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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 188288
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720460
A. J. Fritsch
Industrial practices can cause consumer confusion. The failure to communicate between the highest levels of automotive and petroleum companies provides an example. Gasoline is taken for granted by the driving public. It is extremely toxic and its emission products are a major contributing factor to air pollution. Engineers know how automotive and gasoline problems are interlocked. The Clean Air Act has forced scientists and engineers to cooperate. Technological solutions and cleanup timetables are insurmountable only when this collaboration is missing. The substantiation of gasoline advertisements, trade secrecy, standardization, and lead consumption are also covered in this paper. To preserve a safe and pollution-free environment, the scientist and the engineer both have a duty to anticipate toxic and unsafe products and company practices.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720461
Sidney B. Tuwiner
MECAR (Metropolitan Engineers Council on Air Resources), organized in 1965 to represent the engineering profession through its various societies in the New York metropolitan area, has four objectives: 1. To advise on standards and formulation of laws to improve air quality. 2. To serve law enforcement agencies in an advisory capacity. 3. To alert city, county, regional authorities, and the general public to pollution problems. 4. To inculcate within the engineering profession the need to cope with the sociotechnical problem. The group attempts to maintain consistency of direction of policy in matters pertaining to air quality in metropolitan areas.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720463
W. K. Klamp, J. Meingast
A number of tires have been examined in terms of the higher orders of radial and fore-and-aft force variations. Presented in this paper are some typical values of higher orders as measured on a specially designed high-speed machine. These measurements are related to the following factors: 1. Tire operating conditions. 2. Tire construction variations. 3. Influence of wheel and balance. 4. Radial force correction. 5. Ride evaluation. With experience, emphasis has shifted to understanding how tire manufacturing introduces higher harmonic disturbances, and thereby improving tire production, and making better use of conventional uniformity grading equipment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720456
Michael C. Kasprzyk
Successful computer monitoring and control applications require careful problem and system definition, especially if a system integrator is used for a turn key type installation. The concepts of interactive design and vendor involvement are presented as fundamental to writing specifications and defining system requirements for successfully solving the problem.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720457
Richard R. Perryman, Norman E. Prochaska
A survey of industrial control computer applications presently operational in this user's facilities revealed an approximate 50/50 division between those that were internally and externally implemented. Problems encountered in the planning, launching, and follow-up phase of system installation were found to be common to both internal and external system implementations and are categorized and evaluated as being inherent and environmental in nature. In an effort to avoid anticipated problems characteristic of a computerized installation, proper staffing as an inhouse project team is essential. During the process of developing inhouse talent, three plateaus of system implementation maturity are attained. These plateaus range from complete dependency upon outside assistance to “do it yourself” inhouse implementation. Flow charts are developed to depict typical decision paths leading to a plateau of system implementation most appropriate for the particular user “turnkey dilemma.”
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720459
David A. Entrekin
The role of a systems house in implementing a system for a manufacturing complex can best be illustrated by the neutral position that a systems house will take in integrating the management requirements in relation to the real-time data base, which must be implemented from the manufacturing floor.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720452
Ryoji Ohgake, Teruo Hidaka
In Japan, test methods for evaluating the performance of 2-cycle engine oils have been developed separately by each 2-cycle engine manufacturer. The reason for this is that there are are many differences in engine performance and in lubrication methods. Evaluation through bench tests is used as a valid method for screening engine oils prior to field tests. Field tests are conducted eventually as the most reliable test method for evaluating the performance of engine oils. Yamaha Motor, one of the leading Japanese 2-cycle engine manufacturers, developed a “70 min engine test method” in 1963, which can be conducted in a relatively short period of time with good reproducibility. In this paper, several problems regarding Yamaha's 70 min engine test method are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720453
Robert W. Clements, Michael A. Richard
The application of automation to dynamometer testing of engines has led to the development of specialized circuits and techniques to compensate for limitations inherent within the electromechanical systems used to implement automation theory. Stable, quick response to a programmed speed change has been achieved for engine-automatic transmission testing by the use of a parallel feedback technique. Vehicle simulation using analog computer circuitry and road test data is used to calculate torque requirements from programmed acceleration-time and velocity-time curves. Similar circuitry is used to calculate engine-transmission output torque from dynamometer parameters.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720454
J. F. Cassidy, J. H. Rillings
This paper describes a computer-controlled engine test cell being developed at the General Motors Research Laboratories. The object is to combine the advantages of the controlled experimental conditions possible in an engine test cell with the dynamic capabilities of a vehicle driven on the road or on a chassis dynamometer to produce a unique research and development tool. The overall system, consisting of an IBM 1800 process control computer linked to an electric dynamometer and engine in an engine test cell, is introduced. A description is given of the test cell control and data acquisition instrumentation and of the pallet system which permits prebuilding of engine experimental packages for rapid installation in the test cell. An overview of the computer programs, with emphasis on user interaction, is presented. The throttle and speed control algorithms, which apply road or chassis dynamometer load conditions to the engine in the engine test cell, are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720476
E. J. Thompson, H. E. Reymore, R. L. Grieve, A. A. R. Sayigh
