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Viewing 161941 to 161970 of 185278
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710125
D. S. Butler
Direct glazing of automobile fixed glass is gaining wider production usage in Europe. Objections on cost grounds are being overcome. New systems and compounds are being developed and employed. The thermoelectric system, with its ease of handling and installation, and lack of associated cleanup problems, seems to be the most popular method in use.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710065
Dan M. Davey
When the stylist or engineer specifies a metal molding for use on an interior trim panel, the normal procedure has been to include sheet metal tabs or die cast studs for attachment, with attendant labor costs. The Dual Durometer method provides a bondable metal molding which can be attached dielectrically in the same embossing die that produces the trim panel design.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710067
G. A. Horton
This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages, the engineering benefits and limitations, and the features available to the stylist of molded fiberglass headliners. It also includes diagrams of making fiberglass and the manufacturing processes involved in molding, shaping, and trimming. It discusses types of glass and binders, and the future possibilities of this product.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710063
Bernard K. Dent
Two new developments in woodgrain finishing techniques for zinc die cast trim components are revealed which apply the permanent finishes to the casting surface. Product design details and comparative costs of chromium plated ABS and zinc are given for a typical instrument panel trim bezel. Recommended design features and basic pressure sensitive adhesive specifications are discussed which should eliminate adhesive bonding failures for woodgrain appliques used on trim components.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710066
Julie Auerbach
Abstract: This paper describes the history of the design and method of installation of cut-and-sew headlining and how it is affected by the design of the body beginning with the all-wooden construction of the first Chrysler up to the present day design. Construction of the headlining listing seam, the drafting procedure for determining their location and trim off around the window and door openings is described.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710089
James Hamburg, John Horsch
Machining techniques that reduce the amplitude of low-speed radial uniformity measurements and their effects on smooth-road vehicle vibrations were investigated. The methods ranged from simple concentric and eccentric truing suited for service work to a servo-controlled tire-wheel assembly measuring and corrective machine installed at an auto assembly plant. These methods produce significant reduction of the measured low-speed radial uniformity. Corresponding vehicle evaluation showed significant reduction of smooth-road shake-a 1 per wheel revolution vibration-but little change of higher order vibrations. The simplicity of eccentric truing, combined with its predictable reduction of shake, provides a service fix for smooth-road shake.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710091
F. D. Smithson, F. H. Herzegh
Tire traction performance is dependent on both the tire design and the road surface on which the tire is operated. Measurement of a tire's traction capabilities is indicative of the performance of the tire-road surface combination. Therefore, it is important that the surfaces used to evaluate tire traction capabilities react in a manner similar to those on which the tire will operate. This paper presents a method for categorizing road surface traction properties by evaluating the traction performance of road surfaces when tested with a series of special tires. Data are presented on a series of road surfaces and recommendations are made for traction test surface design.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710092
A. D. Cortese, C. S. Rockafellow
This paper discusses the prototype General Motors Proving Ground Tire Cornering Traction Test Vehicle, a device now under development to measure cornering traction and cornering-braking traction on test road surfaces, as well as real world roads. A description is given of the system design and capabilities, including operating features, transducing elements, tracking stabilization, and data signal processing. The equipment will measure cornering traction capabilities as influenced by dynamic slip angle, camber angle, braking, speed, road surface, and road surface contaminants. Comparisons are made with data obtained from laboratory equipment and the PG Model II Friction Traction Trailer.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710093
John F. Gulau
This paper describes a program conducted on a 1971 Continental Mark III to derive profiles of engine compartment temperatures for analysis of severe environment conditions to which primary wire would be subjected. Also covered are solutions to provide primary wire material selection, routing, and protective devices for specific problem areas.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710094
Arlan D. Lewis
Increasing automotive engine compartment temperatures have produced a need for more heat resistant insulations on primary wire. The heat problems with which insulations must cope are loss of resistance to cut-through and deformation, loss of elongation over the long term, and an increase in the destrictive effects of extended current overloads. A number of insulating materials are compared through standard laboratory tests. Deformation and cut-through resistance are shown through pinch test performance. Retention of elongation is demonstrated by both slab and wire tests after circulating air oven aging. Extreme current over load effects are compared by short circuit tests on mock harness assemblies.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710096
F. Richard Merriam
In many small permanent magnet motors the conventional arc-shaped ferrite magnets can be replaced with flat blocks of high energy ferrites at a substantial economic advantage and with an improvement in motor performance. Confining itself to magnetic field design only for a given armature, this paper shows by rigorous calculation and illustrations the relative effects of varying the design parameters of air gap length, magnet thickness, pole arc angle, magnet length, and magnet grade characteristics. Inherent with flat block magnet field configurations is a longer air gap length at the pole tips. This reduces magnetic cogging and contributes to reduction in pole tip demagnetization due to armature reaction. In addition, the higher energy product of fully oriented flat ferrites relative to the peak energy product of most arcuate segments can result in a significantly lower volume of magnet material required.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710097
