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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 172641
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560053
R. C. Allen
IN LIGHT of the world's continually increasing demand for electric power and the attendant decrease in economically recoverable fossil fuels, the need for nuclear powerplants becomes all the more pressing. The author briefly covers in a general way several developments in design of different reactor types. Some problems inherent in generating power from fissionable isotopes are mentioned, together with the solutions which will enable the realization of electric current generation from the “burning” of nuclear fuels. Some startling theoretical schemes are mentioned which bid fair to making the generation and transmission of electric current in the future so different from our present methods as to mark the coming of age of yesterday's and today's science fiction.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560054
G. K. Malone, T. W. Selby
HOW well are multigrade oils performing at low temperatures? An investigation has shown that the low-tem perature properties of mulrigrade oils are often not equivalent to the single-grade oils-lOW in a mulrigrade oil may actually be 20W. One phase of this investigation, a full-scale cranking study using commercial 10W and 10W-30 oils in cars at 0 F, is discussed in detail in this paper.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560051
J. G. Mingle, H. W. Sigworth, B. A. Fries
THE RADIOACTIVE deposition plug technique is a rapid and sensitive method of measuring engine deposits. The authors report it eliminates hours of engine operation and extensive engine disassembly. Deposits accumulate on the radioactive surface of a removable plug, and are measured by comparing the attenuation of the radiation by the deposits with that obtained from absorbers of known thickness. Sulfur-35 and cobalt-60, the authors say, have been found to be the most suitable radioisotopes.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560052
Donald N. Frey
THIS paper reports on progress to date in the development of high-temperature alloys for automotive gas turbines. Strict limitations have been set on the alloying elements in order to keep costs down — the cost factor being the main reason for this alloy search. The materials discussed here, which meet the alloy limitations and the temperature and stress requirements, fall into three classes: 1. Iron-base chromium - manganese - nitrogen austenitic alloys. 2. Iron-aluminum ferritic alloys. 3. Cast ferritic alloys with up to 12% chromium and some titanium, vanadium, molybdenum, and tungsten.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560057
A. L. Haynes
TWENTY-FIVE-YEAR statistics, detailed in this paper, show declining accident and fatality rates despite radical increase in vehicle registrations and annual vehicle miles. The author shows how the passenger-car industry has built safety into vehicles to the point where-as an example-only 14% of accidents on the Pennsylvania Turnpike over its 13-year history were attributed to vehicle failures. Paralleling these efforts and the increasing emphasis on safer highways, better traffic management and driver education, are extensive studies aimed at bypassing the human factor and increasing human safety in automotive vehicles. Among those described here are crash investigations, laboratory tests of safety devices, and establishment through various other means of design criteria for human impact tolerance.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560058
R. S. Frank, W. J. Lux
HIGH load-carrying ability and fatigue strength, good embeddabiltty and conformability, and resistance to wear, seizure, and corrosion are factors that sold them on aluminum for bearings, the authors report. Bonded steel backing, they say, makes aluminum bearings even better. Retaining aluminum's good properties, it improves some of its bad points and gives such advantages as: Reduced bearing clearances, compared with those used with solid-aluminum bearings. No life limit in operation below 5000 psi fatigue stress value. Less sensitivity to high oil temperatures. Negligible wear (after 29,000 hr in one test). Simpler and less expensive bearing-locating designs. Special excellence for high-load, high-speed applications.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560055
F. B. Fischl, H. H. Horowitz, T. S. Tutwiler
LARGE differences in cold-starting behavior have been found in engine cranking tests on 10W-30 oils formulated with different V.I. improvers. Oils of identical viscosities at 210 F and ASTM extrapolated viscosities at 0 F cranked faster or slower than conventional 10W mineral oils, depending on the particular V.I. improver-base oil combination used in their formulation. It has been found that a substantial portion of the viscosity imparted to the oil by the V.I. improver is temporarily lost under the high shearing stresses encountered in cold engine startup. Thus, the cold-starting performance of a V.I. improved oil approaches that of the base oil from which it is blended. It appears from this work that the SAE system for defining the limits of winter-grade oils, while adequate for mineral oils, needs improvement for polymer-thickened multigraded oils.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560056
Dr. Ross A. McFarland
BIOLOGY, engineering, and the social sciences must work together, the author says, toward preventing passsenger-car accidents. He compares deaths and injuries from motor-vehicle accidents with the effects of mass disease-and calls the epidemiological approach used in disease study the most logical way of analyzing complex causes of accidents in terms of the interactions between the driver, the vehicle, and the environment of driving. The author reports the many exhaustive studies of what makes an accident, then points out that efforts to improve driver, vehicle, or roads must always begin with human physical and mental characteristics and limitations firmly in mind.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560075
WILLIAM STUBBS
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560078
C. M. HEINEN
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560077
D. P. BARNARD V, R. B. FELL, E. H. SCOTT, G. WAY
Vapor lock in automobile fuel systems has been shown by others to relate to Reid vapor pressure and the shape of ASTM distillation curve. This test program was designed to confirm established relationships, to determine repeatability of a standard road test technique, and the reproducibility of the road results in a chassis dynamometer hot room. Known relationships of vapor lock, RVP, and ASTM distillation were essentially confirmed. Moreover, it was found that, within the test technique, the data had a high degree of repeatability and the chassis dynamometer duplicated the road results within the statistical error of the test.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560080
A. E. BRENNEMAN, P. L. HAINES
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560079
F. S. Wood, C. C. Colyer
