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HISTORICAL
1970-02-01
Standard
ARP1148A
This Recommended Practice outlines the electrical performance characteristics for a continuous duty, diesel or gasoline engine driven brushless alternator unit for supplying 400-Hertz electrical power to commercial transport aircraft. It is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing recommendations for various sizes and configurations of equipment and it is a guide for the preparation of detailed specifications. The unit is primarily intended to supply power to the aircraft during passenger loading and unloading, and during servicing operations. The combination of the equipment specified herein and the interconnecting cables(s) between the 400-Hertz alternator and the aircraft shall provide power characteristics at the aircraft receptacle which meet MIL-STD-704 requirements for Category 'B' equipment. Other limits which are necessary to meet specific conditions must be specified by the purchaser.
HISTORICAL
1970-02-01
Standard
ARP1153
This document describes a method for determining the specific gravity of tubing, fabricated from polytetrafluoroethylene, after a controlled heating and cooling cycle. The specific gravity obtained by this method is a measure of relative molecular weight of the resin. The measure, termed relative specific gravity (RSG), increases with decreasing molecular weight (see 2.3).
HISTORICAL
1970-02-01
Standard
J843C_197002
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform procedure for the level road test of the brake systems of new light-duty trucks and new multipurpose passenger vehicles up to and including 2700 kg (6000 lb) GVW and all classes of new passenger cars. The purpose of the test code is to establish brake system capabilities with regard to: a. Deceleration versus input, as affected by vehicle speed, brake temperature, and usage; b. brake system integrity; c. Stopping ability during emergency or inoperative power assist conditions; d. Water recovery characteristics.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700092
Howard Dugoff, B. J. Brown
Based on a review of existing theoretical and empirical knowledge of the mechanics of pneumatic tires and tire/vehicle systems, a requirement is defined for experimental data relating the shear forces developed at the tire-road interface to the kinematic variables of influence. Test equipment to satisfy this requirement consists of two complementary pieces of apparatus: a laboratory facility which is a modified version of the B. F. Goodrich flat-bed tester, and a mobile device which consists of a three-component (Fx, Fy, Mz) strain-gage dynamometer mounted on a heavy duty highway tractor. The latter provides a capability for testing at speeds up to 70 mph, normal loads up to 2000 lb, tire sideslip angles up to 18 deg, and steady state or programmed variations in longitudinal tire slip from fully locked (100% slip) to 30% overdriven (-30% slip). Representative samples of tire mechanics data obtained using the new equipment are presented and discussed.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700678
Hans Mezger
Porsche has been engineering performance cars for many years, with careful attention paid to the more specific needs of a well-engineered racing car. Developments originally for racing cars have been of great help in the preparation of series cars. Development of a desirable racing car involves combining the best of all engineering discoveries, such as weight reduction, engine performance, driveability, comfort, interior design, safety, and so forth. These very same factors are applied to series cars in order to evolve the most satisfactory series car possible.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700897
Derwyn M. Severy, Harrison M. Brink, David M. Blaisdell
Abstract Seven collision experiments were conducted, each with a motorcycle and rider striking the side of a passenger car. Speed at impact, size of motorcycle, and position impacted along the side of the passenger car represent the independent variables studied. The delivery system used for this series of motorcycle collisions is described, along with related methodology. Photographic and electronic instrumentation systems were used for obtaining essential engineering data. Findings include: 1. Body kinematics for a motorcyclist during collision. 2. Collision dynamics of the impacting vehicles, including measurements of maximum mutual collapse. 3. Deceleration values for the motorcycle and for the head, chest, and hips of the rider. 4. Peak acceleration values for the struck passenger vehicle and its occupant. 5. Calibration of damages sustained by car and motorcycle for impacts at known speeds and for specific sizes of motorcycles.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700483
Michael R. Appleby, Donald C. Bischoff, Arnold W. Siegel, Alan M. Nahum
Automobiles damaged in collisions in which the main vehicle structure has been underridden or overridden were studied, as well as injuries to occupants of the automobiles. The parameters that affect injuries are listed and discussed, as are the effects of these parameters for each case example. Recommendations are made for modifications of passenger cars, trucks, trailers, and highway furniture to mitigate the severity of injury in underride-override collisions.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700531
Sven-Olof Kronogard
This paper presents a simplified method for deriving the parameters necessary for the design and development of compressors for automotive gas turbines, turbochargers, etc. Much of the theory and experimental data have been extracted from existing reports of studies and investigations, but a fair amount of practical design work and experimental evidence is offered to confirm theoretical applications.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700330
P. E. Hamilton, E. L. Bolin
The efficiency of axial flow compressors is greatly affected by the amount of air that leaks past the blade tips. It is desirable, therefore, to reduce the clearance between the compressor case and the rotating compressor blades as much as possible. One solution to the problem is to utilize a clearance coating in the compressor case at the blade tip paths Two methods for accomplishing this on both new and overhaul cases are discussed in detail.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700354
Allan Katz
