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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 190588
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740065
Wayne W. Sorenson, Richard E. Gardner, James Casassa
An analysis of 15,000 repair estimates written nationwide on 1973 model passenger cars has been completed by State Farm Mutual Auto Insurance Co. Among the findings presented in this paper are the distribution of impact points around the car, distribution of repair cost, repair and replacement frequencies of certain components, and an analysis of repair cost spending by component assembly. A procedure is described which will monitor the crash damage sustained by new cars through the systematic collection and analysis of insurance company damage repair estimates. In the future, performance comparisons of various model year vehicles will be possible. The availability and limitations of other insurance industry data sources are also discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740097
A. P. Ives, P. M. Jackson
This paper deals with some work currently being carried out at the Lucas Group Research Centre into the control of vehicle headway using Q-band primary radar. Earlier work is described in which a “sawtooth” frequency-modulated continuous wave radar system and analog controller were fitted to a Ford Zodiac with automatic transmission and used to investigate the viability of such a system. This is compared with later work in which a miniature radar of improved performance and a digital microprocessor control system are fitted to a Triumph 2.5 PI. The latter approach is enabling several types of control law and radar modulation parameters to be tried so that the overall ability of primary radar systems to cope with varying road conditions can be ascertained.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740064
Jack E. Martens
Designers have the capability to produce damage resistant bumpers-bumpers that can protect automobiles against low speed collision damage. If design changes are not made in the areas of truck underride, panic brake dip and dive, and the multi-purpose vehicle bumper interface, the automotive industry faces further increased federal regulation. Crash tests and real-world experience indicates that improved bumpers are cost-effective and can bring about better loss control. There is a gap that must be eliminated between current car designs and their future repair costs. The alternative could be even more stringent federal regulations. Professional societies and designers can provide the answer through self-policed future designs that recognize both the initial sales appeal of cars and the latent consumer cost of repair when operating automobiles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740098
Paul Tartaglia
The various methods available for proximity measuring are described and evaluated, resulting in the choice of radar as the best method available. Radar does have its drawbacks, however, and its major liability is the production of a possible health hazard in the form of microwave radiation. Limits imposed by the U.S. government are presented and compared to values obtained from a proposed system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740067
William Bezbatchenko
A vehicle test procedure for determining the effect of bias, belted-bias, and radial tires of different designs on constant speed fuel economy was devised. Test results were analyzed on a statistical basis. Results at a 95% confidence level indicate that the use of steel belted radial tires decreases the fuel consumption approximately 6% when compared to bias and belted-bias tires.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740099
Mark A. Kuehner
The critical component for maintaining uniform zinc phosphate coatings on aluminum is fluoride. The control of free fluoride is critical to the operation of the process, because aluminum is dissolved in a zinc phosphate bath as a step in the coating reaction. If the dissolved aluminum is not removed from the bath, it will inhibit the formation of coatings on all metals being treated. This paper presents the characteristics and composition of zinc phosphate coatings on aluminum and steel, and lists some practical considerations of the transition from steel to aluminum components. Some possible problem areas discussed are: galvanic corrosion, underpaint quality, surface finish, electro-painting, and new paint surfaces.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740066
K. D. Marshall, T. R. Wik, R. F. Miller, R. W. Iden
A technique has been developed to determine which tire nonuniformities are responsible for tire roughness. The measurement and interpretation of high-speed uniformity and instrumented vehicle data is discussed. The results presented emphasize the necessity of viewing the tire and the vehicle as a dynamically coupled system rather than as two separate and distinct components.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740100
F. M. Loop
It is often desirable or necessary to use more than one metal type to fabricate a unit in the automotive industry. These bimetal assemblies may present problems with regard to proper initial painting and performance under field conditions. Good painting practices for use with galvanized steel-steel and aluminum-steel assemblies are presented using solvent-type and electrodeposition-type primers. Some of the associated problems and their effects are discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740101
Leonard C. Rowe
