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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 182656
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670370
J. Morris, D. M. Ashford
Because of the rapid growth of air travel, both cargo and passenger, the payload capacity required for future transport aircraft is too great to be accommodated by fuselages of conventional configuration (that is, single-deck, single-aisle, up to 6 seats abreast). Fuselage design philosophy was therefore re-evaluated in a recent Douglas study, and this paper reviews some of the features of that study. Factors affecting fuselage design are outlined and trends are discussed. It is concluded that the forthcoming wide, single-deck fuselage, seating up to 10 abreast, will have a potential capacity of about 550 passengers. For larger capacities, the greater efficiency of multi-deck fuselages over that of the single-deck becomes increasingly apparent on a per-passenger basis. The use of multi-deck fuselages, however, will raise new problems-particularly those of airport terminal design and passenger evacuation-but these should not prove insurmountable.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670366
George Opdyke
This paper discusses the major effects observed in feasibility testing of three emulsified fuels in several gas turbine combustors, fuel controls, and fuel system component parts, and in three Avco Lycoming gas turbine engine models. Engine operation was essentially unaffected at power levels normally used for low altitude flight, but combustion was inhibited at starting and at altitude conditions. The fuel controls performed reasonably well, but showed that modifications will be required for reliable long term operation.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670385
H. Tolle
The paper tries to give some insight into three points: Firstly, what has been the starting point of European work on the Aerospace Transporter and what is the development of cooperation on this subject in European industry. Secondly, how have been the studies tackled in the beginning and what is the main trend for future work now. Thirdly, who has worked in European on the Aerospace Transporter mainly and on what concept.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670384
Richard A. Nau
Eight fixed-wing reusable horizontal landing booster point design concepts are presented and compared on the basis of weight, cost, technical difficulty, and availability date. The eight vehicle types considered are all basically two-stage systems with a lifting body reusable second stage, with all vehicles normalized to place 40,000 lbs. payload in orbit. All flight vehicles are fully recoverable and capable of flying back and landing at the launch site. Vehicle types discussed are vertical take-off horizontal landing rockets, sled launched horizontal take-off rockets, runway launched horizontal take-off rockets, air breathing first stages, combined air breathing and rocket first stages, oxidizer collection concepts, supersonic combustion ramjets, and in-flight refueling vehicles. Each of these vehicle types is depicted in the paper and its design and performance characteristics are discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670374
Alois Cejka
EUROSPACE's aim is to advance a comprehensive European space program. Open cooperation in space technology between the U.S. and the European organization has also been sought, to the extent that U.S. companies were invited to become members of EUROSPACE. Among the several projects proposed by EUROSPACE is an aerospace transporter. At the first joint U.S.-European Conference, it was precisely the aerospace transporter proposal which elicited the least favorable response from the American side. Why this project would be unsuitable for the European organization to undertake at present is questioned openly.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670358
J. N. Smith
Propulsion systems diagnostics, neglected through the early years of turbine propulsion development, is now emerging as a new weapon with which airlines can protect themselves against advanced in-service failures and their attendant safety and economic impacts. Air Canada's experience in the development and application of various diagnostic methods is reviewed and reveals a still pressing need for: improved aircraft and powerplant basic diagnostic design and accessibility; a better and wider field of engineered detection devices, both airborne and ground support; personnel training and specialization.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670357
W. B. Caldwell
Mohawk's conversion to turbine-powered equipment resulted in numerous advantages: ability to supply comfort to the passenger comparable to that of jet transport, reduction in amount and complexity of ground support equipment, increased reliability of engines, and lower direct operating costs. An increasing problem of all airlines which affects the short haul carriers particularly hard is that of heavy air traffic. The author believes the provate air traffic will have to be rerouted to separate but equal facilities to solve the problem.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670354
C. J. Mac Miller
The potential advantages of hypersonic vehicles compatible with missions combining more than one cruise flight regime are developed. Gasdynamic heating is discussed as one of the most challenging areas in the development of their propulsion systems, and the role of thermal management on the design of hypersonic vehicles is emphasized. Mixed missions result in vehicles with higher structural efficiency and lower fuel equivalence ratios, and these benefits are presented in terms of their effect on range. Further, mixed missions are shown to complement current research and development of high-temperature materials.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670355
Russel K. Rourke
The problem of the limited real and air space available to facilitate further growth in the airline industry is discussed with the hope solutions will be formulated that are economically viable for both the airline industry and the communities it serves.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670365
Jay C. Harris, E. A. Steinmetz
The objective of preparing emulsified jet fuel is to reduce the possibility of in-flight or post-crash fires. Two high internal phase JP-4 fuel emulsions containing 3% external emulsifying phase were developed which have reduced flammability and are engine consumable with low residual ash. One of the emulsions is designed to permit JP-4 recovery for use in other vehicles. External phase characteristics are described which provide lowered JP-4 volatility and flammability, and which give emulsions stable at −20 to 135 F, are completely resistant to 500 g accelerations, and are corrosion resistant. The effectiveness of various types of emulsifiers and their peculiar requirement for these emulsions are discussed. Preparation, storage, pumpability, and other emulsion characteristics are described.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670363