In this paper it is suggested that the technical constraints of the road-vehicle system, rather than cultural factors, have become the chief determinants of driving behavior in both developed and developing countries. This could explain why the traditional programs of propaganda, punishment, selection and improvement have become relatively ineffective in influencing driving behavior. Further it would appear that at present the most feasable approach for reducing the human factor in road accidents is through the research and implementation of programs which seek a “technical fix” of drivers' problems through engineered simplifications of the driving task. The establishment of policy and implementation of such programs, or any others, in the field of accident countermeasures is a matter of constant negotiation and renegotiation, in which the actors are government officials, scientists, application experts (traffic engineers, doctors, etc.) and the motoring public.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700178
D. L. Seager
An approximate theoretical analysis of loading in a simple planetary gear system is presented for both the case where one central gear is not centered and the case where both central gears are centered. Numerical examples are used to compare the two types of arrangement, and to demonstrate the amount of load unbalance which may occur in practice. A possible method of improving load sharing is suggested.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700467
J. A. Robison
The effect of humidity change on engine nitric oxide emission during operation on the engine dynamometer was found to be a function of air-fuel ratio, observed nitric oxide concentration level, and observed humidity level. Equations and graphs to adjust nitric oxide concentrations for humidity change were derived. Adjustments in NO concentration varied from 2-9 ppm per grain moisture change in absolute humidity.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700434
A. J. McLean, G. M. Mackay
This paper discusses some aspects of accidents in which pedestrians, cyclists and motorcycle riders are involved. The data for this study come from a larger at-the-scene investigation of road accidents which has been underway in the central part of Britain since 1965. The study was so designed that the sample of accidents would be representative as far as possible of the national situation in terms of such factors as urban to rural ratio, time of day distribution and injury severities. Pedestrian accidents are shown to be essentially an urban problem, with marked differences between adults and children both in collision circumstances and consequent injuries. Cyclists involved in accidents are mainly male teenagers, and are the least severely injured of the road users considered. Motorcyclists show different accident characteristics according to the environment of the collision.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700391
John Versace
Human vision is a vast field of scientific study. Although the automotive engineer does not need to know very much about this topic in depth, there are some basic things he should be aware of, particularly if he is concerned with headlights, signal lights, mirrors, the instrument panel, and the design of the vehicle body. This paper will briefly touch only upon some of the main facts of human vision pertinent to an automotive engineer's needs. There will be some emphasis on the application of some of these facts, and on the methodological problems of practical testing and evaluation of vision-related vehicle features.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700041
D. H. Robbins, A. W. Henke, V. L. Roberts
A large number of child seating and restraint systems are currently available on the market. This paper presents experimental data from impact sled tests in order to discuss the relative merits of several design concepts. Both seats and harnesses were considered in the study. They were attached to the vehicle by a variety of techniques including: a hookover seat, a hookunder seat, an adult lap belt, an auxiliary strap around the adult seat back, and combinations of these techniques. Tests were conducted with seats facing forward, sideways, 45 deg oblique, and rearward. Test subjects were commercially manufactured three-year anthropometric test devices and test dolls fabricated at The University of Michigan representing a 3-month-old infant. Head and chest accelerometers were mounted in the dummies. High-speed photographic coverage from the front and from the side was used to record the kinematics of the event.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700013
D. R. Tague
This presentation will address experiences in Vietnam with current track-laying vehicles from the viewpoint of a recently returned unit commander. Operational and maintenance problems of interest from a design standpoint will be discussed.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700087
Paul Linda
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the design features of present-day automobile headlight components. Comparisons of types used in the United States and Europe consider light sources, types of light beams, and reflector efficiencies.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700172
Robert F. Spain, Y. George Kim, Russell V. Fisher
The General Motors Research Laboratories has installed a data acquisition and control computer to be time-shared with a variety of test programs. These include vehicle emissions evaluations, safety studies, transmission investigations, metallurgical processes and materials developments. Many special interface systems have been designed to enhance the computer's compatibility with a variety of test requirements. Expandable remote scanning systems have been developed and manual input and computer display systems were designed to minimize the engineer-computer communication problem. Special vehicle emissions programs were developed utilizing the basic hardware and software systems projected for the overall Research Laboratories operation.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700084
J. F. Ziomek, E. A. Marsh, J. S. Forkner, J. W. Halligan
A rear obstacle detector and warning unit was designed to detect the presence of an object in the rear blind spot behind a vehicle and warn the operator if the possibility of backing over the object exists. A semiconductor infrared laser and a semiconductor detector, mounted on a vehicle behind the rear axle with a unique optical lens system proved capable of detecting small objects up to 10 ft directly behind the vehicle. The unit performance verified the ability to design an obstacle detection system with a sharply defined field of view using infrared technology.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700042
N. Feles
