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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 183631
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680099
Richard E. Wong, Louis Galan, Lynn L. Bradford
The first part of this paper defines lunar environmental factors which are pertinent to the design of a lunar surface mobility system. The second part discusses the design techniques required to solve the problems imposed by these environments. The definition of lunar environment includes only those data that are presently considered to be acceptable for the design of equipment for lunar use. The environmental factors defined are: extreme temperature range between lunar day and night, pressure, lunar gravity, surface characteristics (that is, terrain, soil), radiation, dust and micrometeorite impact. The effects of these environments upon the design and material selection for mobility system and subsystems are discussed. Specific examples of design techniques are demonstrated for the design of traction drive mechanisms, wheels, thermal control, and vehicle dynamics.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680039
L. E. Coleman
The development of a Type F automatic transmission fluid is presented by discussing the three components of a typical fluid: the base oil, the viscosity index improver, and the additive package. The trend towards fluids with improved oxidation stability and frictional characteristics is demonstrated by illustrating the three levels of performance required by the three major changes in Ford specifications over the past several years. This paper shows that development and evaluation of automatic transmission fluids have become quite complex and that it is now necessary to run a wide variety of bench, transmission, field, and proving ground tests. In addition, the development and properties of an additive package which exceeds the M2C33 E-F specification are described.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680040
James M. Stanek, David B. Smith
The development of a Type F automatic transmission fluid requires care in selection of base stocks and additives in order to achieve the desired balance of performance properties. Considerations involved in selection of antiwear agents, detergents-dispersants and antioxidants are enumerated. Tests are described for use in evaluating the additives, and performance properties of fully formulated fluids are shown. The performance of non-Type F automatic transmission fluids in transmissions designed specifically for Type F fluids are described.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680043
Hans May, Harry Schulz
The control principles and the design of a fuel injection system, developed by F.A.F Schmidt, are described. In this system, injection time and injection pressure are controlled independent of each other. The injection time is controlled by two rotating discs having slots, which are turnable to each other and which are turned by the influence of a centrifugal governor in connection with a three-dimensional cam. With the three-dimensional cam, a punctiform scanning of engine characteristics can be realized. Some results obtained with this injection system are shown, for example, fuel quantity characteristic, CO and n-hexane characteristic of a 4-cyl 4-stroke engine, injection pressure distribution dependent on crank angle, and consumption loops for injection and carburetor operation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680045
D. H. Wiesman, G. A. Senior, J. W. Hagan
A new type of acrylic finish has been developed which shows considerable promise as an automotive topcoat. Nonaqueous acrylic dispersion finishes combine exceptionally high application solids with reflow process capabilities characteristic of current lacquers. In addition, acrylic dispersions utilize low cost aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents and should readily satisfy air pollution requirements. Final film properties of dispersion finishes are equal or superior to those of conventional thermoplastic acrylic lacquers.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680033
R. M. Kemmerer, R. Chute, D. P. Hass
An inflatable cushion restraint system is being developed which automatically inflates in front of the automobile occupant in the time interval between vehicle impact and the “second collision.” The system draws upon the latest non-metallic material technology and controlled explosive power units to achieve the objectives of actuating the cushion in .040 seconds and attaining high reliability and sufficient storage life at a realistic cost-effectiveness ratio. This system has undergone extensive sled, barrier, and other development tests. These tests have indicated that in experimental situations significant reductions in lap belt loads, in head and chest deceleration, and in rebound rates may be achieved as compared with the present lap belt system. Tests with live primates, run on the Daisy Decelerator at Alamagordo, New Mexico, resulted in survivability at sled decelerations of 57 g’s vs. fatal injuries at 40 g’s for the best of all other systems tested.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680036
Raymond A. Kobe, James C. Wagner
Increasing demands on automatic transmissions due to performance considerations, higher speed driving (1)*, heavier duty operation (that is, trailer towing) (2), and extended warranty life, have placed new and more stringent requirements on the transmission and fluid. The areas of increased fluid stress are oxidation stability due to higher operating temperatures, and shear stability because of higher shear rates. In meeting these needs, a transmission fluid has been developed which satisfies the specific requirements of the TorqueFlite transmisssion, as well as providing improvement in low-temperature engine starting performance.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680037
W. D. Ross, B. A. Pearson
The development of the Ford Automatic Transmission Fluid from specification M2C33-B, through M2C33-D, to the new M2C33-F specification is traced. Requirements of the new specification and reasons for the change are discussed. Some experiences with the “fill-for-life” policy over the years from 1960–1967 are cited.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680038
Robert L. Anderson, Norman A. Hunstad
Dexron is the new General Motors trademark which identifies currently recommended service automatic transmission fluids. The minimum quality of these fluids is higher than that of the formerly used Type A Automatic Transmission Fluids. The new fluids will provide improved transmission operation, both initially and for extended periods of service. They may be used in servicing not only current transmission and power steering units, but also all older units for which Type A fluids were originally recommended. The fluids were developed principally to achieve longer shift-time retention and clutch plate durability. Advances were also made in respect to low temperature fluidity, antifoam quality, fluid-seal compatibility, oxidation resistance, and fluid-nylon compatability.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680056
D. E. Izon, E. H. Warne