J. G. W. West
Several new features have been developed for light-duty cranking motors which reduce costs, improve manufacturing productivity, and improve reliability. These include a face type commutator which combines the function of current collection and connection to the armature windings, fully insulated plastic molded brushgear, a single field coil to replace the four coils of a conventional four pole field system, a five roller extruded roller clutch, and a solenoid with a two part sintered iron body.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710081
M. R. Belsdorf, R. S. Rice, K. D. Bird
Several performance tasks have been developed as objective measures of vehicle handling qualities. These tasks are shown to give consistent and repeatable results for any given vehicle condition and to discriminate between different vehicle conditions. They are practical, require simple instrumentation, and are related to performance. The philosophy of the tasks, instrumentation, test procedures, and typical results are presented. It is concluded that these tasks or modifications of them have utility in many design and performance evaluation applications.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710083
J. Ehrlich
An account is given of the author's experiences in designing and developing small 2-stroke cycle engines. These have covered a wide range of performance requirements, from the “chore horse” used for chain saws and similar duties, to engines for boats, road-going motorcycles, and cars, through to engines for the specialized purpose of motorcycle Grand Prix racing. The latter must be capable of specific power in the region of 300 bhp/1 to be competitive.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710085
F. J. Wallace, P. C. Few, P. R. Cave
This paper introduces the development of a new idea in traction prime movers, to be known as the Differential Compound Engine. The DCE contains in addition to the compressor, an exhaust driven turbine geared into the output shaft, which leads to improved power and efficiency. It also enables the engine to operate at unchanged speed and power, regardless of output shaft speed. This concept was designed to provide an integrated engine transmission of high output and with stepless single pedal control.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710086
L. A. Gursky
Tire uniformity grading machines have become an indispensable tool used by all original equipment tire producers for screening tires to acceptable levels for automobile manufacturers. However,so many machines and procedures have been used by tire manufacturers in the past that correlating tire uniformity levels from various sources and determining the effect of variations on the ride quality of passenger vehicles have been been difficult. Logical follow-up ride evaluations of vehicles have been conducted in comprehensive programs to further investigate the correlation of the various nonuniformity parameters and their individual and compound effects upon ride quality. Investigations are also being conducted to determine correlations of high-speed tire uniformity to low speed and vehicle ride. These and other efforts are directed toward an eventual development of a mathematical description of tire-vehicle behavior.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710087
Douglas D. Maclntyre
A new process has been developed for the manufacture of passenger car wheels to reduce the effect of the wheel on vehicle shake. The process is now in production and the resulting improvements in uniformity are detailed here.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710088
C. W. Daberkoe
Increased emphasis on high speed vehicle rolling smoothness may be attributed to the growing network of Interstate highways. Tire/wheel vibration inputs which disturb highway rolling smoothness are measurable in terms of force variation of the tires, and runout variation of the wheels. New techniques are available to screen and correct for excessive tire and wheel variations. These techniques apply to the tires or wheels individually; or to the tire/wheel assembly. Tire/wheel assembly screening and tire honing correction is a unique method which has been implemented at Cadillac Motor Car Division. This improvement was adopted to enhance the luxury ride of the Fleetwood Eldorado vehicle during the 1970 model run.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710035
F. E. Kalivoda, J. H. Hoffman
The excellent performance of the modern automobile environmental control system tends to accentuate the passenger discomfort experienced during the engine warm-up period in very cold weather. Quick-heat systems utilizing combustion techniques can significantly reduce this warm-up period and can not only improve comfort, but also contribute to safety and improved engine life. These factors are discussed, together with details of a quick-heat system which reduced the warm-up time of a large American automobile by over 80% in actual tests.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710034
Jerome P. Frysztak
The adaptation of an automotive alternator designed for charging system applications as a power source for an electric “quick heat” system is described. The system is intended to augment the present hot-water system for brief periods during low-temperature conditions of the normal underhood temperature range. Application of this reserve electric power can be made easily and at low cost by modification of existing alternator design.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710039
R. F. Goldman, D. D. Rudy
High permeation losses through nitrile rubber hoses have prevented use of refrigerants other than R-12 in automobile air conditioners. Alternate hose materials were evaluated. Two materials were shown to have acceptable permeation loss rates of the two commercial refrigerants which appear suitable for automotive air conditioning. The effect of oil on refrigerant permeation was found to be relatively unimportant. Since two of the refrigerant candidates were azeotropes, R-500 and R-502, the effect of different permeation rates on the mixture composition was studied. Using permeation constants developed in this study, calculations were made of losses from a typical system which showed that permeation losses were small compared to other source losses, such as through fittings or shaft seals.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710040
