) and the motoring public.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700353
M. Baudouin, C. Berlioz, M. Ternier
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700351
Hubert Perring
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700350
Louis C. Lundstrom
Highway safety management in the United States is divided into three periods of historical development: an early period, extending from the turn of the century to about 1935; a middle period, from 1935 to 1965; and a current period beginning with the institution of the Highway Safety Act of 1966. The first two periods were essentially ones of genesis and growth, periods of trial in an attempt to develop some understanding of an extremely complex new social problem rising, as so often is the case, from a major invention of progress. There were repeated, serious attempts at coordinating efforts directed toward highway safety, but such efforts, dependent for the most part upon voluntary cooperation between voluntary organizations, never quite succeeded in accomplishing the desired goal, yet still managed a considerable measure of success. Too many things were lacking, funds primarily, as well as any prior knowledge of the depths of the safety problem.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700358
Howard W. Stoudt, Ross A. McFarland
A recent survey is described in which a series of anthropometric measurements were taken which are related to automobile design. In the first phase of the research 1,000 seated subjects were used to obtain 22 static measurements, most of which were indexed to two different reference points, the SAE H point and the accelerator heel point. In the second phase of the research measurements of functional arm reach to 117 points within the seated workspace were obtained on 100 subjects. Examples of the static and dynamic data obtained are given in both tabular and graphic form. Discussions are included of the measurements taken, the reasons for their selection, the measuring techniques employed, the statistical analyses used, and the potential applications of the data.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700141
J. H. Dudas, K. J. Brondyke
This paper discusses the mechanical properties of precision P/M parts produced from aluminum alloys 201 AB and 601 AB and presents data on their corrosion resistance, wear performance, and machinability. The properties and characteristics of aluminum P/M materials are compared with iron P/M, brass P/M, and aluminum die castings. Alloy 201 AB develops ultimate tensile strengths up to 50,000 psi and provides a desirable combination of strength, ductility, impact and fatigue properties in a lightweight, economical P/M material. Alloy 601 AB achieves moderate strengths of 35,000 psi with superior corrosion resistance, high thermal and electrical conductivity, and has the ability to accept many attractive finishes. Both alloys can be machined at high cutting speeds to a smooth surface finish after heat treatment. In the T6 temper they possess high wear resistance approaching that of aluminum die cast alloys.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700140
S. H. Reichman, B. W. Castledine, J. W. Smythe
The use of a powder-metallurgy approach to modern superalloys for high temperature applications are discussed in terms of better homogeneity and formability. The use of inert-atmosphere atomized powder results in dense alloy products with low interstitial content and with mechanical properties equivalent to or better than the cast or wrought form of the alloy. The advantages and disadvantages of the various densification processes are presented, with direct-powder extrusion or direct-powder forging to the dense product being the most attractive. Experimental results are given showing two extreme structural conditions obtained for direct-extruded P/M superalloys: the first is an ultra-fine grain structure which exhibits superplastic behavior; the second arises from a thermo-mechanical treatment which results in extremely large grain sizes, in some cases - single crystal structures which exceed the stress-rupture properties of the cast and wrought alloys.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700144
Eric J. Schneider
The paper describes the present acceptance of surface texture measuring instruments in use in the United States giving recent statistical data related to other measuring techniques and machine tools used in the manufacturing process. It then deals with the significance of surface roughness measurement and its hoped-for relation to part function with recent statements of available correlation. Recent trends in the United States, Europe, the Far East, and behind the Iron Curtain describe broadly the relation between American and foreign efforts in the field. The necessity to carry the stylus instrument to its ultimate perfection, to consider nonstylus instruments for surface texture in their proper place, and the challenge of “surface quality and surface integrity” are described, as is the future need to relate surface quality measurement to other part measurements required for comprehensive part description.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700142
Denzil L. Hammond
Many users of stylus type surface measurement instruments have occasions when, for economic reasons or special tests, it is necessary to analyze a surface in a manner other than that for which their instruments are specifically designed. Several methods are described in which, through the use of additional standard instruments or simple electronic circuits, the stylus type instrument can be used for a wide variety of surface analysis techniques.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700137
R. M. Rusnak, H. W. Schwartz, W. P. Coleman
The effect of rotor alloy composition on thermal conditions in a disc brake system was determined analytically. The three alloys selected were gray cast iron, 356 aluminum, and copper -1% chromium. This study includes calculations of the temperature and heat storage in the various portions of the brake system, as well as the variations of convective heat transfer throughout the system. These computations were made for the transient conditions existing during a series of 60 mph stops (15 ft/sec2 deceleration). The steady-state rotor surface temperature and the thermal gradients were found to decrease with increasing thermal conductivity of the alloys. The rotor surface temperatures for the first two stops were relatively independent of thermal conductivity, but were strongly dependent on heat capacity. Convection was found to occur almost entirely (greater than 90%) from the rotor surface and ventilating passages.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700139
