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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 190464
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740989
Michael R. Appleby
This paper reports on research which examined the effectiveness of 1974 automobile bumpers in terms of occupant safety and automobile damageability. Static and dynamic tests were performed by attaching a height measuring device on the front and rear bumpers of 1974 domestic automobiles. The static test results showed effective bumper height match. The dynamic test results showed that 21% of bumpers could mismatch when the rear (colliding) vehicle is pitched due to braking and 77% of bumpers could mismatch when both vehicles are pitched due to braking. Occupant safety is discussed in terms of both the positive and negative effects of the new bumpers for all collision speeds. The effect on override/underride collision frequency and passive restraint (air bag) system activation is examined. The tradeoffs of decreased frequency of damage to vehicles and increased costs to replace the new bumpers when they are damaged in high speed collisions are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740984
Walter V. Knopp
A comparison of standard methods of joining P/M structures, as well as new techniques. The porosity of a P/M part is no longer a problem when joining P/M to P/M or P/M to wrought. These joints will be as strong or stronger than the P/M material. The systems give the design engineer more flexibility.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740983
R. H. Hoefs
A few P/M fabricators currently are producing alloy parts which have high hardness in the as-sintered condition. These parts are intended for applications requiring high-wear resistance in service. The chemistries of the alloys used generally are proprietary. The objective of this paper is to describe for P/M fabricators and end users the metallurgical principles involved in designing the alloy chemistry to produce parts of this type; that is, the types and amounts of alloys are described which will suitably alter the phase transformation characteristics so that martensitic microstructures are produced during sintering. An understanding of these principles could lead to expanded usage of alloy wear-resistant P/M parts.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740986
James Casassa, Wayne W. Sorenson, Richard E. Gardner
The major factors influencing the cost-benefit relationship of improved bumper systems are discussed. Evidence is presented which demonstrates that energy-absorbing bumper designs have proved effective in reducing the frequency of crash damage, especially damage from low-speed crashes. Among the statistical sources utilized are State Farm's Current Model Year Study, Survey of Unrepaired Damage, Highway Loss Data Institute reports, and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety crash test results. Although the improved bumper systems are proving effective, the maximum potential cost savings are not yet being realized by consumers. This situation should change as standardization of bumper heights becomes more prevalent and as better data on the costs of improved bumper systems becomes available.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740985
R. R. Boltz, R. L. Grzesiak, E. J. Rohn
The Ford Motor Company has developed a mathematical model utilizing electronic data processing techniques to calculate the potential savings to owners of automobiles equipped with energy absorbing bumpers. This model can be used to measure the economic effectiveness of alternative bumper performance requirements and/or system design proposals. Base data for the model has been obtained from surveys conducted by Ford of damage to pre-FMVSS 215 controlled vehicles. A description of the technique utilized to predict bumper system economic effectiveness and the results of Ford Motor Company's bumper cost-effectiveness studies are contained in this report.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740978
Irvin J. Leichtle
The problems of adding new assembly operations to already established assembly lines requires much planning and probably an expansion of facilities. New equipment must be installed and floor space increased to facilitate the new operation. This paper describes the improvements made on an assembly line to facilitate the production of a new line of fiberglass truck campers.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740982
John P. Cook
Water-atomized nickel-molybdenum alloy (0.5 Ni-0.5 Mo) powder was blended with graphite for 0.4% carbon, then pressed into preforms (1.5 X 2 X 5 in). The preforms were hot formed to full density via a variety of processing conditions (various degrees of flow, sintering temperature, and sintering atmosphere). Impact specimens were excised and tested over a range of temperatures to determine the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. All impact specimens had ductile failure at room temperature. In general, increased deformation increased the room-temperature and low-temperature impact strengths by eliminating particle boundaries and elongating the inclusions. High temperature sintering reduced the oxygen content and improved the impact strength by reducing the number of crack-initiating inclusions. Jominy hardenability test results were unaffected by various sintering conditions because the amount of easily oxidizable alloying elements was kept to a minimum.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740976
G. F. Busetto, U. Giulio, E. Volpi
