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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 188298
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720244
W. P. Evans, R. E. Ricklefs, R. A. Hanson, J. A. Larson
The data from five residual stress round robins run by the X-Ray Fatigue Division of the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee have been studied. Many factors affecting precision have been isolated during 16 years of testing. Some of these relate to the sample?material hardness and geometry- while others, such as alignment, are instrumental or procedural. Laboratories using proper techniques can achieve an interlaboratory standard deviation of 2.5 ksi on a stressed, hardened steel cylinder.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720243
R. W. Buenneke
Two applications of x-ray residual stress measurements in steel are reported. One application shows how residual stresses have a direct bearing on fatigue strength caused by varying material and heat treatment. The other application shows how x-ray diffraction measurements can help determine the cause of grinder cracking in carburized and hardened steel parts. Grinder cracking occurs by overheating the surface which produces tensile residual stresses that exceed the fracture strength of the steel. Also, there appears to be a relationship between retained austenite content and the grinder cracking phenomenon.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720265
Lee E. Tucker
A procedure for designing against fatigue failure of notched parts is presented. It is based on measuring nominal loads or strains and estimating notch root stresses and strains using Neuber's rule. Other inputs to the procedure are axial smooth specimen cyclic stress-strain response, fatigue properties, and fatigue notch factor. Miner's cumulative damage rule is applied to the local stress-strain history and fatigue life predicted. Examples are given where life predictions are compared to laboratory test results.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720261
James A. Newman, Shui-chih Cheng, Vipin K. Suri
This paper describes the development of a hybrid-computer simulation of a recreational snowmobile. The vehicle has been mathematically represented by a displacement-driven, damped nonlinear spring-mass system with two degrees of freedom. The analog circuit and the logic level control system of the analog/hybrid computer is discussed. The use of a hybrid system using Hytran Operational Interpreter to perform OFF-LINE and ON-LINE checks is also discussed. Finally, a method to display a visual representation of the vehicle on an oscilloscope screen is presented. The simulation permits vehicle designers to vary at will the various design parameters and to observe immediately the effect of so doing.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720259
Hjormund Kummen
Off-road vehicles, to negotiate snowcovered terrain reliably and economically, must comply with a narrow range of design parameters. The practical lessons of past experience are evaluated, indicating the superiority of the four-tracked vehicle configuration. The design details essential to achieve snowmobility are indicated. Engineering information and the current state-of-the-art indicate that a functional, low-cost ordnance vehicle can be designed for use during all seasons in the Arctic.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720222
Charles L. Meteer
Lead vinyl coated fabrics, new composite vinyl films, and molding compounds have been developed that have application as flexible sound barriers in transportation and recreational equipment. The material consisting of fine lead particles disbursed in PVC compounds for coating, casting films, extrusion, injection molding, thermal form sheets, and rotational casting combines the high mass of lead and the properties and formability of vinyl. These composites provide a limp high mass sound barrier material.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720241
M. E. Hilley
Basic stress-strain principles of elasticity theory are related to elastic strains that could occur in metals and alloys. The equated relationships are expressed as a function of the diffraction line shift that occurs because of a variation in the spacing d of the atomic planes in a crystalline material that is due to applied or residual stress. This fractional change in d is a strain from which stress can be calculated and which can be determined by the change of angular position of a diffracted x-ray beam.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720242
C. F. Jatczak
The measurement of stress by x-ray diffraction techniques is considered from both the technical and practical viewpoints. Basic principles are discussed and the techniques and x-ray instrumentation presently in use here and abroad are described and compared from the standpoints of accuracy, precision, and time required for stress determination. Both diffractometer and film or camera techniques are covered. Other factors discussed are alignment requirements, selection of optimum instrumental conditions, required corrections to raw diffractometer data, specimen surface preparation, and stress constant evaluation methods. Step-by-step procedures for the novice with illustrations of typical data and calculations are finally presented for the two exposure and sin2ψ diffractometer techniques and for the two-exposure camera method.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720236
Donald S. Sarna, Fred Pradko, Daniel F. Ancona
The Army diagnostic equipment program for the support of automotive material is presented. Three generations of equipment will be discussed: the first generation is a family of computer-controlled automatic test equipment for automatic diagnosis of a complete vehicle; in the second generation, a transducer kit will be permanently installed on board the vehicles with provision for rapid connection to the computer; the third generation will be an on-board go/no-go system to indicate the condition of major components (no external test equipment required).