J. C. Pirtle
A diagnostic system is required for the supersonic transport engine and will be part of the normal engine development program. Methods must be devised to sense either performance deterioration or related mechanical malfunctions. Eight examples of diagnostic devices, essentially in the development stages, are discussed in relation to their potential for monitoring or measuring the health of the engine.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670360
Peter F. Bellam, null
To demonstrate an electromagnetic approach to Automatic Performance Monitoring and Recording, without reference to or association with sonic, spectrometric or other philosophies, some “golden rules” are proposed for the design and development of the hardware and software packages. Those parameters considered essential for efficient monitoring of the jet engine are argued, and the methodology of data collection is detailed. Programs are explained which have proved successful in the “quick look” and long range deterioration trending applications. Specific in-service examples are given.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670467
Jay A. Bolt, David L. Harrington
The object of this research was to learn more about the effects of mixture motion upon ignition in spark ignited piston engines, and to determine how variations in mixture velocity alter the combustion process. To provide effective means for producing and measuring the mixture velocity, all tests were made in a constant volume bomb, using mixtures of propane and air. The effects of mixture motion on the lean spark ignition limit, rate of pressure rise, and burning time were determined for mixture ratios ranging from stoichiometric to the lean limit. The mixture pressures corresponded to those in Otto cycle engines at the time of spark occurrence. The results reveal that a mixture velocity of 50 fps, relative to the spark plug, requires an enrichment of 17% with respect to the stagnant lean limit. Increases in mixture velocity were found to greatly increase the rate of pressure rise during combustion. This effect was more pronounced for lean mixtures than for stoichiometric mixtures.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670359
Robert J. Carlson
The United States Air Force is evaluating the application of an airborne analyzer and digital recording system to assess, diagnose, and predict turbojet engine health on an immediate and long-term basis. This paper presents a brief discussion of the C-141 “Lead-the-Force” System, the C-5A Malfunction Detection, Analysis, and Recording Subsystem, and discusses in detail the Engine Analyzer System (EASY). The EASY discussion includes the design philosophy, hardware, test programs, computer programs, and test results.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670470
F. E. Buddenhagen
The radial ply tire has been established as a growing factor in the American tire market because of the many basic advantages the radial ply concept offers as compared to the conventional bias tire. There still remains much work to be done, however, before the full potential of this concept -- an efficient and economic means of combining materials to perform the function of a tire -- is realized. In addition, disadvantages must be minimized or eliminated. Modifications in construction and design are means toward these goals and are considered in some depth in this paper. It should be noted that construction and design features consistent with bias tire experience must be carefully re-examined when applied to the radial tire principle.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670462
Paul L. Thornburg
This paper presents a semi-technical discussion of the increased usage of aluminum in automatic transmissions, pointing out the areas which have made this increase possible and the economic reasons which have made it feasible.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670482
T. A. Huls, H. A. Nickol
The influence of engine variables on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen present in the exhaust of a multicylinder engine was studied. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with either a mass spectrometer or a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. The NO concentration was low for rich operation (deficient in oxygen) and increased with air-fuel ratio to a peak value at ratios slightly leaner than stoichiometric proportions. A further increase in air-fuel ratio resulted in reduced NO concentrations. Advanced spark timing, decreased manifold vacuum, increased coolant temperature and combustion chamber deposit buildup were also found to increase exhaust NO concentration. These results support either directly or indirectly the hypothesis that exhaust NO concentration is primarily a result of the peak combustion gas temperature and the available oxygen.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670472
J. L. Martin
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670484
G. Lawrence, J. Buttivant, C. G. O'Neill
Abstract A carburetor adapted to exploit the control of exhaust emissions through consistency of metering and mixture quality, particularly in conjunction with a dual bore inlet manifold, is discussed against the background problems faced by the European motor industry. The development and incidental research data which determined the design are followed by a description of production and quality assurance techniques, with special reference to the evolution of automatic flow testing apparatus.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670478
M. Goyal, Glen Scharpf, G. Borman
A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670392
Jack M. W. Bell
Future, potential developments in space transportation systems are reviewed. Consideration is given to spacecraft systems, launch and recovery facilities, and economic justification of future alternatives. It is concluded that requirements for high system utilization rates must be evolved before a fully recoverable, reusable space transportation system can be economically justified. The recovery and refurbishment of current-type systems is suggested as an intermediate alternative which, by reducing cost per mission and increasing space system utilization, will ultimately lead to a valid requirement for advanced reusable systems.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670394
James E. Love, William R. Young