It is difficult to avoid the use of bimetallic assemblies in the manufacture of most products. When these combinations of dissimilar metals are exposed to an electrolyte, corrosion of one of the metals can be accelerated; this is referred to as galvanic corrosion. The tendency for it to occur depends on the thermodynamic instability of the metals involved, and the rate at which it occurs depends on the resistance of the system to the corrosion processes. The critical parameters affecting galvanic corrosion are the potential difference between metals, the polarization behavior of the metals in a particular environment, the characteristics of the electrolyte, and the ratio of the cathode to anode areas. Galvanic corrosion can be minimized through good design. Metal combinations that lead to excessive corrosion should be avoided. In some cases a metallic coating can be applied to reduce the potential difference between metals or to provide sacrificial protection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740069
L. Rinonapoli, R. Bergomi
A driver's mathematical model has been developed in an attempt to find a satisfactory simulation of man's sensitivity and reaction to road stimuli. A merely theoretical approach to study the interaction between driver's behavior and car response thus becomes possible, since a 14 deg of freedom car model is already available, which reproduces car handling on both smooth and bumpy roads. Any car maneuver can now be simulated, irrespective of its hazardousness and no longer neglecting man's behavior. Thus, a mathematical approach to safety problems is possible and advantageous, since it does not require, as does the experimental one, a test driver to simulate the average man's behavior at the limit condition.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740068
Walter Bergman, Claude Beauregard
This paper identifies and analyzes steady-state and transient tire properties affecting vehicle directional response characteristics. The study is limited to the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. It shows fundamental differences between steady-state and transient properties. Tire transient properties are described by a force-slip angle loop with cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset as parameters. Cornering stiffness is presented as a variable that changes with speed and steer rate. An interrelationship between cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset resulting from the time lag between lateral force and slip angle is shown. Ramp steer techniques for measuring transient tire properties on a road trailer and on an external drum machine are described. A need for transient tire data for computer simulations of vehicle transient steer maneuvers is shown.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740102
Carl A. Schiele, Stephen F. DeNagel, James E. Bennethum
The development of a variable valve timing (VVT) camshaft was initiated as a potential means of controlling exhaust emissions from a spark ignition piston engine. This approach was based on the fact that valve overlap influences internal exhaust gas recirculation which in turn affects spark ignition engine emissions and performance. The design, fabrication, bench tests and engine durability tests of a unit incorporating splines to allow the intake cams to move relative to the exhaust cams is discussed. Preliminary test data from a 350 CID (5700 cm3) engine fitted with the VVT camshaft are discussed with regard to durability and emissions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740071
Michael J. Cannazzaro, Fredrick W. Hill
A method of non-destructively detecting internal anomalies or void areas in tires can be a valuable tool for tire structural analysis. Such a system has become commercially available. This system uses holographic interferometry in conjunction with vacuum stressing to non-destructively inspect tires for internal voids or anomalies. A holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) system has been purchased by General Motors Proving Ground and has been utilized by the Tire & Wheel Development Laboratory for structural analysis of tires prior to, during, and after testing. The HNDT equipment is described and the process and utility of passenger car tire analysis explained.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740104
James J. Gumbleton, Robert A. Bolton, H. Walter Lang
In addition to designing and developing hardware to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, it is equally important to tailor the other engine variables. Optimization of air-fuel ratio (A/F) and spark timing is required to achieve the best combination of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) control, while minimizing the losses in fuel economy and drivability. This paper describes an engine dynamometer and vehicle study which defines the relationship between the above para meters. In general, increasing the spark advance with increasing EGR rates will minimize the losses in fuel economy and vehicle drivability while achieving significant reductions in NOx emissions. This approach is limited by a deterioration in HC emission control. The loss in HC control can be minimized by spark retard, but with a loss in fuel economy.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740070
Donald G. Anderson, Hal H. Hoffman
A laser-optical system for measuring tire tread depths for treadwear analysis is described. Other tire dimensional parameters that can be measured include the outside diameter, section width, and rib or groove runout of the tire. This noncontact measuring system provides individual rib height information instead of an average groove depth. A cross-sectional profile of the tread can also be generated on an X-Y plotter. A minicomputer is used for both machine control and data acquisition. The programming capability of the minicomputer provides much flexibility in measuring depths on various tread designs and in defining rib heights on worn tires. The system is evaluated in terms of gauge accuracy, system repeatability, comparison with hand measurements, and problems encountered with tread geometries and states of tire wear.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740073