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720234
Robert F. Cahill
Automobiles in rental service are hard used and need quality inspection for the safety and comfort of rental agency customers. Employee training is only partially successful. An automobile inspection machine combining man and machine capabilities to match the defined goals and limitations of rental car inspection is described. Machine and driver combine to check 22 items including lights, tire pressure, tread depth, horn, brake function, radio, windshield wipers and washers, heater, gas tank, cleanliness, etc.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720235
E. Spengler
This paper presents an automotive service concept developed by Volkswagenwerk AG, Service Division. It is based on the knowledge that the complex tasks of automotive service can best be solved by coordinating the development of products and service methods, and that automotive service should be viewed as an integrated system of various “subactivities,” with each one being optimized to increase the efficiency of the overall system. Vehicle diagnosis is such a subactivity. A new data logging and processing system as a major step toward the implementation of an integrated automotive service system is described.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720460
A. J. Fritsch
Industrial practices can cause consumer confusion. The failure to communicate between the highest levels of automotive and petroleum companies provides an example. Gasoline is taken for granted by the driving public. It is extremely toxic and its emission products are a major contributing factor to air pollution. Engineers know how automotive and gasoline problems are interlocked. The Clean Air Act has forced scientists and engineers to cooperate. Technological solutions and cleanup timetables are insurmountable only when this collaboration is missing. The substantiation of gasoline advertisements, trade secrecy, standardization, and lead consumption are also covered in this paper. To preserve a safe and pollution-free environment, the scientist and the engineer both have a duty to anticipate toxic and unsafe products and company practices.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720461
Sidney B. Tuwiner
MECAR (Metropolitan Engineers Council on Air Resources), organized in 1965 to represent the engineering profession through its various societies in the New York metropolitan area, has four objectives: 1. To advise on standards and formulation of laws to improve air quality. 2. To serve law enforcement agencies in an advisory capacity. 3. To alert city, county, regional authorities, and the general public to pollution problems. 4. To inculcate within the engineering profession the need to cope with the sociotechnical problem. The group attempts to maintain consistency of direction of policy in matters pertaining to air quality in metropolitan areas.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720463
W. K. Klamp, J. Meingast
A number of tires have been examined in terms of the higher orders of radial and fore-and-aft force variations. Presented in this paper are some typical values of higher orders as measured on a specially designed high-speed machine. These measurements are related to the following factors: 1. Tire operating conditions. 2. Tire construction variations. 3. Influence of wheel and balance. 4. Radial force correction. 5. Ride evaluation. With experience, emphasis has shifted to understanding how tire manufacturing introduces higher harmonic disturbances, and thereby improving tire production, and making better use of conventional uniformity grading equipment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720456
Michael C. Kasprzyk
Successful computer monitoring and control applications require careful problem and system definition, especially if a system integrator is used for a turn key type installation. The concepts of interactive design and vendor involvement are presented as fundamental to writing specifications and defining system requirements for successfully solving the problem.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720457
Richard R. Perryman, Norman E. Prochaska
A survey of industrial control computer applications presently operational in this user's facilities revealed an approximate 50/50 division between those that were internally and externally implemented. Problems encountered in the planning, launching, and follow-up phase of system installation were found to be common to both internal and external system implementations and are categorized and evaluated as being inherent and environmental in nature. In an effort to avoid anticipated problems characteristic of a computerized installation, proper staffing as an inhouse project team is essential. During the process of developing inhouse talent, three plateaus of system implementation maturity are attained. These plateaus range from complete dependency upon outside assistance to “do it yourself” inhouse implementation. Flow charts are developed to depict typical decision paths leading to a plateau of system implementation most appropriate for the particular user “turnkey dilemma.”
