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Viewing 163861 to 163890 of 188344
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720049
Frederick C. Burgwardt
Most companies have a very tangible resource which can be mobilized to provide effective in-house education and training. Frequently overlooked are the very specialists who were hired to perform key roles in the development of new products or services. An in-house training program can provide a profitable outlet for this potential. This paper describes the techniques of harnessing your resources, investigates the benefits of bootstrap training, and provides insight into specific administrative activities required for successful program operation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720050
Harley J. Anderson
Continuing engineering educational programs provided at General Motors Institute are described. Resident and in-plant educational programs are discussed which are provided for maintenance, technician and engineering personnel. Some of the changes in emphasis occurring in electrical technology today due to developments in solid-state electronics are outlined.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720045
James C. Davis
A modal model is a concise and convenient way to describe the dynamic characteristics of a structural subsystem of a vehicle, such as a frame or a body structure. Techniques have been developed for obtaining a modal model by fitting the model to measured frequency responses. These modal models are then used as “building blocks” and coupled to mathematical models of the vehicle's other subsystems (the suspensions, the engine mounting system, etc.) to simulate the total vehicle system. This paper explains the basic theory of modal modeling, including the concepts of mode shape scaling and residual compliances. Some sample vehicle shake simulation studies are also discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720044
Larry G. Koch
Analytic modeling and analog computer simulation techniques are presented for determining power train transient responses excited by clutch-actuated gear shifts. A method for describing the dynamics of a transmission arrangement having several clutches and interconnected planetary gear sets is considered in detail. Simulation model testing is directed toward optimizing system design parameters and evaluating power train component capability and vehicle shift-feel. Data reduction techniques applied to model responses of torque and speed will yield appropriate spectrums representative of simulated work cycle. The spectrum data are used to predict hours of life for gears, bearings, and driveshafts, according to cumulative fatigue damage theory.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720047
Enzo Franchini
A large facility has been developed in the Fiat Structure Laboratory for performing indoor the fatigue tests usually run on the road. The hydraulic equipment potentiality is such that the severe stresses encountered on a very bad African road can be reproduced on a fully laden truck. The equipment is divided in two indipendent sections allowing to carry out, simultaneously, also vibration tests on complete vehicles.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720041
V. M. Halsall, R. R. Wiethaup
A new process for the preparation of lead-acid batteries has been developed in response to problems associated with inventory maintenance of wet batteries and the processing and performance of dry charge batteries. Unique steps are a modified formation treatment followed by removal of most of the electrolyte by the use of an accelerative force, such as that generated by a centrifuge, to produce a charged and tested finished battery in a moist condition. The new product has superior properties that enable the manufacturer to store and activate it within the battery plant to service the wet battery market or to ship it to the dry charge market as a high-performance long-shelf-life product.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720040
John P. Badger
A water-activable, dry-charged lead-acid automotive battery is described in which concentrated sulfuric acid is immobilized and stored in a phenolic foam block within each cell. Design and construction features are described, and the method of activating the battery with water is outlined. Battery performance is described, and shelf life is measured by comparing precharge performance of the water-activable battery with that of a conventional design as a function of battery age. The new fiberglass reinforced polyethylene thin-wall battery container is described. Physical properties are compared with typical copolymer and hard rubber containers.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720037
Joel R. Urban
In this day of specialization it is essential that electrical design engineers have a general background in insulating materials. This paper intends to provide some guidelines for the selection of proper insulation materials. The properties and construction of various types of electrical grade pressure sensitive tapes is discussed. The importance of compatibility, the consideration of corrosion, and the mechanical, electrical, thermal, environmental exposure, cost, and safety aspects of a given application are emphasized.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720107
O. Lee Henry