A study on the temporary viscosity loss under high shear rates of engine lubricants was started in order to: 1. Set up a new viscometer, more correlate with the engine than the present ones. 2. Clarify the influence of this phenomenon on the lubricant performances. Preliminary results on a pressoviscometer are discussed. Namely it is underlined that the temporary viscosity loss affects both multigrade and unigrade oils, even if at different levels, and in different ways.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740979
R. A. Vogelei
This paper traces the more than 20-year history of fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) as the primary body material for the Chevrolet Corvette. Reasons for the original decision to use FRP are reviewed, followed by a discussion of the difficulties encountered in design, manufacturing techniques, and material compounding. These problems, and the solutions to them, include the progression from the original wet-mat material to low-profile systems. Sheet molded compounds (SMC) are discussed as non-low profile and low-profile applications. Unresolved production problems and outlined with a review of industry attention necessary to assure continued FRP application to Corvette body panels. This paper also discusses the design and application of flexible facias used on both front and rear-end bumper systems and the use of plastic as a bumper energy-managing system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740973
R. Hollinghurst
A CEC Investigation Group has examined temperatures in European gasoline engines. A survey showed top quartile average temperatures of 275°C (top ring groove), 147°C (sump) and 163° (cam/follower oil gallery and main bearing exit), under high speed driving conditions. Forecasts indicated sump temperatures would increase by 10-15°C, partly related to emissions control systems. Consequent problems were predicted as wear, scuffing, oil oxidation, ring sticking, high oil consumption, and bearing/seal distress. Development targets for lubricant high temperature performance tests are discussed, and the severities of a number of possible ring stick tests are compared. A similar CEC Survey concerned high-speed diesel engines. This covered both small passenger car, light van diesels, and larger truck diesels. Increasing ring and oil sump temperatures were identified.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740972
A. Marciante
The European passenger car engine lubrication requirements are not the same as the American requirements. The differences are determined by the eingine design trends, the nature of fuels used and the type of service. The European engine and petroleum industries have undertaken the study of engine oil evaluation tests that meet European requirements. On the basis of the present standardized tests, engine manufacturers have recently proposed a specification for crankcase oils. This paper discusses particularly the European tests as to repeatability, reproducibility and correlation with service. Mention is also made of the recent European proposals for revision of the SAE Crankcase Oil Viscosity Classification.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740975
R. Hollinghurst, C. G. Nyström
CEC investigation group IGL-8 has conducted a survey of European engine cold starting and oil viscosity requirements. The group's objectives were to determine if the 20W bracket was too wide for European use and what alternatives existed for improving the matching of oil quality to manufacturer needs. A study of engine cranking speeds showed that the span of the 20W range is twice that of the 10W range for European cars. Car Cold Startability, and weather data analysis, also showed that the span covered by the 20W range was double that for the 10W range, and that a critical winter temperature for many more temperate countries was - 10°C (14°F). For many cars, an oil in the 48-64 poise range at - 18°C (0°F) would provide 95-97% confidence of starting in the coldest month-January-and would best match their needs. Some diesel starting data, particularly on small, high-speed engines appeared to show the same trends.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740974
A. A. Cassiani Ingoni, F. A. Vicenzetto
The viscosity change of multigrade motor oils in service has been evaluated in a fleet representative of the present European car population. The evaluation covered air- and water-cooled engines, with conventional and integral gearboxes, and displacements ranging from 500-1750 cc. The effect of car, service, average ambient temperature, and type of polymer on the viscosity change of a lubricant has been estimated. The multigrade test oils have also been run in injector and bench engine tests in order to compare field testing results with laboratory techniques being developed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741004
Richard A. Marshall, Edward F. Miller
This paper describes a new, closed-loop programming system which faithfully transfers road operation to the chassis dynamometer. The system provides stable, rapid, accurate response to programmed speed and throttle position changes. Using a derivative of a torque-related signal, changes in power train performance are compensated realistically by electronic modification of either throttle or speed signals as a function of part or wide open throttle command. Under conditions of minor power loss, part throttle compensation is found to restore such uncontrolled parameters as engine speed and driveline torque to the values measured without engine degradation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741006
Karl J. Springer, John T. White, Charles J. Domke
A fleet of 64 heavy-duty 1970-71 model trucks and buses powered by a variety of diesel engines were tested periodically to determine exhaust smoke behavior. Smoke tests were made when the vehicle was new or nearly new and at four month intervals thereafter, or until 160,934 km (100,000 miles) odometer reading was reached. Gaseous emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured at one point early in the project. Both smoke and gaseous emission tests were performed with chassis versions of the engine dynamometer Federal Test Procedures (FTP). Results in terms of “a” (acceleration), “b” (lugging), and “c” (peak) smoke factors versus mileage are reported for the 13 engine-vehicle-application groupings.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741005
