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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 190562
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741051
J. C. Polak
An emission testing program conducted at Ottawa, Canada, indicated that the start-up and operation of light-duty motors at an ambient temperature of 0°F produces approximately a 100% increase in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions when compared with those produced at an ambient temperature of 60°F. This increase appeared to occur mainly during the initial 5 min of engine operation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741050
Malcolm G. McLaren, W. Richard Ott
The state of the art of producing ceramic monolithic substrates for automotive converters is reviewed. The requirements for the substrates, that is, thermal shock resistance, stability, strength, porosity, softening temperature, thermal expansion and size tolerances are discussed, as well as the capability of manufactures to meet the specifications. The substrates are being produced for 1975 model automobiles. The primary production problems center around edge and corner chips and web thickness variations which occur in production and processing.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741053
H. A. Ashby, R. C. Stahman, B. H. Eccleston, R. W. Hurn
A test program was conducted to study the effect of ambient conditions on exhaust emissions from a wide variety of automobiles. Twenty-six cars ranging from pre-control production cars to catalyst-equipped prototypes, including rotary, Diesel, and stratified charge cars, were tested at 20°, 50°, 75°, and 110° F. Ambient temperatures above and below 75° F were found to have significant effects on exhaust emissions. The Diesel and stratified charge cars were affected less than production and catalyst-equipped cars by changes in ambient temperature. The use of air conditioners at the 110° F test temperature led to increased emissions and fuel consumption. Hydrocarbon reactivity and aldehyde emissions were not affected by temperature and were lower from the catalyst cars at all temperatures.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741052
Donald L. Miles, Max F. Homfeld
Three production cars and seven cars with various experimental exhaust emission control systems were tested to determine the effect of winter weather ambient temperatures on exhaust emissions. All of the cars were tested at 70, 40, and 20°F, and one was tested at 0°F using the 1972 EPA test schedule. Modal and bag emission data as well as catalytic converter temperature data were obtained. The results of these tests are presented in this paper. There was an increase in HC and CO emissions as ambient temperature was reduced. Most of the increase came from the first cycle of the 18 cycle test and was the result of additional time required to reach operating temperatures. NOx emissions did not vary substantially with ambient temperature.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740788
John T. Norris
Project INTACT is a proposed government/industry program for a truly “intermodal” air cargo test. The program will demonstrate the movement of air freight in large intermodal containers and trailers that can efficiently and expeditiously be interchanged directly between air and surface modes of transportation. The ultimate goal of the demonstration is to spur the development of the air mode into an optimized “all mode” intermodal cargo system. The more immediate purposes are to substantiate technical and operational feasibility of the fully compatible intermodal air cargo system; to prototype test a particular intermodal system concept; and to verify that the needs of freight shippers can be fulfilled by such a system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741062
Gerald J. Barnes, Kenneth Baron, Jack C. Summers
The deactivation of noble metal oxidation catalysts by lead and halide lead scavengers was studied in engine and laboratory experiments. The halide scavengers caused rapid but completely reversible inhibition of the catalyst activity, which existed only as long as the halide was present. The effects of catalyst temperature and noble metal concentration indicated that the halide scavenger dissociated upon adsorption on the catalyst. Palladium and platinum-palladium catalysts were more susceptible to halide inhibition than were platinum catalysts. Lead alone or lead plus scavengers produced a persistent poisoning of the catalyst. Lead poisoning effects were increased by increased catalyst temperatures and fuel lead content. Tests with scavengers only, conducted in an engine previously operated on leaded fuel, showed that lead was transported to the catalyst causing lead poisoning even in the absence of lead in the fuel.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740789
Robert E. Hage, Lloyd B. Aschenbeck
Distribution of products by air will increase in importance as the economic transition develops. The air freight industry will gradually evolve from today's preponderance of narrow-body freighters through the current generation of wide-body lower hold and all-freighter aircraft. At a point in time when the major dollar portion of world trade will be shipped by air, the system will be dependent on very advanced technology, uncompromised all-freighters. These freighters will operate on an air freight network dedicated to service, economic development, and to raising living standards throughout the world.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740790
Frank J. Verginia
This paper discusses air cargo growth and development over the past several years and the use of 747s in intermodal air freight. Today's air freight system is developing into a highly automated future system which also involves trucks, containers, air freight terminals, and control systems necessary for overnight dock-to-dock shipper service. This development is explained and so are the effects, economically and otherwise, of intermodal air cargo on a worldwide air freight system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740785
James J. McNulty
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740791
J. J. Cornish
There have been numerous predictions on the coming of the air cargo boom and how we are preparing to meet the challenge of an all-cargo air transportation system. There are, however, certain influences of a serious nature that have not been addressed. This paper does not address how great things are for air cargo, but rather how we must prepare now for an environment-compatible air cargo transportation system. It will also look at what technology is prepared to contribute along these lines and to other types of problems that technology alone cannot solve. One single factor offers a strong deterrent to the development of such a system; today's economic pressures place industry in a position that it is prohibitive for any one element to underwrite the research, development, and production cost of a new aircraft, much less a new approach to air cargo transportation.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740786