The octane requirement of an engine to suppress either spark knock or audible surface ignition is influenced greatly by the motor oil used. Each component of the motor oil contributes. The volatility of the base oil, the organic portions of detergents and oxidation inhibitors, and the type of viscosity-index improver-all have a direct bearing on the requirement. Multi-graded oils are not necessarily more effective in reducing octane requirement than single-graded oils; much depends on the base oil and V.I. improver. Generally, effects of components are algebraically additive. A modified detergent with a specific V.I. improver reduces both spark knock and surface ignition. With proper selection of lubricant, engines that are surface-ignition limited can be made spark-knock limited. In field tests, although higher-speed commuter driving reduced the requirement level, the benefits of the modified detergent were found to be equivalent under both city and commuter driving.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560082
H. V. Lowther
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560081
DONN B. WIMMER
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560068
R. S. Spindt, Court L. Wolfe, Donald R. Stevens
REACTIONS of unsaturated fuel constituents with oxides of nitrogen, formed during combustion, play an important part in formation of engine deposits. Engine varnish, the organic binder in engine deposits, results in large part from reactions of nitrogen dioxide with gasoline constituents. Simplified kinetic studies indicate that nitrogen fixation and amounts of nitric oxide present in exhaust gases could be predicted. Tests have demonstrated that only under conditions leading to appreciable nitrogen fixation does heavy engine varnishing occur. Because commercial engine oils are fairly resistant to oxidation, it is likely that current deposit problems result from the nature of fuel and prevailing operating conditions. Under average driving, low-temperature operation, lean mixtures with consequent high nitrogen oxide content contribute much to varnish formation.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560067
D. T. Rogers, W. W. Rice, F. L. Jonach
THE bulk of low-temperature gasoline engine sludge is formed from the fuel rather than the lubricant, according to tests performed by the authors. Their tests indicate that most of this sludge is formed in the crankcase lubricant from oil-soluble, low molecular weight fuel oxidation products. They report that oil-soluble, sludge-forming intermediates have been isolated from used crankcase oils. Reduction in low-temperature engine sludge deposits by commercial “detergent – inhibitor” additive combinations is seen to be due mainly to an inhibition mechanism rather than a “detergency – dispersion” mechanism, as previously assumed. Ability of some synthetic lubricants containing oxygen to minimize sludge deposits appears, according to the authors, to result from their ability to dissolve a substantial proportion of the sludge component which normally acts as a precipitating agent for the total sludge.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560070
A.H. FOX, R.A. PEJEAU, LEONARD RAYMOND, LEONARD SCHNEIDER
This paper presents information obtained to date on a series of eight 500-hour laboratory test runs on a 16-cylinder GMC-278A submarine diesel engine under a variety of conditions simulating submarine operation. The project was initiated to evaluate the effect of a diesel fuel at 0.9% sulfur content and snorkel operating conditions on engine wear, deposits, cylinder liner corrosion, etc., and to determine the changes necessary for satisfactory engine life and dependability imposed by these extreme service conditions. The test work was carried out at the U. S. Naval Engineering Experiment Station at Annapolis by EES personnel, under the guidance of representatives of the U. S. Navy Department, the Bureau of Ships, and an industry advisory group of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560069
M. C. GILLISPIE, L. A. GROTTO
The development of a technique to reproduce field service failures under controlled conditions is often a difficult problem. Examples are given of a piston failure resolution, and selection of an improved injection pump plunger by use of varied operational techniques and analysis. The nature of certain failures requires the use of a test which can produce failures outside the engine. Tuning fork fatigue tests used in the development of crankshafts, springs, and rocker arms are described. The importance of the determination of all unknown factors in a parts failure cannot be overemphasized.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560072
W. C. ARNOLD
During the development of a light weight Diesel engine, the author's company conducted several dynamic strain gage tests on cylinder liners and cylinder blocks. This paper gives an account of the reasons for choosing this time saving technique and some of the results obtained.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560071
R.C. SCHMIDT
To obtain good correlation between field durability experience and the Laboratory, it is necessary in Laboratory experiments to include those field conditions influencing and affecting the life of engine parts. The vital first step.…correct analysis of the field problem.…is difficult but rewarding. With good definition, the solutions for field problems often become clear. Accelerated tests and split tests simulating field operations, followed by confirming field tests, are good tools to aid the Laboratory development of durable engine.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560074
W. W. WILLIAMS
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560091
DANIEL H. JACOBSON, ROBERT A. ROGERS
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560073
CARL M. BEACH
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560092
VICTOR B. HART
With the advent of vehicles into the supersonic regions of flight electrical equipment will be required to operate in new and greater environments. Some of these environments, such as temperature, have considerably increased in magnitude while other environments such as acoustic noise, can be considered as a new environmental requirement. These new and greater environmental conditions are presenting tremendous problems to the electrical equipment and installation designers the relative magnitude of some of these problems is such that new inventions, discoveries, and equipment development techniques must be employed in order to permit the vehicle to perform its intended mission.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560094
DAVID J.GREEN
Virtually all of man' s navigation history has been limited to primitive methods. The last several decades have seen many-new techniques and sophistications added to the science. The two basic classes of systems, self-contained and externally-referenced, are reviewed and their present limitations defined. A new hybrid class of system is defined, and its possible advantages described. The SCAN (Self-Correcting Automatic Navigator) system and its philosophy of statistical data filtering is given as an example of hybrid instrumentation.
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560095
R. R. BERLOT
1956-01-01
Technical Paper
560096
R. HADEKEL

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