Trailer air suspensions have been commonly applied to heavy-duty over-the-highway trailers. Recently, several concepts of drive axle air suspensions have been developed within the industry to various stages. This paper presents concept parameters, product development, and suspension development of the Neway Drive Axle Air Suspension (ARD). Performance ride and handling factors, compatibility, and structural integrity were the established guidelines.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720106
R. F. SCHMIDT
The purpose of this paper is to describe the recent development by GMC, of an over-the-highway 34,000# tandem rear axle air suspension system for heavy duty truck/tractor applications. Various design approaches for truck air suspensions during the past two decades, are touched upon to trace the evolution process leading to the present design philosophy which provides roll resistance comparable to steel leaf spring suspension systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720105
W. S. Locke
A new truck air suspension system has been developed which provides excellent roll stability and articulation capability without compromising the exceptionally soft ride characteristics of air suspension. The concurrent realization of roll stability and articulation capability for tandem driving axles has been achieved by designing a semirigid, roll-resisting, rear rear axle, to be used in conjunction with a freely articulating, forward rear axle. This principle applies equally well for single driving axle vehicles, where the rigid axle provides the same roll stability and articulation, not really a problem on single axle vehicles, is provided by frame and front axle suspension flexibility. The new suspension was designed to fit vehicle models ranging 23,000-54,000 lb gvw, and a saddle arrangement was developed to attach the rear axle housing to the trailing arm. Aluminum forgings were used in an effort to achieve minimum weight in every suspension part and all chassis components.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720103
Gerhard Finsterwalder
As manufacturers of air-cooled diesel engines, the company of Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz (KHD) undertook the rather rapid development of a multifuel engine on the basis of a proved mass-produced, air-cooled unit. Being equal in output, this new engine had to run on all fuels and fuel mixtures obtainable at gasoline stations without any modifications being necessary. Preferably, it had to be produced by means of the same manufacturing facilities as the series engine and features a maximum number of identical parts. The solution to the problem involves supplementing the series engine with a high-tension ignition system employing a special spark plug in the direct vicinity of the injection nozzle. This spark plug can be subsequently installed following the rework of standard parts. By using the same basic setting of injection and ignition for all fuels, it is possible to attain absolutely knock-free combustion, with a gentle compression curve and a minimum of cyclic pressure variations.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720101
Thomas P. Yasin
There are many flow problems in which the flow quantity in a short, irregular duct must be measured. A measurement technique which is fast, causes no pressure loss, and can tolerate poor flow quality is often needed. The flow through the radiator duct of a wind tunnel model is one example. Four sensors were tested for velocity response and sensitivity to duct geometry. A full-factorial experiment utilizing a modular simulation of a radiator duct was employed. Two sensors, a propeller anemometer and a long hot wire, seemed to be quite independent of velocity distribution and flow angularity.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720098
D. M. Mullen
Abstract The use of computers and integrated-systems concepts has made computerized auditing techniques necessary. This paper discusses one such auditing system and describes the Ford part numbering and usage condition coding systems which are fundamental to its design. As part designs are released for production by Engineering, these parts are accompanied by a definition of the conditions under which the design is to be used for production and the required quantity per unit. The information is needed in calculating tooling requirements, scheduling manufacture and procurement of parts, and controlling inventories.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720097
Milton R. Freivogel
Chevrolet is now using a new procedure for disseminating specification-type information. The new Total Specification Information System (TSIS) is an on-line terminal system featuring immediate response and a common data base. Specifications functions and accomplishments before and with TSIS, are described with a history of its development: functions of a Specifications Dept., procedure before TSIS, history of TSIS, information management system, procedures and concepts of TSIS, educational requirements, statistics, and appraisal of the system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720094
Allan P. Whittemore
A method of measuring the “effective” profile of road surfaces at highway speeds has been developed. This method is of particular interest to engineers involved in the study of vehicle ride and vibration phenomena on laboratory road simulators, because the measured road profiles include the effects of tire enveloping, thereby eliminating the need to simulate them. Furthermore, the road profiling instrumentation can be adapted to any vehicle which facilitates simulator to road correlation studies.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720095