Joseph F. Jones
Most mail moves by surface transportation modes. As materials handling systems and intermodal transportation capabilities improve, mail moving more than 600 miles should go by air. 1.4 billion ton-miles of traffic a year are waiting for an imaginative and economical air transportation proposal. The U. S. Postal Service has been pushing hard to get more mail in the air, despite strong opposition or lack of interest by airlines. The time for an intensive marketing approach to mail, by airlines, is overdue.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740798
Clarence E. Brown, David L. Olson, Terrill W. Woods
The use of scaled models for structural evaluation of new designs is becoming increasingly important from the standpoint of reduced lead time, costs, and space requirements. John Deere Waterloo Tractor Works has developed a dynamic structural modeling technique, based on roll-over protective structures (ROPS) safety compliance tests, which provides good correlation with full-scale results. This paper presents the development and application of this technique.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740787
A. W. G. Kean
Intermodal transport creates many difficulties insofar as the handling of liability claims is concerned. Different conventions have been established in an attempt to solve these problems; and a brief review of these is presented. Also examined is an attempt by various countries to establish an international convention which would apply whenever goods are carried between two or more countries by two or modes of transportation. Although many difficulties have arisen with this convention, it is hoped that they may be ironed out and that the resolution be adopted.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740797
Joseph J. Stanovsky
Under certain conditions, metals and other solids deform plastically. There are two conditions which promote plastic deformation: the condition of stress and the mechanism which determines how that deformation takes place. The critical condition of stress which produces yielding is due to the net effect of the combination of stresses acting at a point. A mathematical theory which predicts the critical condition of stress for which plastic flow occurs is a yield criterion. A new yield criterion is introduced. It is hyperbolic in form so it is significantly different from the criteria developed by Rankine, Tresca, Saint-Venant, or von Mises. But like these criteria, the new yield condition is also limited to a biaxial stress condition. The new yield criterion, because of its form, serves as an instructive model for the development of an analytical equation of equivalent form.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740803
T. K. Hasselman, W. N. Jones, Gary C. Hart
A method is described for modeling shipboard shock as a nonstationary stochastic process. Procedures for identifying key parameters of the simulated shock using measured shock records are discussed. Methods for evaluating probabilistic shock spectra to use as design criteria and laboratory simulation procedures for generating a consistent test environment are presented. Examples are included to illustrate the aproach.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740801
F. B. Safford, R. J. Tuttle
Commercial communications (telephone) equipment employed in a weapons system is mounted upon shock-isolated platforms for protection from nuclear-induced ground motion and air-blast loads. Analytic and empirical methods are used to derive a laboratory test environment for the equipment and a fragility test procedure is used to account for environmental uncertainties and test limitations. System hardening is achieved by way of design improvements introduced during the test program and as a result of the test program such that the system exceeds requirements. Fragility test levels are related to local threat environments to establish safety factors.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740794
Mark L. Requa
To meet the needs of shippers and consignees who have products looking for air distribution, we must move toward greater maturity by looking at air distribution from the shipper's viewpoint and with a time perspective beyond today's routes, rates and schedules. The other side of the coin, “Air Distribution looking for Products”, requires more maturity than the simplistic all or nothing approach of the past. It requires that we explore combinations of air and surface for optimum solutions for shippers. Finally, we must gain maturity in the application of airfreight as a marketing tool to increase sales and open new export opportunities.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740793
Thomas J. Harris
Shippers selling FOB origin lose sales in distant areas compared to local vendors since customers have a longer replenishment cycle entailing large inventories. Customers must pay inbound freight charges and money is tied up for longer periods of time. Changing to a sales policy of airfreight shipment with transportation costs absorbed by the shipper wipes out these disadvantages and permits market penetration comparable to that in shippers' home area. Contribution to fixed costs and profit on additional sales is often 35 percent or more which may exceed the airfreight cost providing a powerful tool for increasing exports and profits.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740796
L. Ronald Modlin
A discussion of the fundamentals of current warranty law, this paper reviews legislation recently enacted or under consideration which will have a substantial effect on the warranty of the future. The responsibilities and potential impact of the design engineer are also considered.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740795
Edward N. Cole
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740810
Ted C. Fisher
This paper recounts the experience and ensuing results of the implementation of producer certification in its main factory area by the Hamilton Standard Div. of United Aircraft Corp. Producer certification, applicable to both purchased and shop material, is the assumption of the inspection function by the producing organization. The concept is not new-it has long been practiced in some companies-but its acceptance by the aerospace industry has been slow. The paper describes three quality assurance tasks successively transferred to the producing organization and the succeeding results, and concludes with a comparison of Hamilton Standard performance and cost experience under its conventional quality assurance system and the producer certification system.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740812
