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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 181976
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660405
T. A. Huls, P. S. Myers, O. A. Uyehara
The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660403
Walter J. Uchwal
Many assembly methods have never been mechanized or automated until recently. Automated operations in the differential and carrier assembly line recently installed at the Ford Motor Co. Sterling Plant are: automatic gaging for proper bearing preload; automatic check of pinion torque; automatic run-out and freeness of pinion and universal joint assembly; combination station to feed out the differential pinion shaft, press it into the case, feed and drive in the roll pin; automatic bolt inspection; automated bolt feed into case and run down to proper torque; and automatic removal of doweled bearing cap.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660404
Marvin W. Jackson
The effects of air-fuel ratio, spark timing, an engine modification system, and the Air Injection Reactor System on the composition and reactivity of the exhaust hydrocarbons are reported. The reactivity index and composition changes are compared to those indicated by the nondispersive infrared analyzer. Either retarding the spark timing or leaning the air-fuel ratio reduced the hydrocarbon concentration measured by the infrared analyzer. In contrast, the reactivity index increased as the spark timing was retarded and the decrease in the reactivity index due to leaning the air-fuel ratio was only 1/2 the decrease in the concentration measured by the infrared analyzer. For equal reductions in the concentration measured by the infrared analyzer, the reactivity index with the engine modification system was 37% higher than that with the Air Injection Reactor System.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660401
J. Earl Fraser
This paper describes the role a manufacturers representative can play in the automotive industry. It defines a manufacturers representation, details his responsibilities, explains how he can help to sell a product, and gives examples of how his expertise stands him in good stead as a trouble-shooter.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660399
Walter D. Noon, Gary L. Smith, Paul A. Bochnig
The evaluation of commercial vehicle brake system balance is a complex analytical task. Tractor-trailer combinations frequently include different brake designs on different axles, which have widely varying characteristics. In addition, variations in brake parameters such as pressure, response times, linings, and heat transfer under various operating conditions add to the complexity of analyzing the brake system. This paper describes a mathematical model of the vehicle brake system and a program for a digital computer to solve the mathematical expressions. Using the computer to simulate dynamic brake system operation, current designs can be evaluated rapidly for effectiveness and possible improvement, and future designs can be analyzed prior to expensive prototype fabrication.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660402
R. W. Laile
This paper describes four integrated, index type, parallel lines with intermixed manual and automatic operations used at Pontiac Motor Division to assemble rear axle differentials. Automatic pinion bearing preloading, gaging of pinion cone distance, gaging of side bearing shims, heating of ring gear bore, spreading of carrier, and on the line testing are the main features of this machine. Quality has improved through automatic gaging and the ability to perform automatic operations while the parts are stationary. Significant manpower reductions have been made possible with this automated assembly, which has a production gross of 270 assemblies per hour.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660400
William C. Eaton, Ivan J. Schreur
The operation and installation of a brake proportioning valve for large commercial vehicles are discussed. Comments on areas of usefulness are included and test data presented. An appendix contains generalized equations pertaining to predicted vehicle performance.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660397
M. C. Goodwin, J. J. Rodgers, G. A. Peters
Tests were conducted using older model cars with automatic transmissions to determine the effect of fluid composition on leakage past the rotating shaft seals. It was found that seal leakage was reduced or stopped by changing to seal-swelling fluids, and increased with seal-shrinking fluids. Leakage was also reduced by adding aromatic additives to existing fluids in the transmissions. Seal volume and hardness change results from bench tests support the car data.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660398
Robert J. Morse
Two means of making substantial improvements in brake balance are discussed. The first, the use of dynamic rather than static weights in braking power calculations has greatest value on loaded vehicles. Dynamic weights existing at 0.3 g deceleration are proposed as a standard. The second, load proportioned braking, is helpful on empty vehicles but must be used on all axles which have a substantial change in weight from the empty to the loaded condition. If used on only one unit of a combination vehicle, it may have a detrimental effect on brake balance.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660395
B. C. Vandermar, G. A. Ilkka
Effective performance of functional automotive components requires fluid sealing under compatible conditions. One method of determining this compatibility is through the use of immersion testing under a variety of conditions that simulate those experienced in actual use. By measuring the changes in the physical properties of the seal materials after immersion a judgment can be made regarding seal/fluid compatibility which will be encountered later in actual use. A series of immersion tests using representative seal materials and automotive fluids; namely, gear oils, transmission fluids, and motor oils were conducted within the framework of the Technical Committee on Automotive Rubber, jointly sponsored by SAE-ASTM.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660393