Robert A. Huseby
New developments in the field of high density sintered steel are reviewed. The appearance, microstructure, magnetic properties, and commercial methods of achieving desired density are described, as are properties resulting from heat treatment. New processing methods, such as hot and cold forging and welding are expected to enhance further the development and use of powder metal fabrication.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700138
S. K. Rhee, J. L. Turak, W. M. Spurgeon
Drums made of a chromium copper alloy, an aluminum alloy/cast iron composite, and conventional cast iron were compared by inertial dynamometry, using full-size linings in a Non-Servo brake system. The tests were performed with three types of linings: nonabrasive, moderately abrasive, and highly abrasive. In each test, 30 stops were made from 40 mph and 30 stops from 60 mph, using a rotational inertia of 31.4 slug-ft2. Temperatures near the lining/drum interface, hydraulic line pressures, and lining wear, were measured and compared. For a given amount of work, the temperature rise near the drum surface was found to be lowest in the chromium copper drums, next lowest in the aluminum alloy/cast iron composite, and highest in the cast iron drums. This confirms earlier test results from drag dynamometry, using 1 X 1 in. samples. The average temperature rise decreased linearly with increasing thermal diffusivity of the drum material.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700132
Bernard K. Dent
The product designers of zinc die castings have been using outdated technical information relative to minimum wall thickness possible with modern die casting techniques. Large decorating zinc die castings are currently in volume production with average wall thickness of 0.045 in. and local areas as low as 0.030 in. Case studies are detailed on four production die castings. Material cost savings on one casting could exceed $80,000 compared to product design with conventional wall thickness of 0.060 in. minimum. The value engineering concept is recommended to the designer as a guide for evaluating minimum acceptable wall and rib thickness, and boss diameters. Research programs are underway to provide design and production data for future zinc die castings.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700131
H. H. Flock, I. L. McMillen
With the boom in road and building construction since the early 1950's there has been a strong demand for increasing numbers of larger and more efficient earth moving equipment. Greater equipment efficiency demanded developments in hydraulic cylinders in the form of higher pressure capabilities, longer strokes, more demanding tolerances and finishes, and better materials. Environment also has influenced cylinder design, leading to significant developments in protective devices and materials. Black oxide, chrome plating, protective oils, boots, wipers, and rod scrapers are some examples. This paper deals with two of these protective devices - wipers and scrapers. It explores the history and design considerations under which the wiper used in the cleaner atmosphere has given way to a more specialized scraper designed for use in abrasive environments. It traces the development of the standardized bonded polyurethane scraper through laboratory testing to today's severe application.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700134
Edward T. Forsyth
The growth of galvanized steel in the automotive industry in the last ten years has spurred the development of several new and improved grades. The American Iron and Steel Institute has published a guide to these new grades that will help identify the various trade names and distinguish between the different types of galvanized steel now available.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700128
Thomas R. Seaman
Throughout the Automotive Industry, a great deal of effort is being directed toward developing power transmission packages which are compact, reliable, lightweight, and which permit a maximum utilization of available space. A patented, high velocity chain called Hy-Vo® is being tested and applied with a view toward fulfilling these requirements in a variety of automotive applications. This paper discusses the design, development and current applications of this chain as it applies to these principles.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700133
Louis T. Feng, David T. Camp
Three ranges of zinc-aluminum alloys, (1) 88 wt.% Zn, 12 wt.% Al;(2) 78 wt.% Zn, 22 wt.% Al; and (3) 30 wt.% Zn, 70 wt.% Al, with copper, magnesium and manganese additions up to 3.0, 1.0, and 0.2 wt.%, respectively, were investigated. A thermal decomposition method of obtaining a fine microstructure to achieve “Superplasticity” is presented. The effects of alloying element additions, solidification rates (graphite mold versus sand versus continuous casting), annealing time (up to 72 hr), aging time and temperatures (75 F, 20 hr and 200 F, 2 hr), and mechanical working were determined. Correlations between these effects were made with reference to current metal deformation theories aided by electron microscopic studies, x-ray micro-probe and computer analysis. A closed-die forming process was achieved and demonstrated, using alloys and heat treatment cycles developed in this study.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700129
A.R. Schroeder
Filtration in hydraulic systems is a controversial subject revolving around location of the filter, media, micrometer rating, type of flow filtration. This paper attempts to answer some of the questions. It presents an overall view of the purpose and evaluation of filtration, the location of filters, filter elements and housings. A detailed discussion of micrometer ratings versus the application of the filter is included.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700130
C. L. Middleton, R. R. McCoy, J. M. Stanek
More sophisticated hydraulic and hydrostatic transmission systems are finding their way into aviation, farm, construction and industrial equipment. Because of the greatly increasing interest in these systems, this paper presents a general look at their applications. It traces the history of the fluids used in these systems. Finally, it presents a summary of the requirements for the fluids used in these systems today.

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: