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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 187891
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720500
R. P. Doelling, A. F. Gerber, P. M. Kerschner, M. S. Rakow, F. H. Robinson
An investigation was undertaken to determine if gasoline additives could effect a reduction in exhaust HC emissions. Of the multitude of compounds studied, two were found to reduce the increase in HC emissions associated with the accumulation of lead-derived combustion chamber deposits by approximately 50%. A practical combination of these compounds was evaluated in a fleet test which confirmed laboratory engine results. Studies were also conducted in laboratory engines and fleet vehicles to determine the effect of fuel lead level upon this additive's effectiveness and the activity of the additive upon established lead-derived combustion chamber deposits. Results obtained from these programs indicated that the additive would function with fuel lead levels from 1/2-3 g/gal, but that it was not capable of modifying established deposits. A rationale for the observed effect is presented.
HISTORICAL
1972-02-01
Standard
J249_197202
This standard defines the test conditions, procedures, and performance specifications for 6-, 12-, and 24-V manually actuated mechanical stop lamp switches.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720318
Rogers E. Smith
The effects of aft center-of-gravity (cg) travel on the total longitudinal response characteristics of the aircraft are reviewed and the implications of this cg shift on the aircraft's longitudinal flying qualities discussed. In addition, variations in pitch damping, control gearing, and speed effects are discussed at specific aft cg locations. The examples used are based largely on experience gained during in-flight demonstration programs using the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc. (CAL) variable stability B-26 aircraft.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720960
H. J. Clemens, K. Burow
This paper discusses the results of simulated head-on and rear-front vehicle crashes employing 53 human torsos. Measurements of deceleration of the head were taken, and the resulting injuries were noted. The most common and serious injury was to the cervical spine at the sixth vertebra. It is suggested that vehicle restraint systems be developed to avoid such injury, such as safety belts that would limit anteflexion of the head, airbags for head-on crash protection, and seat backs with integrated headrests to support the head at the c.g.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720411
E. H. KLOVE, ROBERT N. OGLESBY
Presented in this paper is a discussion of the details of the General Motors air cushion restraint system and of specific technical problems of system development and of implementing a production build program. The details of the General Motors system include a description of the components of the driver's and front passenger's systems, crash sensing, and “variable inflation.” The discussion of specific technical problems includes performance considerations; such as: Occupant rebound, child-size occupants, out-of-position occupants, non-barrier type crashes, and the function of the appearance cover. Also included is a discussion of the toxicity potential, noise risk, sensor development, reliability considerations, and field service requirements.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720144
Albert Zavala, Robert C. Sugarman, Roy S. Rice
This paper discusses the value and the need for the simulation of relevant driver information processing and control functions. The emphasis is on relevance of simulation to ensure that such a simulation would have the practical utility of helping to reduce some accidents. An overall review is given of accident rate study findings, results of manual control studies, and conclusions based on psychomotor performance skills research. From this review, it can be pointed out that most people who drive a car, even as they are learning to drive, already know how to operate each of the various controls and switches and pedals found in a car. However, the sequence in which these should be operated, and the conditions under which they are operated are the critical factors to be learned and overlearned.