H. D. Harms
Late in 1965, Caterpillar introduced its 1676, a 340 hp diesel truck engine of completely new design. Construction details of this compact engine which features turbocharging, aftercooling, and four valves per cylinder are illustrated and described. Development problems and performance of the production engine are also presented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660396
G. A. Peters, J. J. Rodgers
The Total Immersion Test (ASTM D 471) for seal elastomers, used in evaluating the compatibility of fluids and seals for automatic transmissions, does not, produce hardness and volume change results similar to those found for rotating shaft seals in service. The Tip Cycle Test was devised to provide better agreement with service results. In the test, one side of the seal is exposed to air, and the other alternately to fluid and to air-fluid vapor. Rotating shaft seals were evaluated in both car and dynamometer transmission tests, and in various bench tests. Agreement was poor between transmission tests and both the Total Immersion and the Dip Cycle Tests. Good agreement was found with the Tip Cycle Test.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660394
Hiroshi Naito, Moriyuki Taguchi
This paper describes aspects of YAMAHA 2 cycle, high speed, high output engines. Generally speaking, in order to obtain good results in developing engine performance, high delivery ratios and high thermal and mechanical efficiencies are essential. In addition to these, the most suitable cooling and lubricating systems must be employed. YAMAHA has developed a separate and automatic lubrication system for 2-cycle gasoline engines, which keeps YAMAHA engines well lubricated.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660391
G. R. Smith, D. R. Dunlop, D. M. Finch
This report describes equipment designed and built in the Motor Vehicle Devices Testing Facility of the California Highway Patrol, and used to increase laboratory capacity for testing of automotive signal flashers. The new durability test apparatus is capable of handling two or three terminal flashers in groups of 80 at one time, and uses two electronically regulated, solid state power supplies as sources of stable d-c power. The performance test apparatus makes it possible to obtain the operating characteristics of 10 flashers in quick succession through use of a switching control unit and a strip chart recorder.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660392
THOMAS K. BRICHFORD, JAMES W. MURRAY
Determining the actual usage and environment to which a turn signal flasher is exposed made it possible to design a laboratory test from which predictions could be made of flasher reliability as installed in a vehicle. A simplified reliability test plan was also devised for monitoring production flashers which permits valid conclusions to be reached by personnel not acquainted with statistics.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660389
William D. Bowman
A set of empirical equations are offered which define the variation of aerodynamic coefficients with yaw angle for sedan type automobile bodies. These are derived from wind tunnel tests on 3/8 size models of 21 automobile body forms, of which 17 were production car specimens. The results show that while body form and features exert decisive influence on numerical values of force and moment coefficients, their mode of variation with yaw angle is independent of body shape and size.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660385
Donald S. Gross, William S. Sekscienski
Some of the techniques used in wind tunnel testing of automotive vehicle models are discussed. The current problems and unknowns are presented with comparative data when available. Aerodynamic lift is shown to be the most sensitive and uncertain of the aerodynamic components.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660384
E. Eugene Larrabee
This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660388
Ricklef W. Shirk
The heater air flow rate is a function not only of the heater itself but also of the size and location of the heater system air inlets, the car body air outlets, and the body surface pressure at these inlets and outlets. Favorable pressure conditions generally exist at the typical top cowl heater air inlet; however, the aerodynamics of each particular vehicle should be studied to confirm the existence of these conditions. Little consideration has been given to body air outlet pressure conditions since body leakage paths have generally served as adequate air outlets; but, as body leakage is reduced, specific air outlets must be considered and a knowledge of aerodynamics is essential to the achieving of appropriately sized and appropriately located air outlets.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660387
Alex S. Tremulis
An analysis is presented of several existing land speed record cars and the aerodynamic drag characteristics involved in attaining the speed of sound. The importance of minimum profile area is discussed with the implication that the two wheel tandem principle presents the ultimate form for land speed record attempts achieving Mach I speeds.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660379
Louis H. Weinand
Conventional radial lip oil seals can be made more effective by utilizing helical grooving beneath the contact lip surface. Miniature hydrodynamic pumps so formed aid the radial lip seal in containing the oil by generating fluid forces opposite in direction to the leakage flow forces. This seal-shaft combination has been termed the Hydroseal. Four factorial experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of helix angle, groove depth, groove width, and number of grooves on sealing performance. The criterion used as a basis for selecting the optimum design were leakage, wear, hardening of the sealing surface, and pumping capacity. These data indicated that the best hydroseal design was one with three grooves, 0.0003 in. deep, 0.014 in. wide, having a helix angle of 45 deg.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660381
John M. Brown