Increasing demands for larger aircraft that can fly faster, farther, and higher with assurance of reaching their destinations and returning to their points of origin have far outstripped the availability of in-service experience upon which to base design reliability requirements. This paper describes test facilities that can provide this needed information by increasing component requirements beyond the known reliability criteria. The authors propose extended research and investigation into projected reliability parameters that will assume greater importance as flight ranges and altitudes are expanded for both military and civilian aircraft.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680058
Arthur F. J. Eckert
Structural requirements for aircraft engine main fuel pumps and controls have been changing and increasing. The influence of these changing conditions on specific component parts, particularly housings and drive train elements, is reviewed. Recommendations are made for detailed specifications changes.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680046
T. John Young, Donald R. Hays
Various laboratory methods for measuring chip resistance were compared and found to rate different finishes in different orders. A field survey showed that a gravelometer using gravel rather than other media correlated well with actual service results. The necessity of preparing chip resistance test panels which very closely duplicate the actual finish obtained on cars was shown. The nature of chipping has been studied and improved rating systems developed. Detailed drawings, test procedures, and rating systems for the SAE gravelometer have been proposed for publication.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680062
C. R. Michaels, R. P. Kane
A new process for preparing urethane foam automotive trim parts is described. The new system known as integral skin foam, forms its own continuous skin which reproduces exactly the surface of the mold. Rapid mold turnover, room temperature cure, and the elimination of plastic skin can effect an overall reduction in cost per part. In items with severe undercuts, the use of pliable, elastomeric molds may be dictated in order to eliminate the juncture lines resulting from a multipart metal mold. The use of liquid urethane elastomer in such areas is described. The new system requires post-coating, and nondiscoloring urethane types for exterior as well as interior parts are also discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680049
Robert J. Gasser
Resistance welding controls have developed over the years, changing the process from an interesting phenomena to a precise technology. From manually operated welders to numerically controlled machines, the user’s demands continually stimulated improvement and extension of the resistance welding processses. New structural materials, production requirements, and the demand for higher quality welds have brought about a high degree of sophistication in controls. The future welders will be machines that can “think for themselves,” with adaptive controls that sense changing welding conditions and adjust themselves accordingly to produce consistently high quality welds.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680052
Irving I. Lasky, Arnold W. Siegel, Alan M. Nahum
Cardio-thoracic injuries comprise a significant segment of the injuries sustained in automobile collisions. Because of the urgent need for additional information which can lead to prevention of these injuries, The Vehicle Trauma Research group at the UCLA School of Medicine has instituted a medical-engineering study of these injuries. The study has attempted to correlate pathophysiologic aspects of the injuries with the kinematics and biomechanics of the collision. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of restraining devices and the relationship of injuries of various wheel-column configurations including “energy absorbing” designs. Sixty-seven cases have been completely analyzed to date and are presented as a preliminary pilot study illustrating the value of this type of approach to auto collision injuries.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680053
Charles W. Gadd, Lawrence M. Patrick
It is pointed out that in attempting to evaluate devices or design alterations to minimize accident injury, there arise important questions of true injury hazard predicted by the test and of relative merit between designs, depending upon whether one employs a system test or a simplified laboratory impact procedure. These questions are illustrated first by describing some of the results of a series of accelerator tests of cadaver impact against a steering wheel and energy absorbing column assembly. A salient finding from this work is that, as a result of more favorable load distribution, the chest loading is in the range of one-half that which would be indicated by a simplified torso impact test. It is felt that in the future it will be particularly important to try to take into account in a simplified test the contribution of the shoulders to load distribution, as well as to alter the torso form to obtain more realistic dynamic deflection properties.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680189
A.W. Winkley
An integrated circuit regulator for automotive alternator systems has been developed. It may be used either as a separately mounted unit or incorporated within the alternator. Consideration is given to the choice of micro-circuit, the type of transistors, and the method of substrate assembly. The design features and operation of the circuit are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680179
Richard S. Morse
The image of a large corporation in today’s technical world is, in many instances, dependent upon its interest in the innovative process and adaptability to change. Air pollution poses a serious threat to this country. In an effort to implement recommendations for the control of automotive air pollution, the more important findings of a government study group (fully reported in “The Automobile and Air Pollution: A Program for Progress”) are summarized. The development of effective means to infuse new ideas into the automotive industry is discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680176
E. E. Prather
The revised Passenger Car Road Test Code, SAE J843a, provides a test procedure of improved reproducibility and a high degree of severity. The new report, SAE J937, performance requirements, are stringent and have contributed to the up-grading of passenger car brake systems and individual components.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680175
Robert 0. Tuegel
The new SAE J992 establishes minimum service brake system performance requirements and specifically pertains to vehicle stopping ability, pedal force requirements, and brake stability of new vehicles. Testing for SAE J992 includes procedures that were taken from applicable sections of the truck and brake system road test code, SAE J786 dated 1962. This paper compares SAE J992 and J786 in the areas of test instrumentation, preburnish check, burnish, water recovery, and efffectiveness requirements. Although SAE J992 is briefer than previous test procedures, it is a valid determination of minimum stopping ability, a check on the initial fade due to heat, and a measurement of the water recovery characteristic. The minimum performance values specified are quite stringent for all types of trucks and buses.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680173