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720459
David A. Entrekin
The role of a systems house in implementing a system for a manufacturing complex can best be illustrated by the neutral position that a systems house will take in integrating the management requirements in relation to the real-time data base, which must be implemented from the manufacturing floor.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720452
Ryoji Ohgake, Teruo Hidaka
In Japan, test methods for evaluating the performance of 2-cycle engine oils have been developed separately by each 2-cycle engine manufacturer. The reason for this is that there are are many differences in engine performance and in lubrication methods. Evaluation through bench tests is used as a valid method for screening engine oils prior to field tests. Field tests are conducted eventually as the most reliable test method for evaluating the performance of engine oils. Yamaha Motor, one of the leading Japanese 2-cycle engine manufacturers, developed a “70 min engine test method” in 1963, which can be conducted in a relatively short period of time with good reproducibility. In this paper, several problems regarding Yamaha's 70 min engine test method are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720453
Robert W. Clements, Michael A. Richard
The application of automation to dynamometer testing of engines has led to the development of specialized circuits and techniques to compensate for limitations inherent within the electromechanical systems used to implement automation theory. Stable, quick response to a programmed speed change has been achieved for engine-automatic transmission testing by the use of a parallel feedback technique. Vehicle simulation using analog computer circuitry and road test data is used to calculate torque requirements from programmed acceleration-time and velocity-time curves. Similar circuitry is used to calculate engine-transmission output torque from dynamometer parameters.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720454
J. F. Cassidy, J. H. Rillings
This paper describes a computer-controlled engine test cell being developed at the General Motors Research Laboratories. The object is to combine the advantages of the controlled experimental conditions possible in an engine test cell with the dynamic capabilities of a vehicle driven on the road or on a chassis dynamometer to produce a unique research and development tool. The overall system, consisting of an IBM 1800 process control computer linked to an electric dynamometer and engine in an engine test cell, is introduced. A description is given of the test cell control and data acquisition instrumentation and of the pallet system which permits prebuilding of engine experimental packages for rapid installation in the test cell. An overview of the computer programs, with emphasis on user interaction, is presented. The throttle and speed control algorithms, which apply road or chassis dynamometer load conditions to the engine in the engine test cell, are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720476
E. J. Thompson, H. E. Reymore, R. L. Grieve, A. A. R. Sayigh
Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the applications of isocyanate-based structural foams (Dermathane). Molds and tooling are critical to making a good article. Experience is the principal teacher in this area of technology. An analysis of various toolings and applications tells what is necessary and what is unnecessary. Density is well-known as the most important variable when strength is considered. However, when sandwich-like structures are involved, the analysis for strength becomes more complicated. This paper includes all the processing and design information necessary for using Dermathane at the optimum strength and economy.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720477
John A. Helgesen
Expanded ABS, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, is discussed in this paper. The physical properties of this material are described, particularly with respect to furniture production. The expansion casting process is described, casting recommendations presented, and equipment detailed. Design and finishing are explored in some detail, and comparisons with wood and other furniture materials are offered.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720472
T.E. Ritter, W.S. Kristofetz, A.D. Cortese, R.E. Rasmussen
Tire force and moment test machines are used to measure mechanical properties important to vehicle handling. Many different machines have been developed for this type of work. This report discusses considerations in the design of such equipment which include productivity, road simulation, tire size range, input parameters, weighing system design, and data processing. The design of a new test machine with a belt type road simulator is described. Some early test data on machine correlation, lateral force and aligning torque dynamics, and flat road uniformity are presented.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720473
A. L. Nedley, W. J. Wilson