The flight environment of the X-15 research aircraft is similar to that of a first-stage rocket booster. The data obtained during the flight program is, therefore, of interest for reusable space vehicles. Detailed information is presented concerning development, operation, and the economic aspects of the vehicle and facilities, including manpower effort, and calendar time required for refurbishment and turnaround. The effect of component improvements, which have been dictated by failure experience, on operations is examined. These data have been derived from more than 7 years of X-15 operations.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670388
Henri Deplante, Pierre Perrier
Assuming the delivery with an excess velocity reserve 3.300 ft/sec of a 1 ton. transferable load to a space laboratory orbiting at 200 S.M., the feasibility of a 2 (or 3) stages “horizontal take-off transporter” is considered. Analysis includes the concept of two recoverable vehicles and discusses the configuration, separation, return and propulsion. Design assumes that conventional airports can be used without special facilities, except LOX and LH.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670389
T. W. Smith
With reusability accepted as a means of reducing operating costs, the size of the initial investment (research and development) is likely to determine the choice for the next generation boosters. High volume utilisation lifting bodies propelled by LH/LOX rockets in a vertical take-off mode are shown to be superior to several other concepts. This is largely due to the low manufactured weight without undue complexity or use of exotic materials, leading to low R&D and low unit cost. Even lower costs can be shown for a modular concept (MUSTARD) in which basically identical lifting bodies units are utilised as both boosters and spacecraft. The concept is shown to be feasible, and progress on some aspects of the associated structural analysis is described.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670456
J. A. Bates, D. R. Dunlop, D. M. Finch, D. 0. Horning
The principle of metal cutting is used in an energy-absorption system to control the deceleration of a moving test vehicle in a crash impact simulator. By varying the depth and type of cut made, such a system can be programmed to duplicate the basic deceleration patterns typically produced in single and multiple impact collisions of motor vehicles. Initial experiments with a vertical type, dynamic test machine showed that the metal cutting method compared favorably in ease of operation, design feasibility, and operating cost with other energy-absorption methods such as hydraulic buffering and crushing of metal honeycomb material. In addition, it provides the advantage of multiple impact simulation. Preliminary evaluation tests of the full-scale metal cutting system in the collision simulator, using aluminum plate for the material cut, showed the system capable of providing flat-topped deceleration patterns of various amplitudes with good repeatability.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670457
C. O. Jones, D. R. Dunlop, D. M. Finch
A market sampling of motor vehicle lighting devices and seat belts approved for sale in California found a sizable percentage not complying with State requirements. Samples of 40 different devices, in both after-market and original equipment categories, were purchased on the open market and subjected to the same inspection and test procedures as the corresponding samples originally submitted by the manufacturers for approval. A large percentage of the purchased devices were found unacceptable. Many of the unacceptable units showed obvious physical changes made in production when compared with the original samples submitted for approval testing. In the remaining unacceptable devices, performance deficiencies were probably due to inadequate quality control in manufacture. There was no significant difference between the after-market and original equipment categories with regard to the percentage of purchased devices found unacceptable.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670404
James C. Blair, Jerome R. Redus
Flight control requirements of reusable launch vehicles are reviewed and compared to those of aircraft, current launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Areas are identified in which more work on the flight control system will improve mission performance. Current work in three areas is briefly reviewed - the use of man in the control loop, the development of systems which can accommodate large changes in the flight conditions, and use of the flight control system to reduce wind-induced loading.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670405
David Andrews
The evolution of space activities based on the use of large ballistic vehicles appears now to have been fortuitous. The delayed start of European programmes necessitates reconsideration of what will be the most profitable line of development. Until men are seen to inhabit space stations for useful purposes and to be transported there and back safely and economically popular support for these activities will be reluctantly given. A re-usable transporter, of whatever type, enlarges man's capability in space. Industrial recommendations for a European space programme accept it as a necessary implement in the long term.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670528
James W. McKee
While the SST will operate in environments that are new to commercial passenger airplanes, its flight control system introduces no radical changes in operating procedures. All primary flight control surfaces are operated by triple, noninterconnected hydraulic systems. The normal mode of longitudinal and lateral control employs an electrical command system and mechanical backup is provided. Multichannel stability augmentation is introduced on all three control axes. Optimum lift/drag characteristics are assured through variable-sweep wings, direct lift control, and the secondary flight controls. Trim is accomplished by displacing the primary control surfaces. Development of flight control system components is progressing on schedule.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670527
Arthur G. Hufton
The author presents a brief description of a present day automotive ignition system with an explanation of its various components. The moving parts of the ignition system such as the distributor shaft which is driven from the cam shaft, centrifugal weights which move the cam, vacuum advance mechanism, and rubbing block with breaker points and rotor can and will be eliminated with the aid of solid state electronics. An analysis of the ignition coil and factors influencing its design as well as its vital part in the present-day system is reviewed. Also mentioned briefly are the transistor system and capacitor discharge ignition system and their current state of application. It is believed that solid state devices and integrated circuits will develop greater reliability and greater cost advantages for the consumer.

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