HISTORICAL
1972-02-01
Standard
J565C_197202
This SAE Standard provides test procedures, performance requirements, and guidelines for semiautomatic headlamp beam switching devices.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720965
D. C. Schneider, A. M. Nahum
Abstract The dynamic responses of the human skull and facial bones have been determined by a series of impact experiments. A preliminary report was issued on this subject with particular reference to three impact sites of the skull-the frontal, temporo-parietal, and zygomatic. This work has been extended to include more experiments in these areas to delineate further the nature and reliability of the earlier data. In addition, new data have been obtained for the maxilla, mandible, and zygomatic arch in order to include additional anatomic sites that are frequently involved in accidental impacts. Relationships to impulse duration, peak force, and various anatomic characteristics have been studied and will also be presented. Additional data have been obtained for unembalmed anatomic specimens to provide new information to supplement and expand the tolerance base reported in the preliminary study.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720519
A. L. Thompson
In 1972 models for sale in California, Buick first employed programmed-metered exhaust gas dilution of the engine intake charge as the major means of reducing Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emission levels. With more stringent NOx emission standards applicable nationally to 1973 light duty vehicles, it is probable that similar systems will be more widely used. The major considerations in the decision to use this means of reducing NOx emissions, the design details of the total system, and the field experience to date is discussed. The author concludes with some thought on the limit of usefulness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for NOx reduction, and further refinements needed to approach that limit.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720357
K. Yamamoto, T. Muroki, T. Kobayakawa
An inherent characteristic of the rotary engine geometry is its high surface-to-volume ratio. This results in a high quenching effect at the trailing portion of the charge. Combination of rich mixtures in the end gases together with high quenching effects reduces the octane requirement. It also means, however, that the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations are relatively high, whereas the NOx concentrations are quite low. Thermal reactors have been the Toyo Kogyo Co.'s principal approach to the control of CO and HC exhaust emissions.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720466
Kojiro Yamaoka, Hiroshi Tado
This paper covers the features of rotary engines with charge-cooled rotors developed by Yanmar Diesel Engine Co., Ltd. It includes test results obtained with charge-cooled rotors during the course of development of the engine with this feature. With continuing new applications of the NSU/Wankel rotary engine, charge-cooling appears to be a promising feature, especially in small-sized engines, from the point of view of simple structure and improved economy.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720099
R. A. White, H. H. Korst
The problem of aerodynamic and rolling resistance characteristics of cars and trucks is of considerable importance to vehicle engineers as the two major contributions to external vehicle drag. Many testing methods have been developed including wind tunnel testing of scale models, testing of full-size production cars, and coast-down testing. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and analyzed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720966
Philip V. Hight, Arnold W. Siegel, Alan M. Nahum
This paper presents conclusions of a study of rollover collisions and the injuries resulting from them. The injury severity, the type of injury, the body region injured, the frequency of injury, and the injury mechanism are all indicated. The study includes statistics on both restrained and unrestrained occupants, and shows that ejected occupants usually sustain more severe injury than contained occupants. Several conclusions are presented as to automobile structures in relation to injury.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720522
Tsuchio Bunda, Atsunobu Fujikawa, Kazuo Yokoi
A study was made of details of friction characteristics of several kinds of clutch-facing materials of resin mold type. With particular attention given to the low-speed slip area, the following was made clear: There exists a thin film on the friction surfaces of facing and mating materials. A thin film is presumed to be a visco-elastic substance which is susceptible to momentum and affects, to a great extent, friction and wear characteristics.
HISTORICAL
1972-02-01
Standard
J224A_197202
The purpose and scope of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a basis for classification of the extent of vehicle deformation caused by vehicle accidents on the highway. It is necessary to classify collision contact deformation (as opposed to induced deformation) so that the accident deformation may be segregated into rather narrow limits. Studies of collision deformation can then be performed on one or many data banks with assurance that the data under study are of essentially the same type. The seven-character code is also an expression useful to persons engaged in automobile safety, to describe appropriately a field-damaged vehicle with conciseness in their oral and written communications. Although this classification system was established primarily for use by professional teams investigating accidents in depth, other groups may also find it useful.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720340