K. L. Oblizajek, S. A. Lippmann
A method is derived and confirmed for predicting the tread wear configurations of tires positioned on nondriven axles of passenger vehicles. The method is based on laboratory measurements of the interfacial stresses of freely rolling tires and takes account of perturbations in these stresses that occur during the road test procedure. Wear is found to occur primarily at the exit end of the tire-road interface, and the degree of wear is related to the interfacial pressure and slip determining conditions at that location. The steering properties of the tire also enter into the determination. Abrasion resistance of the rubber, temperature, character of the road surface, the test course, and the procedure all appear in the equations of wear in aggregate as a coefficient. In addition, there are interference effects between adjacent ribs of the tire that are established and taken into account.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740105
T. W. Ryan, S. S. Lestz, W. E. Meyer
The lean misfire limit air-fuel ratio of a spark ignition engine was extended by various modifications of the intake and ignition systems. The effects of long duration spark, extended spark plug gap projections and gap widths, and a vaned collar intake valve are reported. These modifications allowed for reliable operation up to air-fuel ratios of 24:1. The experimental apparatus and procedure used in this study are described. Conclusions are drawn concerning the optimization of the various modifications to extend the lean misfire limit and reduce the exhaust emissions. In general, all modifications extended the lean misfire limit, but increased gap width had the most profound effect. In all cases, the exhaust emissions were reduced by extension of the lean misfire limit.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740106
William H. Close
Decisions have been made regarding the federal regulation of noise generated by motor carrier operations which are subject to the provisions of the Noise Control Act of 1972. This paper presents a brief discussion and analysis of the technical information developed by the interagency task force and public docket, which was made available to the government for development of a regulatory strategy. Substantive research is underway to ascertain the technology and cost involved to significantly lower the engine-related and tire noise generated by trucks.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740072
S. A. Lippmann, K. L. Oblizajek
This paper outlines the nature of the measuring equipment used in the investigation of tire-road interactions and presents the results of a study of the interfacial stress distributions of a radial-ply, a bias-belted, and a 4-ply bias-angle tire. There is a discussion of tractive ratios and effective coefficients of friction. Distributions of tractive ratios are displayed for all of the conditions treated and for the three types of tires. The paper also covers the changes in stress distributions that result from steering and the relation of these alterations to the lateral thrust and self-aligning torque of the tires.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740108
Anthony J. Schneider
A wide variety of frequency analysis instrumentation is available for sound and vibration analysis. But unless the optimum instruments are chosen for each task, the engineer will be bewildered by either insufficient or excessive data. This paper outlines instrument usages that have been standardized upon in the automotive industry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740075
K. F. Glaser, G. E. Johnson
This paper compares the construction of an aluminum body with an identical steel body. The design parameters set forth for the steel body governed the overall approach resulting in a realistic comparison between aluminum and steel weight of a body-in-white. The paper discusses specific techniques used in the construction of the aluminum body and outlines areas of difference between aluminum and steel of interest to automotive engineers.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740109
Irvin D. Wilken, Robert Hickling, Harold V. Wiknich
A single-wheel trailer has been designed and built to study the origins of tire noise and its basic characteristics. The single test tire, nominally the 10.00/20 size usually mounted on large trucks and semitrailers, is located 12.2 m (40 ft) behind the rear axle of the towing vehicle to isolate it from other noise sources. Reflective surfaces that could interfere with noise measurements are minimized by the high, single-beam construction of the trailer. The towing vehicle is modified to reduce its noise and wake in the vicinity of the test tire, which can be loaded to 22.2 kN (5000 lb) by dead weights and rolled at expressway speeds. Because of its unusual configuration, the dynamic behavior of the trailer was studied prior to design to help determine several design parameters and show that the trailer would follow well. Extensive stress analyses of the trailer beam and other structural elements were also required.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740074
Bruce E. Lindenmuth