Ronald A. Cripe
This paper defines a laboratory road simulator system and discusses various problems associated with using such a machine to test vehicles. Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for applying input forces to the vehicle are discussed to show why the author chose the method of exciting through the tire in the vertical direction only. The development of a method for solving the problem of simulating the rolling tire vertical properties is presented. Vertical and fore-aft response correlation resulting from this tire simulation is shown and the types of problems the author has chosen to study with this test system are explained.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720090
S. Morgan, R. W. Dennis
Disc brake temperatures are predicted by considering the heat flow in two dimensions, allowing for losses by convection and conduction. Heat transfer coefficients are presented from earlier laboratory experiments which studied the effects of air crossflow velocity, rotational speed, and caliper angle, and their interaction. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data from vehicle tests, the differences being a measure of the magnitude of the effects caused by dirt shields, wheels, and body.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720088
M. B. Kent, Lloyd Gonyou, Monte R. Blodgett
This paper gives insight into comments and suggestions gleaned from computerized maintenance reports pertaining to the cranking system. Part I deals with the starting system: what makes it expensive to maintain and what can be done to reduce maintenance costs. Specific suggestions are listed. Inasmuch as 90% of the overall maintenance costs of the cranking system is brought about by faulty batteries, it is important to analyze the nature and extent of battery troubles. This aspect of the cranking sustem is discussed in Part II, including tests made of 10 Ryder trucks to delineate problem-causing practices and design deficiencies that contribute to high maintenance costs. Part III covers the importance of battery cables and connections. Major items of cranking system expense are compared to show that possible savings can result from improved cables and connections.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720087
Charles J. Owen, Wesley S. Trindal, Luther E. Smith
This paper consists of three parts. The first part discusses good and bad electrical wiring, its causes and effects, and the ways in which specific hindrances to good performance can be minimized or eliminated. Several examples are cited to pinpoint practices that create problems in the wiring system and to show how such problems can be avoided. The second part covers vehicular lighting systems: malfunction and causes of failure, and ways of protecting the lighting system. Also discussed are the efforts of the industry associations to provide quality and standardization. The final section tabulates the results of data which have been entered into a computer memory bank in regard to the cost of maintenance on the lighting system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720086
Jim May
This paper discusses the use of data processing to pinpoint the causes of component failure and thereby help maintenance supervisors do a more accurate job of determining component durability and cost, and in writing truck/trailer specifications. Results of on-the-spot evaluation of alternator failures on 206 trucks are analyzed. Also listed are several design deficiencies that must be corrected at O.E.M. level to extend alternator life.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720080
H. I. Wilson
Time-temperature histories of fuel system components were measured on 80 passenger cars in the summer of 1968 in Los Angeles for several 24 h use patterns simulating normal vehicle operation. These included both driving segments on several types of highways and engine-off soak periods. Ambient temperature, type of driving, and vehicle design features have the greatest influences on fuel system temperatures. These time-temperature histories are of interest for fuel system evaporative emissions study. Two applications of these data have been reported.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720078
M. C. Smith
Computer analysis and large-scale model experiments to determine the air side performance of louvered fin evaporator cores are discussed. Heat transfer and pressure drop are determined for several configurations and compared with calculated values. The experimental setup and digital computer program used for both experiments are described. Effects of condensation, fins per inch, fin thickness, and other core characteristics are determined. The computer model for heat transfer rate appears valid over a Reynolds number of at least 10. Two empirical parameters of the program, one on the liquid side and one on the air side, should be adjusted after comparison with highly accurate empirical data. Additional work is needed to improve the accuracy of data from the large-scale models, although determination of relative performance of different cores appears to be a present capability.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720074
Merl Baker