C. R. Cunningham
This paper presents an explanation of reasons process control is used in airplane manufacture. A discussion of cadmium plating, structural bonding, and machining provides examples of current control of these processes.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740809
Masakatsu Matsuki, Tadao Torisaki, Kiyoto Miyazawa, Mototsugu Itoh
Research and development of high bypass ratio turbofan engines have been conducted in Japan since 1971. Three prototype engines have been built and tested and have met design specifications. The project is conducted under the National Research and Development Program of the Japanese Government. The engineering background of the project's initiation is reviewed. The purpose and management of the system are discussed. The objectives and master schedule as well as engine specifications and design features of the engine are presented. The state of development of the engine, including performance data and problems encountered, are reviewed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740805
L. G. Smith
This paper has been developed to present a brief summary of those practices which have evolved for specifying and performing tests to determine the functional and structural integrity of aerospace components subjected to pyrotechnic shock. The shock specifications and test methods presented in the paper represent a broad view of industry practices. This paper could serve as a baseline for comparison with other methods that do exist, and could prove to be a reference point for further advancement of the field.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740811
Don Hagemaier
This paper discusses state-of-the-art ultrasonic testing as used to inspect and evaluate parts and materials for aerospace systems. The paper is divided into four sections: purpose of testing; basic requirements for application, such as equipment, reference standards, and acceptance criteria; standard applications, such as wrought metal products, tubing and pipe welded assemblies, thickness and corrosion, fiber-reinforced composites, adhesive-bonded assemblies, brazed and diffusion-bonded assemblies, aircraft maintenance inspection, attenuation, and grain-boundary reflections; and research and development applications, such as the liquid-level detector, titanium hydride detector, measurement of applied stress, ultrasonic extensiometer, ultrasonic modulus versus mechanical properties for fiber composites, ultrasonic spectroscopy, acoustic holography, and critical angle reflectivity.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740804
Allen J. Curtis
During initial shock testing of an electro-optical device weighing approximately 100 lb, a number of catastrophic failures occurred under the shock test conditions specified for simulating the effects of firing the main armament of a tank. In addition, optical boresight shifts and permanent deformations of the cast-aluminum equipment housing were observed. At the same time, three identical devices which had been exposed in the field to a significant number of gunfirings in the tank exhibited no failures of either type. This paper discusses some of the problems which were examined during an investigation of the gunfire shock environment and the means by which its effects, or rather, absence of effects, could be simulated in the laboratory. The intent of the paper is not to break new ground but rather to discuss the several interacting parameters which enter into the simulation process and indicate the implications of the choice of values for these parameters.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740807
Lawrence A. Chuslo, Harley D. Greenburg
The Larzac turbofan engine, rated at 1318 deca Newtons (2965 pounds) thrust at sea level static, is now in final qualification as a powerplant for a new generation of military trainers, light strike fighters, and small business jets. The Larzac engine is being developed by two French companies through a joint controlling group known as Groupement TURBOMECA/SNECMA(GRTS). Teledyne CAE has an exclusive agreement with GRTS to market, sell and service the Larzac in the United States and Canada, and also has an option to manufacture the engine. This paper discusses the Larzac engine design, development, flight test, preliminary qualification test and manufacture.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740806
D. W. Stephenson, W. R. Davenport, R. F. Topping
This paper presents the results of an altitude test evaluation of a variable-cycle turbofan engine. The test engine was a medium-bypass, two-spool turbofan engine modified to incorporate variable inlet guide vanes and first-stage stators in the low-pressure compressor, variable first-stage stator vanes in the low-pressure turbine, and variable area fan and primary exhaust nozzles. The results of the testing indicated that these variable-geometry components offer potential improvements to the following problem areas in multimission aircraft at off-design conditions: inlet spillage drag and exhaust-system boattail drag, compressor surge-margin control, airframe bleed-air extraction effects on engine performance, and performance limited by engine operating limits.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740822
Thomas J. Biesiadny
Several unique techniques and related devices are in use at the Lewis Research Center for off-design testing of fan and compressor sections in full-scale jet engines. The devices presented not only permit a wide range of experimental conditions but also minimize downtime for hardware changes. The techniques involve use of such devices as inlet pressure distortion jets, a hydrogen burner for inlet temperature distortions, fan back pressure jets to simulate a variable area nozzle, and either an inflow-outflow bleed system or a fuel spurt system to alter compressor discharge pressure.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740823
A. Walter Stubner, Ellis Canal
The development of compression systems for advanced twin-spool turbofan engines became increasingly more difficult as stability, performance, weight, and cost reduction goals were increased. Experience indicated that single-spool compressor component tests did not completely duplicate stability limits determined by flight engine tests. A requirement existed for a component test technique to develop the entire twin-spool compression system in a simulated engine environment, with sufficient operating flexibility to reproduce critical operating points that might be incurred during actual engine operation. The Pratt & Whitney Aircraft dual-spool compressor facility was designed and built to meet this requirement. The dual-spool facility has been employed in the development of several advanced models of the JT9D engine, in the JT10D demonstration engine development program, and in a U.S.

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