J. T. White, C. J. Domke, M. E. Williams
This report describes the results of a surveillance study initiated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to measure gaseous exhaust emissions from 1020 light-duty motor vehicles. This project was the second effort in a continuing program using the CVS Federal Test Procedure. Selected privately-owned vehicles, drawn randomly from six metropolitan areas, were tested in as-received condition. The emissions data obtained from these 1966-1972 model-year vehicles are reported in grams per mile of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen while fuel economy is reported in mpg as determined over the Federal Driving Schedule.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741000
Rudolf G. Mortimer, Patricia A. Domas
Surveys of rear lighting system malfunctions on passenger cars and light trucks showed that about 4% of vehicles with single compartment rear lamps had an inoperative presence or stop/turn lamp, while less than 1% of vehicles with multiple compartment rear lamps had at least one operating presence lamp compartment working on each side, and about 2.5% had no stop/turn signal lamp compartments operating on one side. Thus, although the frequency of failure of bulbs or circuits was greater in rear lighting systems with multiple compartment than single compartment lamps, the likelihood that at least one presence or signal lamp compartment will be operating on each side of the vehicle is greater in lighting systems with multiple compartment lamps, by 2-3%. The effects of some rear lighting system malfunctions on the ability of drivers to identify signals was evaluated in two experiments using a driving simulator.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741007
R. T. Gryce
The Ford Auto/Emission Driver System automates the driving of a test vehicle on a chassis dynamometer while it is undergoing exhaust emissions testing. The system “drives” the vehicle through the 1372 s EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule associated with the CVS-C and CVS-CH Test Procedures by applying the accelerator and brake pedals directly and also shifts the transmission if the vehicle is equipped with a standard transmission. The Ford Auto/Emission Driver System consists of a hybrid analog and digital electronic control console including a magnetic tape recorder and a servo hydraulic mechanical console linked to universal interface fixtures in the vehicle via flexible mechanical push-pull cables. The high response hydraulic rams are mounted remote from the vehicle to permit design of actuating fixtures which are compact, light weight and therefore easy to install.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741001
T. J. Kuechenmeister
This paper reports the results of a two-phase study of steering column mounted multifunction controls. A modified Mercedes Benz multifunction control (MFC) unit was installed in a 1972 Chevrolet station wagon. Control functions included were turn signals, washer, wiper, headlight dimmer, and optical horn. Phase 1 of the study investigated response time, error rates, and learning for this particular MFC. Phase 2 investigated subjective preferences, comparing the MFC with conventional controls and comparing alternative functions for inclusion in an “ideal” MFC unit. High error rates were found for first time use; however, subjects quickly learned to operate the unit with performance comparable to a representative panel control. Subjective responses were highly favorable to the concept.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741002
M. G. MALLOY
Abstract Climatic conditions in parts of North America have created a need for cold weather testing of automotive products for this market. To fulfill this need, a Cold Weather Test Facility has been constructed and is in operation at Kapuskasing, in Northern Ontario. The need for the facility, its design and operation, the types of tests conducted, and typical test results obtained are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741003
James A. Tysver
General Motors has built an environmental chamber at its Milford Proving Ground to run emission tests at controlled atmospheric conditions. This chamber was designed using constant speed fans and dampers to simulate altitudes between sea level and Denver, which is approximately 5000 ft above sea level. The chamber can also control temperatures within a range of 45-100°F at humidities of 9-100 gr H2O/lb dry air. With this chamber, environmental conditions can be changed to desired levels very quickly to measure the vehicle sensitivity to the change. It is also possible to hold the environment constant and run controlled comparison studies on emission-related components to determine the effect of different distributors, carburetors, etc., relative to emission values. Past test experience has proved that vehicle emissions change with changing environment. However, the degree of change is different from one vehicle to another.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740995
Reinhard Lendholt