T. N. Faddis, G. W. Forman, C. D. Reese
To overcome the most serious deficiency in fiber-reinforced composite materials a three-dimensional, continuously woven material has been developed. To demonstrate the feasibility of the new weave pattern, a 0.3 in thick fabric was woven with 12-end S-glass roving and impregnated with Epon 828 epoxy resin using curing agent Z. A 24 harness semiautomatic loom was used to produce the fabric. Tension tests were conducted on the material in both the weave and transverse directions. The material exhibited maximum tensile strength of 47,000 psi and 64,000 psi in the weave and transverse directions, respectively. The elastic moduli were 2,640,000 and 3,220,000 psi, respectively. Compression tests were conducted in the weave (longitudinal), transverse, and thickness directions. The ultimate strengths in compression were 39,000, 52,000, and 71,000 psi, respectively. The elastic moduli in compression were 2,820,000, 3,410,000, and 1,240,000 psi in the three respective principal directions.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720053
William A. Doerner, Roy J. Dietz, Oral R. VanBuskirk, Stanley B. Levy, Philip J. Rennolds, Max F. Bechtold
A Rankine cycle engine is described that comprises close-coupled annular components (boiler, nozzle ring, and air condenser) corotating counter to an interior turbine wheel on a common axis. A stationary annular combustor surrounds the rotating boiler. Test runs up to 18 hp demonstrated several advantages for this kind of Rankine engine, which utilizes centrifugal force to achieve: boiler compactness, air condenser compactness (viscous drag air pumping), automatic condensate return (no separate pump), control simplicity, and few moving parts. The organic working fluid used does not support combustion and has low physiological reactivity in preliminary tests. The results appear significant for uses requiring low-polluting, quiet engines.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720034
S Accident cases involving cars without head restraints are compared with cars having this device to evaluate the effectiveness of head restraints, their position when impact occurred and to provide some details concerning the relationship between occupant position, seat back damage and cervical injury. A reduction in non-dangerous cervical injury was associated with the head restraint group. However, due to small numbers this could not be confirmed, statistically. Approximately 73 percent of the adjustable head rests were in their lowest position. The position of the occupant on the seat strongly influenced injury. Larger amounts of rearward rotation of the seat back were associated with lower injury severity than limited rotation. Injuries to the cervical region resulting from automobile accidents have been the subject of a number of research reports.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720009
W. H. Anthony, J. M. Popplewell
The frequent occurrence of erosion-corrosion attack in service failures of aluminum radiators suggests the need for a rapid test which will predict erosion-corrosion susceptibility in aluminum alloys under conditions simulating those in an actual radiator. This paper describes a multijet test apparatus which has been used to compare the erosion-corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys in antifreeze solutions at 200 F. Impingement velocities of up to 130 ft/s have been used. The effect of short-term jet impingement has been found to produce a mode of erosion-corrosion attack similar to that found in a 6951 alloy radiator after 40,000 miles of service. Attack appears to progress through several distinct stages starting with the development of a high density of pits which eventually become coalesced together at points of very high impingement velocity. The rate of attack has been found to be dependent on alloy composition and properties, jet velocity, and metal surface condition.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720020
Marshall A. Williams, Branko Vranich
Memory and nonvolatile properties of the E-Cell makes it suitable for monitoring a variety of functions of a moving vehicle. Properly programmed, an E-Cell can control engine maintenance periods. It is less than 1/10 in3 in size and weighs less than 1/10 oz. This small size facilitates the packaging of a sizable monitoring system in a practical volumetric space. The E-Cell, by virtue of its construction, shows no visible signs relating to the amount of information contained in the unit. In addition, the scaling factors used in the supporting circuitry makes the E-Cell compatible with any monitoring program where strict security is required.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720386
Ted L. Teach
The development of the continuous gas laser has made possible a new method of automatic grade controls for construction equipment. This method of control has advantages offered by no other system: accuracy, reduced operator skill requirements, reduced direct labor costs, and night operation. Developed originally for draintube plow and motor grader control, laser grade control systems now control various machines, such as ditchers, scrapers, landplanes, dozers, and trimmers, Several manufacturers now offer automatic laser grade controls as original factory equipment. Laser controls offered on the market to date are limited to operation in planes. Equipment to control both vertical and horizontal curves is presently under development for machines such as trimmers and pavers. With such controls, it will be possible to generate very complex surfaces with accuracies not now possible.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720369
J. R. Mandelik