Wei-Ming Lee
The dependence of the compressive stress-strain behavior of plastic foams on the loading geometry and its significance in relation to the cushioning design study for automobile safety is explored. Experimental load-deflection responses obtained under dynamic (impact) and static conditions using loading objects of various different geometry are analyzed. A strong interaction between the loading geometry and the material response existed. It was found that the stress-strain behavior of plastic foams varied, whether under static or dynamic conditions, with the loading geometry. The linear load-deflection response observed in the case of hemi-spherical loading differed from that of the convoluted faceform loading, while the response for the flat plate compression deviated from both.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710028
D. W. Morris
In view of impending changes in the British Standard concerned with ignition interference, to conform with the recent International Agreement (E.C.E. Regulation No. 10) and the probable corresponding amendment to the United Kingdom legislation, a series of road-side measurements of ignition interference radiation has been made on more than 10,000 vehicles. From the known suppression arrangements currently used on the vehicles measured, the results have been analysed as to their efficacy in relation to present United Kingdom legislation and the E.C.E. International Regulation; reference is also made to the SAE Standard J.551a and b. The effects of multisource ignition interference resulting from areas of high density traffic on the reception of VHF frequency-modulated radio and VHF positive-modulation TV signals are described.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710025
Richard J. Giba
The development of impact and heat distortion data for plastic instrument panel supports will be discussed using panels molded of glass fiber reinforced styrene and styrene-acrylonitrile materials. Two typical design configurations will be analyzed with special emphasis being given to glass fiber content and part thickness. Such information is valuable in the design and material selection of plastic instrument panel supports, primarily those parts with large unsupported areas. The glass fiber reinforced styrene-acrylonitrile materials exhibit higher impact performance and improved heat distortion performance over styrene materials.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710027
H. Dean McKay, Kenneth W. Bach
The paper discusses the SAE Technical Program on RFI Measurements and is basically a tutorial review of radio frequency interference/electromagnetic interference (RFI/EMI) measurements on automobiles. The text is designed to provide engineers and technicians not familiar with RFI/EMI measurements with a basic appreciation of the measurements, the terminology used, the reasons for measurements, and how measured data should be presented. SAE Standard J551a is discussed. Given are background and data on basic descriptions of EMI and its effects on the environment; the basic history of electric field measurements and antennas; characteristics of receivers-including descriptions of heterodyning, mixing, peak detection, average detection, and quasi-peak detection-and a brief history of EMI receivers.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710024
Joseph N. Epel
Low Profile glass reinforced polyester Bulk Molding Compounds (BMC) and Sheet Molding Compounds (SMC) offer the automotive engineer two classes of materials with desirable properties for painted outside body parts. This paper compares methods of manufacture, molding parameters, and properties of BMC and SMC. Several applications are analyzed and reasons for material selection discussed.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710033
James R. Cherry
An electrical quick heat system, composed of a three-phase alternator, a resistive heating assembly, and simple controls can be easily integrated with a standard hot water heating system or utilized with its own blower and plenum chamber. Such a system, with a 5 in. diameter alternator, can supply up to 2.5 kW of power which can be used to give greater than 100 F air temperature boost in less than 30 sec. The simplicity of the system should bring it within most economic bogeys for automotive quick heat systems.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710031
A. C. Doty
A unique research test program of vehicle electromagnetic radiation that might cause radio interference has provided data in areas not previously studied. Reports are presented on: electromagnetic radiation from single vehicles versus multiple vehicle radiation (20-1000 MHz), horizontal versus vertical polarity of radiation from vehicles (20-1000 MHz), and microwave (1-2.5 GHz) radiation from vehicles. Included is a brief history of the automobile industry and SAE investigations of vehicle radio interference which have been undertaken since 1935.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710030
D. W. Briggs, J. V. Clore
A study by General Motors Corporation culminated in the development of an electromagnetic radiation suppression technique for car and truck ignition systems. The suppression technique described utilizes ignition resistor spark plugs, resistor ignition wire, and a widened distributor rotor gap. Test data is shown which indicates that significant electromagnetic radiation suppression is achieved with the technique, with no detrimental effects to engine performance, cold start, and exhaust emission controls. The low level of interference emitted with application of the technique is discussed in relation to the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard - “Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation From Motor Vehicles (20 to 1000 MHz)” - SAE J551a.
1971-02-01
Technical Paper
710029
Charles W. Beerling
Automobile ignition noise effects on land mobile communications receivers are a function of engine rpm, the antenna position relative to the vehicle, and the type of spark plugs and wires used in the ignition system. Techniques for the suppression of these effects involve the use of proper shielding and pulse type electronic noise suppression circuitry built into the receiver. There are limitations to the effectiveness of electronic noise suppression. These limitations result from both high repetition rate bursts of ignition noise and interference effects caused by off-channel carriers.

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