Clear identification of motor vehicle controls is necessary for safe operation of a vehicle. Identification of some well-known symbols and some new symbols was investigated by inquiries. Differences in identification between trained and untrained subjects are shown (employees of a vehicle manufacturer versus factory visitors). Influences of sex, age, and professional education are evaluated. The learning effect of identification before and after a purposeful training was investigated by an additional inquiry of factory visitors. The result showed no significant influence of sex, age, professional experience, or ownership of a driver license on the identification after training. This improves the chance of eliminating symbols of insufficient identification.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740996
P. D. McCormack
The purpose of the study was to determine which of three symbols would best represent each of 15 instrument-panel controls. The subjects were required to experience a “pretend” drive in an automobile simulator, the major element of which was a control panel containing the appropriate 15 symbols. For seven of the controls, one symbol was clearly the best of the three. For four of the controls, performance was optimal for all three symbols, while none of the symbols sufficed for the remaining four controls.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740998
Lorna Middendorf, Patrick W. Dineen, Stefan Habsburg
A search for methods of switching a proposed three beam headlight system led to the evaluation of 41 possible schemes. Human factors criteria reduced the original 41 to three systems which were tested in a laboratory with a broad range of subjects. Recordings of practice trials, learning trials, and the responses to visual cues projected on a screen were analyzed. The same test procedure was also used to compare three alternative ways of switching conventional two beam headlight systems. Summary data is presented for the six systems tested grouped by test subject age, sex, and driving experience. The most pronounced difference observed was in the subjective preference rating among two beam switching systems. All systems tested resulted in remarkably few learning and practice trials. Small differences were recorded among systems in operational response time.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740997
Gordon R. W. Simmonds
Drivers searched for known symbols on a simulation of a dimly lit (5 1x) instrument panel. The symbols, from 2 mm to 25 mm diameter, were in groups of nine. They were randomly selected from 24 used to identify controls and displays on European Ford vehicles. The probability of recognition was related to size for eight symbols. This gives a rational basis for the size used in vehicles. No reliable difference was found between the performance of black symbols on white backgrounds and white on black. Substantial differences exist between the effectiveness of different symbols. Recommendations for improvements were based on confusions between symbols.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740992
D. J. Vaughan
With the development of the addition-type polyimide resins, a need arose for a coupling agent that would improve the performance of the fiber-resin interface under thermal stress. Research work was carried out to develop such a material and resulted in a new coupling agent for use at high temperatures. The test data generated from glass fiber reinforced composites using this new coupling agent, and the study of the interface using the scanning electron microscope, demonstrate an improvement in the cohesive and interfacial shear of the glass fiber-resin matrix. This development has provided the designer with a material that retains its structural integrity under extreme thermal conditions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740993
Gregory A. Campbell, Edward M. Hagerman, Stanley A. Iobst, William C. Meluch, Robert J. Salloum, Clyde C. Culver
Several polymeric materials were developed and evaluated for possible inclusion in the neck structure of state-of-the-art anthropomorphic dummies. These included three types of foam-polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, and polyurethane, and two flexible polymers-polyurethane and a polyvinylchloride chlorinated polyethylene blend (PVC-CPE). Two materials, the polyurethane elastomer and the PVC-CPE blend, were found to be satisfactory in their dynamic response. Because of the ease of casting, the polyurethane material will be used in the GMR 1 state-of-the-art dummy.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740994
Michael Perel
Difficulties of measuring safety problems related to human factors aspects of vehicle controls and displays are discussed and illustrated with examples. A review of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)-sponsored control/display research dealing with some of these problems is presented. The review describes the objectives, methodology, key findings, and application of the results of the research. Finally, future research needs are outlined.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741025
R. A. Stengard
The use of high-pressure impingement mixing equipment for reaction molding of solid and cellular urethanes offers advantages in economics, molded product surface quality, and uniformity as well as the capability to produce parts on a short cycle time. This paper discusses some of the equipment available for reaction molding and reviews the history and products made with the process.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741026
Fritz W. Pahl
In dependency from the formulation of the initial components Polyol and Isocyanate, flexible, semi-rigid, rigid or structural Polyurethane foams are suitable for the most varied production of blocks or mouldings. It is the target of our review to present to you the latest standards of such processing techniques as are applicable to the manufacture of Polyurethane mouldings from the point of view of the automotive industry. In doing so, I shall make special mention of particularly developed, custom-made machines and installations.

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