The development of modern heavy earthmoving equipment requires up-to-date laboratory facilities employing current computer technology to aid test engineers in acquiring, reducing, and analyzing laboratory test data. This paper describes one manufacturer's approach to the problem. Included are descriptions of the laboratory data area, signal flow, computer hardware, and computer programs to implement the system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720442
Lawrence M. Patrick, Gerald W. Nyquist
This paper describes experiments involving airbag systems. Because there is the least amount of data on the tolerance of children to impact, the out-of-position child was used in the experiments. After careful consideration it was decided that a primate of approximately the same weight as a child be used, which would provide the most realistic evaluation of potential injuries. The animal chosen for the experimental program was the baboon. Five distinct positions were chosen and this paper describes in detail the experimental physiological conditions and results.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720458
E. M. Becker
Mainframe vendors generally are very recent entrants into the systems management marketplace. Customer demands for complete service and support of their application development and implementation, particularly in the sensor-based areas, were responsible for their entry. This paper discusses the life cycle of a typical systems management contract from preproposal analysis to Phase 1 (design) to Phase 2 (implementation) to customer turnover. Also presented is a typical statement of work from a typical proposal.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720711
J. O. Wiggins, G. L. Waltz
An eight-stage transonic axial flow compressor was scaled to three-tenths its original size. The scaled compressor was built and tested as a separate component, and as a component of a gas turbine engine. This paper summarizes the work done on this compressor, including the aerodynamic design considerations and overall performance results.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720712
J. V. Davis
A small, two-stage, transonic axial compressor was selected for a 5 lb/s airflow, 0.46 lb/hp · h, sfc turboshaft engine at 2500 F turbine-inlet gas temperature. The axial compressor was configured to supercharge a single-stage centrifugal compressor to provide an overall axial/centrifugal pressure ratio of 16:1. The axial compressor was designed, fabricated, and developed through rig testing. On final test, a pressure ratio of 3.1:1 was demonstrated at 80% efficiency with 10% surge margin.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720061
William E. Tudor
Fiberglass-reinforced thermoset materials offer significant advantages to the automotive body design engineer. Parts manufactured from this material possess substantially different properties than zinc or steel parts. These differences must be recognized by the part user so that necessary action may be taken to assure satisfactory part performance.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720089
T. M. Atkins, D. P. Renner
An accurate, compact, and convenient instrumentation system for vehicle brake testing has been developed. The system comprises a counter assembly mounted inside the vehicle, a switch that closes at the onset of braking, and a specially modified “fifth wheel.” Stopping distance and initial vehicle speed are displayed in numerical form on the face of the counter assembly. Data acquisition is accomplished almost entirely by digital techniques. Measurement accuracy is therefore enhanced (by eliminating the usual dependence on analog voltage scaling). Digital techniques also permit useful control (decision-making) functions to be included. Once such function is the unique feature of automatically eliminating erroneous distance pickup during vehicle “rock-back” at the end of a high deceleration stop.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720113
S. S. Lestz, W. E. Meyer, C. M. Colony
The gas-phase exhaust emissions which resulted when a variably timed, variable mass of water was injected directly into the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine are reported. The experimental setup and the procedure used in the investigation are also described. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the optimum injection timing and amount of water introduced. Generally, direct-cylinder injection of water reduces NO, increases unburned HC, and does not effect CO and CO2. For a fixed-ignition timing, power also deteriorates. Another finding of this investigation is that direct-cylinder injection does result in NO reductions of better than 85% while using about one-third the mass of water required by manifold injection to effect a similar reduction.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720280
Richard C. McRoberts
A colorful series of 150 slides was presented tracing 5 HP to 1200 HP marine gear design evolution beginning in 1906, followed by pre-WWI developments, Liberty Aircraft engine usage and a 1924 to 1972 series of pleasure boat and work boat marine gear photographs. The entire slide presentation is available in 35 m.m. film strip and may be ordered (at cost) from the author, R. C. McRoberts, Twin Disc, Incorporated, Racine, Wisconsin, 53403, U.S.A. For short time usage, a loan film is available. This history of U. S. marine gear development includes information contributed by the Snow-Nabstedt Gear Corp., Capitol Gears, Inc., Paragon Gears, Inc., The Walter Machine Co., Inc., Detroit Diesel Allison Div. of General Motors Corp., Caterpillar Tractor Co., Warner Gear Div. Borg-Warner Corp. and Twin Disc, Incorporated.

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