A. D. St. John
A detailed, human factor based simulation has been developed for following, overtaking, and merging on freeways. Simulation parameters were chosen to provide correspondence with human factor data and with several types of macroscopic and microscopic traffic measurements. Simulation results provide some guides to the vulnerabilities of driver types, and to the accident potentials of frequently occurring situations.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680172
Patrick J. Athol
In the development of an operational traffic control system it was necessary to depend heavily on empirical data of traffic performance measurements. The major problem in operating a transportation system is traffic overloading demands at peak periods. The Expressway Surveillance Project was formed to improve the efficiency of the highway system through the application of electronic automation and traffic engineering to the problem of traffic congestion. By providing a means for quick response in case of accidents and fast removal of hindrances, volume capability of freeways were effectively increased during peak periods. The use of ramp metering controls effected a reduction in delay, afforded safer merging characteristics, and reduced freeway accidents. Since there is a limit to the volume capacity of a highway system there may come a time when access to the whole system may be controlled and additional persons may have to utilize other modes of transportation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680147
Gary R. Penn
This paper presents a method of evaluating the powerplant’s influence in the dynamic response of the car structure. The technique involves an analog computer simulation of the powerplant and its mounting system, which runs in real time, and is interfaced to the physical car through position transducers and electrodynamic exciters at the engine mount locations. This allows an accelerated evaluation of many engine-transmission combinations, with a wide range of mount parameters, on a single car structure.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680146
John K. Sauter
This paper shows how a laboratory critical speed test facility can virtually replace Proving Ground tests to evaluate the strength of driveline structure at critical speed operation. The advantages of a laboratory facility to evaluate quickly, accurately, and economically the myriad of wheelbase, engine, transmission, and propeller shaft configurations is illustrated with a typical driveline test program. Means of reducing driveline stress sensitivity at resonant frequency through engine-transmission modification, use of braces, and propshaft changes are discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680199
Joe Latas
The Cessna Model 177, introduced into the single engine, low cost market in the fall of 1967, has been designed to meet the objectives of styling, visibility, flying qualities, and performance by the use of a cantilever wing, more rearward wing placement, and an all-movable horizontal tail. Desired improvements in visibility by moving the wing aft relative to the pilot required a more forward center of gravity envelope and the all-movable tail was incorporated in the design as the best configuration to handle this requirement. Flight test development of the airplane is discussed and included adjustment of the tab size for the best compromise of maneuvering and static stability. Other changes included reduced dihedral, increased vertical tail area, and refinements to reduce drag.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680194
D. H. Weir, C. P. Shortwell, W. A. Johnson
Automobile dynamics related to closed-loop control by the driver are presented. This includes developing the equations of motion; linearizing the 4 deg of freedom set for roll angle, lateral velocity, yaw rate, and axial velocity; and deriving the steer angle transfer functions. A compendium of dynamic data for United States style automobiles is given. Example transfer functions for a typical sedan, circa 1965, are computed. Literal approximate factors for the lateral transfer functions in both 2 and 3 deg of freedom are derived and tabulated.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680193
Harold C. MacDonald
This paper examines some of the new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, and discusses facets of the engineering required to meet them. The author’s reactions to these standards are also explained. The engineering involved in those standards concerning passenger car interior occupant protection, the relative rearward displacement of steering columns, and the 30 mph barrier crash, are discussed in some detail.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680192
Werner Buttgereit, Christoph H. Voges, Christoph Schilter
The 1968 models of the VW 1600 sedan for the U. S. market are equipped with an electronically controlled fuel injection system. These vehicles comply with existing exhaust emission standards. Engine fuel requirements for constant operating conditions were determined by exhaust gas analysis. The test results furnished the basis for fuel metering by means of an electronic control unit. Deceleration fuel shutoff and closely controlled mixture enrichment for cold starting, warmup and full load ensure low emissions and good driving characteristics. Push-button checks for all the major circuit functions can be carried out with a special checking instrument.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680191
Jay A. Bolt
The automotive gasoline engine has been under heavy attack as a source of air pollution, and is now the subject of a very large program of research and development to reduce its undesirable vehicle emissions. The quantity of emissions that can reasonably be tolerated in different areas of the U.S. is presently unknown because of lack of information concerning air movements and air quality standards for man and plants. It is important that this information be made available as quickly as possible because the cost of emission controls of all types will rise rapidly. With rapidly rising costs for air pollution control from all sources, cost-value analyses are urgently needed for economy. Major reductions of the undesirable exhaust emissions of present powerplant systems have been made during the last few years and will continue to be accomplished, under the impetus of air pollution requirements and regulations.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680190
Vernon R. Schmitt
This paper presents a new concept and technique for solving the problems associated with the prediction and control of flight component failures which are attributed to contamination of the power transmission fluid in the servo actuating subsystem. Basically this technique assumes that these failures are probabilistic. Mathematical models are then established and comparisons made between calculated and measured values of contamination in a system to determine the degree of acceptability of the fluid.

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