The university, in training engineers to meet the changing needs of society, must be more aggressive than in the past in anticipating changes before they occur and in performing research to determine whether anticipated changes are real or a passing fad. The professional societies must serve as the vehicle through which the university can work with government and employers of engineers to determine the present and future needs of society and to achieve a balance in quality and quantity of engineers and scientists to meet these needs. The United States, in the recent past, has almost had a monopoly among the nations of the world in advancing technology. But as other countries approach us, and in some cases exceed our capabilities, we must muster all our resources to have the kind of engineer and scientist that can compete with this very drastic change.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720002
Don B. Chaffin, Rodney K. Schutz, Richard G. Snyder
Empirical models are presented which predict the threespace position of the torso when responding to reaches with the right arm. Models were derived which specify torso position in terms of the spacial location of 10 surface markers. These markers were positioned over palpable skeletal points of the spine and shoulder girdle. The necessary data were obtained through photogrammetric procedures utilizing four orthogonal cameras. The independent (input) variables to these models are the coordinates of the reach target. A supplementary, slightly more accurate, set of models was also derived in which the set of independent variables was enlarged to include the anthropometric dimensions of the subject. The second, concurrent phase of the analysis resulted in the derivation of a set of models which describes the configuration of the internal, torso skeletal system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720003
W. F. Lins, H. Dugoff
This paper describes two motion simulators and their application to research in whole-body vibration. One is a four-degree-of-freedom device capable of producing vertical, pitch, roll, and yaw motions. The other is a single-degree-of-freedom device that produces motion in the horizontal direction. Both have been used to acquire information on whole-body and visual response to vibration. Frequency response plots of some of the acquired data are presented. Procedures for assessing the severity of human vibration responses in terms of absorbed power are described and discussed. Brief descriptions are presented of studies that made use of the equipment and methodology dicusssed. The first is a concept evaluation of a proposed vehicle for use on the lunar surface. The second is a hardware evaluation of two seating devices for use in a wheeled vehicle in severe terrain environment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720030
Kazuhiko Aoki
A new Committee on Japanese Automobile Standards for Brakes has been established to issue standards covering road tests, dynamometer tests, nomenclature, etc. This paper discusses several of these. The Committee also reviewed the regulations and standards of various countries for comparison purposes. In order to have rational standards, ample data on vehicle usage, analysis of brake characteristics, and study of basic human engineering will be needed. Correlation among road tests, dynamometer tests, and test equipment must be established. Amalgamation of various national standards into a single international standard is desirable goal.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720031
Robin A. Cochrane
A Wheel Slide Protection system is considered in which a hydraulic power source is used to modulate braking effort at each wheel of a vehicle. The reasons for selecting this type of power source are discussed, together with other parameters employed in the design of the system. System operation is described with particular emphasis on the functioning of the hydraulic actuators and their response to electrical control signals. Evaluation has been carried out on different vehicles over a wide range of surfaces. Certain observations are made as a result of these tests.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720035
TREVOR O. JONES, OLIVER T. McCARTER, ROBERT N. OGLESBY
Techniques and principles for evaluating and comparing various crash sensor concepts are discussed. The trade-off criteria include: crash/rough-road discrimination, target lethality, component reliability, zone of protection, environmental susceptibility, and other criteria. Within the context of hardware performance characteristics, currently prominent devices are described including: inertial mass, spring mass, piezoelectric and piezoresistive accelerometers, radar, sonar, and laser predictive sensors, and bumper mounted detectors. An example of the assessment method is presented, comparing an inertial mass and a spring mass detector.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720032
R. W. Radlinski
Use of braking systems in four passenger vehicles was evaluated during a 7300 mile trip across the United States. This paper presents an analysis of braking system temperatures and torques and vehicle speeds and decelerations that were measured during the trip. Similar measurements made during SAE fade and recovery tests are also presented and a comparison of severity levels is given. Requirements for specifying braking system performance at temperatures higher than those currently considered are discussed. The need for a new test to insure that vehicles will perform satisfactorily in service with approved brake fluids is shown.

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