The Sealometer is used for evaluating the performance of lip type oil seals and provides a dimensionless number derived from measuring the increase in temperature of a test shaft operating in a lip seal for a given time interval. With the Sealometer it is possible to study parameters that affect seal performance. As a quality control instrument, the machine provides accurate data for design. Sealometer evaluation offers a quick method of determining the life expectancy of a particular design for a particular application and eliminates the need for long life test programs.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660380
James D. Symons
The multitude of lip section designs and the continued major automotive warranty problem in the field of radial oil seals indicated that a more thorough knowledge of lip section design was necessary. Seven design factors were investigated by means of fractional factorial experimentation to determine the optimum level for each of the factors. The general effects of trim diameter, radial lip force, seal lip to case eccentricity, spring position, contact width, flex section, and material modulus, plus the interactions between these seven factors, were investigated. Leakage was measured as the response or dependent variable. A detailed drawing of the optimum lip section, derived from the results of tests which optimized on the main effects only, is given.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660673
Marshall E. Alper
Mariner IV and the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) are compared to explore the question “Does man's presence make any difference in space vehicle structures?” The environment, mission requirements, and subsystem interfaces are examined to determine the extent to which they affect the space vehicle structure and to see which elements are influenced by the presence of man. The author concludes from the comparison that man is a unique payload for a space vehicle and, consequently, his presence strongly influences the payload structure. The rest of the space vehicle structure is primarily influenced by size requirements and by mission duration.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660674
C. E. Conn
The aerospace changing aerothermodynamic environment from subsonic to supersonic to hypersonic flight velocity has brought the cost environment to the foreground. The increasing performance demands for lightweight structure and the resulting increase in airframe cost are discussed. The influence of material and fabrication costs on the desired efficient structural concepts of a supersonic wing box cover are evaluated. The solid-state diffusion bonding process is presented as a potential fabrication solution to achieving the desired minimum weight structure at low airframe cost.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660671
O. B. McBee
Preliminary selection of basic materials for flight vehicles is based on Mach number-altitude orientation, which includes turbulent flow to laminar flow location and effects. Structural weights and materials as a function of temperature are presented for both protected and unprotected primary structures. Design considerations and material selections for other pertinent items such as inlets, nose cones, leading edges, and transparencies are also considered.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660669
W. T. Shuler
This discussion summarizes the highlights of the C-141A airplane program, emphasizing fatigue, damage tolerance, and static strength considerations philosophically and in considerable detail where design criteria are involved. Dynamic considerations are also included insofar as the structural design of the airplane was affected thereby. Finally, some significant differences in criteria requirements between the C-141A and the C-5A are identified together with their expected impact on structural design.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660670
William H. Austin
Atmospheric turbulence measured at low altitudes over rough terrain in high wind conditions is shown to be more severe than the turbulence previously measured in thunderstorms. The military requirement for large bomber and logistic airplanes to operate at low level thus will result in large weight and performance penalties unless some means to reduce structural loads is employed. By use of power spectral density techniques, it is shown that loads in low level turbulence can be reduced on large airplanes with an adequate stability augmentation system. This load reduction is sufficient to insure that large aircraft operating at low level will not be unduly penalized in performance.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660667
F. H. Immen
The U. S. Army CH-47A Chinook is a transport helicopter developed by Boeing. Major considerations in the development of its structural integrity are discussed in this paper. Included is a description of fatigue analysis techniques which were developed to insure safe life of its critical components. This technique includes a mission profile, component fatigue strengths, use of top-of-scatter flight loads data, use of Miner’s rule of cumulative damage, and evaluation of possible anomalies on fatigue strengths and flight loads.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660668
V. W. Alvey, H. Fried
The requirements for V/STOL aircraft introduce unique structural problems and make more severe those common to conventional vehicles. Propulsion modes requiring increased thrust during hover and their relative airframe locations are responsible for the major portion of the associated problems. Those problems which require first-order attention, such as design philosophy for fan-in-wing configurations to obtain optimum structural design are discussed. The solution of acoustic environment problems, such as noise attenuation and acoustic fatigue, are investigated. Likewise, the study of thermal problems, both internal and external, and their effect on structure is presented. The problem of debris damage due to the propulsion environment at ground hover is discussed showing the potential energy level of debris. Finally, the importance of structural weight/cost effectiveness is shown for V/STOL aircraft.

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