Conicity and ply steer are lateral forces developed by tires whose importance has surfaced with radial tire popularity. Understanding their significance is enhanced by knowing their dependence on measurement and usage parameters and tire construction features. Their effects on vehicle performance are manifested in vehicle pull and vehicle drift or dog tracking. Knowing their individual vehicle performance characteristics offers insight into handling related field-service problems more effectively.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740110
John J. Bair, William Pickornik, Richard Melkerson, Thomas O'Boyle
A gear tester has been developed that can predict the relative level of axle noise in the cab of a truck. This paper documents the development in five parts: establishing the characteristics of noise generated by the axle in the cab of a small gas powered truck, developing a viable gear tester for the noise quality measurement of spiral bevel gear sets, establishing correlation between gear tester ratings and in-truck ratings of axle noise, testing a random sample of gears to determine the population's noise quality distribution, and predicting the errors associated with using the gear tester in quality control.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740112
James F. Hoffman, Richard W. Bensman
Increased demand for reduced electromagnetic radiation from small engine operation has necessitated an evaluation of the effectiveness of various suppression methods available to the engine manufacturer or end-user. This investigation studied the effectiveness of different suppressors in spark plugs, spark plug boots, shielded connectors, and ignition leads. Suppression from resistance, inductive resistance, and shielding were evaluated. This work was undertaken on “breadboarded” ignition systems of the battery coil inductive, magneto, and capacitor discharge types. Results from these were then compared to actual spark ignited engines mounted in lawnmowers, snowmobiles, chain saws, and a motorcycle.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740077
W. A. Anderson, R. D. Blackburn, B. S. Shabel
A study has been made of the various alloys for body sheet. These include the non-heat-treatable Al-Mg alloys and heat-treatable alloys of the Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg types. Tests have shown that each alloy has a different combination of properties with no alloy excelling in all characteristics. At this stage in the development of aluminum body sheet, it would appear that the Al-Cu-Mg alloys 2036 and X5020 should be preferred over other types for general body sheet application. Where Lueder bands can be tolerated, Al-Mg alloys such as 5182 and X5085 offer an advantage of superior formability and are recommended for use as inner stiffening panels and supports.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740078
J. Dean Minford, E. M. Vader
The different response of various aluminum body sheet alloys to adhesive bonding procedures was studied using a variety of adhesive bonding materials. The bond durability performance was evaluated under a variety of weathering conditions where different surface preparations and surface contamination were present.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740111
Richard R. Burgett, Richard E. Massoll, Donald R. Van Uum
The ignition system of any spark-ignited internal combustion engine-powered device is well recognized as a major source of radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI). Spark plug designs can be selected to aid in reducing ignition-related EMI. The effects of various spark plug designs such as resistor spark plugs, inductor spark plugs, and shielded spark plugs upon both EMI and ignition system performance are presented. In addition to studying the effect of spark plug design, the use of the SAE standard (J551b) and other EMI measurement techniques to determine effect of spark plug suppression designs are discussed. Generally, the addition of a resistor to the spark plug provides the most effective spark plug suppression. However, other designs may be effective as an addition to the resistor or as a substitute where resistors cannot be practically used.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740114
Robert Hickling, William R. Smith
Tests of laser ignition are conducted in a combustion bomb. A range of fuels is investigated comprising isooctane, cyclohexane, n-heptane, n-hexane, clear indolene, and No. 1 diesel fuel. The ignition characteristics of laser-induced sparks are compared with sparks generated with a spark plug for different air/fuel ratios. The power density required to produce laser induced sparks is investigated. Although laser ignition appears to be impractical as an ignition device because of its low efficiency and high cost, it presents some interesting possibilities compared to the standard spark plug in that the laser spark is electrodeless and can be positioned anywhere inside the combustion chamber. Its primary use appears to be as a research tool.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740079
F. W. Baker, M. K. Mc Ginnis
Finishing of aluminum is discussed with emphasis on its compatibility with existing systems employed for the repair, pretreatment, and electropriming of steel auto body components. Included is a comparison of the finishing practices used to repair fabricating damage on steel versus aluminum components. The need to modify the chemical pretreatment and electrodeposition priming systems presently used for steel bodies is minimal with aluminum or bimetallic assemblies. Initial results from ongoing laboratory finishing studies indicate that no major alterations of either equipment or processing techniques will be required to accommodate aluminum as an auto body material.

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