This paper is a discussion of the design and development of the General Motors Infant Safety Carrier. Specific data and information based on this age group, from birth to approximately 10 months of age, will be examined and explored as they are directly related to the construction and application of this specialized infant safety restraint system. Also, the inherent problems involved in the initial development and designing phases required to produce a safety device specifically adapted for this age group of infants will be presented. It will consider the unique circumstances encountered to reach the ultimate goal of protecting and securing infants within the automobile when involved in sudden stops or possible collisions. Further, it will explore some of the numerous approaches, procedures, and techniques pursued in areas related to design, testing, restraint properties, and built-in versatility factors of the Infant Safety Carrier.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700905
Thomas D. Clarke, James F. Sprouffske, Edwin M. Trout, C. D. Gragg, William H. Muzzy, Harold S. Klopfenstein
Abstract The tolerance to abrupt linear deceleration (-Gx) and the subject interaction with an air bag plus lap belt and air bag only restraint systems were investigated. Twenty adult male baboons comprised the test pool. Peak sled decelerations ranged 8.6-123 g. The results indicated that the tolerance to impact (LD50) utilizing an air bag with or without lap belt was in excess of 120 g. The severest injuries were attributable to the lap belt, and included rupture of the rectus abdominus and quadriceps femoris muscles plus diaphragmatic tearing. There were no significant injuries to subjects restrained with only an air bag. Excellent linear correlations were established between peak lap belt forces and maximum sled deceleration. Comparative evaluation of the air bag restraint with a previously reported lap belt study was made when applicable.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700818
T. A. Flanders, W. Britnell
Integration of propulsion controls can simplify the task of aircraft power management. Not only can integration ease the pilot's problem of adjusting engine power settings according to the flight mode, but it also enables improved propulsion system performance to be achieved and extends the regions of safe and stable operation. Such improvements to the inlet/engine compatibility by themselves warrant the use of control system integration, but once the controls are adapted for ease of data exchange they can easily accommodate power management functions and the processing of parameters for a maintenance monitor. One possible method of implementation is described utilizing state-of-the-art hardware.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700830
Arthur Torosian, James F. Murray
The DC-10 aircraft test program has been planned to provide increased overall efficiency and effectiveness. A series of comprehensive engineering development simulations and aircraft ground tests will precede the flight test program, which will employ a sophisticated data acquisition and processing system with the capability to provide real-time data while the tests are in progress. A flight controls development test stand will be used to evaluate the prototype flight control and avionic equipment and provide the capability for pilot assessment of the Flight Guidance and Control (FG&C) System by means of an integrated simulator complex. A laser beam tracking system will be used to provide the space positioning data required in Flight Guidance and Control, noise measurement, and takeoff and landing performance tests.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700906
Thomas D. Clarke, James F. Sprouffske, Edwin M. Trout, Harold S. Klopfenstein, William H. Muzzy, C. D. Gragg, Charles D. Bendixen
Abstract The tolerance to abrupt linear deceleration (- Gx) and the subject response to a lap belt restraint system were investigated. Nineteen adult male baboons comprised the test pool. The effects of impacts of 8.6-40 g were studied, with nonsurvivability used as the index of tolerance. The results indicated that the tolerance to impact (LD50) approximated a 32 g sled deceleration. Lethality was presumed attributable to the secondary impact as the head contacted the floor of the sled. Predominant lethal injuries included avulsion of the atlanto-occipital articulation and dislocation fractures of the cervical vertebrae with resulting transection of the spinal cord. Excellent linear correlations were established between peak lap belt and seat pan forces versus maximum sled deceleration. Likewise, a linear relationship was found between peak head angular accelerations and maximum sled deceleration.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700706
H. E. Shoemaker, C. P. Shumate
The results of an experimental investigation of the nature and characteristics of the effect of dust on the erosion of a small gas turbine engine are presented. From laboratory tests, superior erosion-resistant materials were selected for evaluation in engine tests. These tests have indicated that the service life of the engine can be doubled by the utilization of selected coatings.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700611
Alan O. Plait
Examples are presented to show method of using the new computer-produced reports of the Navy's Maintenance Data Collection Subsystem. Development of components of the data processing system are described, together with definitions and applied statistical techniques. A matrix of the reports is given to show inter-relationship. The reports present data, statistically derived from the historical data base, on such equipment parameters as reliability, maintainability, availability, manpower costs, parts costs, and others.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700761
W. E. Scull, T. M. Ragland
This paper describes the Earth Resources Technology Satellites which are part of an experimental program to provide data pertaining to: Agriculture Geology Hydrology Geography Cartography Oceanography The primary objective of the ERTS mission is to obtain high resolution multi-spectral images of the earth's surface over a period of one year. This program has already been implemented with the launch of ERTS-A scheduled for March 1972.
1970-02-01
Technical Paper
700783
T. S. Honda, W. L. Keltz, E. A. Gabris, J. P. Murphy
This paper concerns a new technique designed to provide high performance reaction control systems for sounding rockets. Proportional control of differential thrust and simple adaptive control of thrust magnitude (based on the level of demanded thrust) is utilized. The control is being implemented with a combination of electronic and fluidic components for an Aerobee 150 sounding rocket payload whose goal is a pointing stability of 0.1 arc second.

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