A new laboratory test facility for measuring the various understeer influences on complete vehicles is described. The machine actuates the body and suspension in the same manner as it occurs on the road while turning or braking. Changes in steer and camber angles of the wheels are measured as body roll, tire lateral forces, and tire aligning torques are applied to the vehicle separately or simultaneously. It makes a direct measurement of vehicle roll susceptibility (tendency to roll in a turn). Steer caused by braking, called brake steer, is measured by applying brake forces. A description is given of the systems and interacting subsystems of the machine, which provide duplication of a wide range of actual over-the-road conditions while preventing application of unrealistic constraints to the vehicle. Design features that create the capability to obtain the desired accuracies while minimizing test time are also discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720432
Richard M. Goodman
In this paper you will find problems posed by threatened lawsuits arising out of potential defects in passive restraint systems. For many years, it was recognized that the manufacturer of an automobile was liable for defects in manufacture or design which produce injuries. Now the question is should part of the cost of claims and verdicts be shifted to the government-this might make the government more responsive to the feasibility of adopting particular safety systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720431
Donald L. Schaffer
The air bag is ready and installation in front seat positions is essential at the earliest possible date. There has been almost a conspiracy of silence and a supression of favorable data-thus the media and through it the public are almost completely uninformed, or even worse, misinformed about air bags. An informed public will accept and should demand an air bag system. Minimal utilization of active restraints (lap and shoulder belts) mandates passive restraints (air bags). This group (S.A.E.) has a duty to cause a speed-up in the present rate of availability of air bags. The ultimate savings in lives and reduction in serious injuries as well as automobile insurance costs will be gratifying and substantial.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720429
Leonard R. Barnes
Lap-shoulder belts became standard with very little, very inneffective explanation of why they should be used. National effort is needed to persuade all to use them, and auto industry to improve them, and see the effect of buzzers and interlocks before mandating airbags or equivalent. This paper looks at the past history of restraints, forecasts the future if airbags are to be mandated without explaining them. AAA of Michigan motorist survey shows strong dislike of airbags, a preference for seatbelt-shoulder harness if choice must be made, a strong feeling that it is not the business of government to mandate airbag or seatbelt use. Question is raised about claims of number of lives that airbags will save. Are they too high?
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720427
Lowell Dodge
Impositions placed on vehicle occupants by safety belts and safety belt use are substantial and will increase as systems to encourage or force belt usage are incorporated. By comparison, the known impositions of air bags are minor, but to these must be added other requirements, the extent of which are not yet well-known. Substantial fleet testing of air bags will clarify most of these inconveniences. Automobile manufacturers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration have failed to generate public support for the air bag. Lack of consumer support will continue unless greater resources are allocated to equip fleet vehicles with air bag systems so that a reliable record of air-bag efficacy can be compiled.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720451
W. R. Pyle
Multicylinder 2-cycle, water-cooled outboard motors were modified to allow testing of up to three different fuel-oil blends simultaneously. A special “floating laboratory” test barge was designed and constructed for operation of the outboards. Engine protection and metering facilities were provided in the control room on the barge. Repeatability studies were then carried out to determine the precision of the test using multiple references in four outboard motors. Results indicated that a high degree of precision was attainable. Some results from fuel and lubricant evaluations, which followed, are included.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720450
Takashi Kohayakawa, Yoshimi Hirai, Tsugio Ogawa, Eizi Suzuki
Studies have been conducted for determining the distribution of the lubricant in a crankcase scavenged two-stroke cycle engine. Presently, it is not obvious how newly supplied oil reaches each engine part and how it leaves the engine through the exhaust gas. Furthermore, it is desirable to know what percent of the supplied oil is exhausted during the scavenging period and what percent is burned in the combustion chamber with the gasoline. Three different lubrication systems were studied utilizing radioisotopes: premixed fuel and oil; manifold supply system for the oil; and crankcase supply system for the oil. The lubricating oil was tagged with tritium. The lubricating oil behavior in the crankcase scavenged two-stroke engine has been investigated within the limited operating condition of these tests. The tests show that almost all supplied oil was exhausted within one hour, and the remainder was exhausted gradually.

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