Over the past few years there has been a growing interest in the applications of isocyanate-based structural foams (Dermathane). Molds and tooling are critical to making a good article. Experience is the principal teacher in this area of technology. An analysis of various toolings and applications tells what is necessary and what is unnecessary. Density is well-known as the most important variable when strength is considered. However, when sandwich-like structures are involved, the analysis for strength becomes more complicated. This paper includes all the processing and design information necessary for using Dermathane at the optimum strength and economy.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720477
John A. Helgesen
Expanded ABS, a terpolymer of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, is discussed in this paper. The physical properties of this material are described, particularly with respect to furniture production. The expansion casting process is described, casting recommendations presented, and equipment detailed. Design and finishing are explored in some detail, and comparisons with wood and other furniture materials are offered.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720472
T.E. Ritter, W.S. Kristofetz, A.D. Cortese, R.E. Rasmussen
Tire force and moment test machines are used to measure mechanical properties important to vehicle handling. Many different machines have been developed for this type of work. This report discusses considerations in the design of such equipment which include productivity, road simulation, tire size range, input parameters, weighing system design, and data processing. The design of a new test machine with a belt type road simulator is described. Some early test data on machine correlation, lateral force and aligning torque dynamics, and flat road uniformity are presented.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720432
Richard M. Goodman
In this paper you will find problems posed by threatened lawsuits arising out of potential defects in passive restraint systems. For many years, it was recognized that the manufacturer of an automobile was liable for defects in manufacture or design which produce injuries. Now the question is should part of the cost of claims and verdicts be shifted to the government-this might make the government more responsive to the feasibility of adopting particular safety systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720431
Donald L. Schaffer
The air bag is ready and installation in front seat positions is essential at the earliest possible date. There has been almost a conspiracy of silence and a supression of favorable data-thus the media and through it the public are almost completely uninformed, or even worse, misinformed about air bags. An informed public will accept and should demand an air bag system. Minimal utilization of active restraints (lap and shoulder belts) mandates passive restraints (air bags). This group (S.A.E.) has a duty to cause a speed-up in the present rate of availability of air bags. The ultimate savings in lives and reduction in serious injuries as well as automobile insurance costs will be gratifying and substantial.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720429
Leonard R. Barnes
Lap-shoulder belts became standard with very little, very inneffective explanation of why they should be used. National effort is needed to persuade all to use them, and auto industry to improve them, and see the effect of buzzers and interlocks before mandating airbags or equivalent. This paper looks at the past history of restraints, forecasts the future if airbags are to be mandated without explaining them. AAA of Michigan motorist survey shows strong dislike of airbags, a preference for seatbelt-shoulder harness if choice must be made, a strong feeling that it is not the business of government to mandate airbag or seatbelt use. Question is raised about claims of number of lives that airbags will save. Are they too high?
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720427
Lowell Dodge
Impositions placed on vehicle occupants by safety belts and safety belt use are substantial and will increase as systems to encourage or force belt usage are incorporated. By comparison, the known impositions of air bags are minor, but to these must be added other requirements, the extent of which are not yet well-known. Substantial fleet testing of air bags will clarify most of these inconveniences. Automobile manufacturers and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration have failed to generate public support for the air bag. Lack of consumer support will continue unless greater resources are allocated to equip fleet vehicles with air bag systems so that a reliable record of air-bag efficacy can be compiled.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720451
W. R. Pyle
Multicylinder 2-cycle, water-cooled outboard motors were modified to allow testing of up to three different fuel-oil blends simultaneously. A special “floating laboratory” test barge was designed and constructed for operation of the outboards. Engine protection and metering facilities were provided in the control room on the barge. Repeatability studies were then carried out to determine the precision of the test using multiple references in four outboard motors. Results indicated that a high degree of precision was attainable. Some results from fuel and lubricant evaluations, which followed, are included.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720450
Takashi Kohayakawa, Yoshimi Hirai, Tsugio Ogawa, Eizi Suzuki
Studies have been conducted for determining the distribution of the lubricant in a crankcase scavenged two-stroke cycle engine. Presently, it is not obvious how newly supplied oil reaches each engine part and how it leaves the engine through the exhaust gas. Furthermore, it is desirable to know what percent of the supplied oil is exhausted during the scavenging period and what percent is burned in the combustion chamber with the gasoline. Three different lubrication systems were studied utilizing radioisotopes: premixed fuel and oil; manifold supply system for the oil; and crankcase supply system for the oil. The lubricating oil was tagged with tritium. The lubricating oil behavior in the crankcase scavenged two-stroke engine has been investigated within the limited operating condition of these tests. The tests show that almost all supplied oil was exhausted within one hour, and the remainder was exhausted gradually.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720449
S. K. Rhee, P. A. Thesier
The effects of surface roughness of brake drums on coefficient of friction (brake torque) and lining wear were investigated using typical commercial grey cast iron drums and typical commercial linings. Sample and inertia dynamometers were used. The surface roughness is found to significantly affect the coefficient of friction (brake torque) and lining wear, though the effect is dependent upon the lining compositions. The significance and implications of these findings are discussed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720448
Glen E. Schaefer, Dennis P. Derrick
The determination of the impact load capability of vehicle brake system components is necessary to verify product design requirements. Testing methods and procedures must minimize the variables inherent in vehicle “spike stop” applications to assure the acquisition of accurate, meaningful test data. This paper describes the design, development, and characteristics of a device currently in use for “spike stop” brake applications at a vehicle test facility.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720447
Rudolf Limpert
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the thermal performance characteristics of solid rotor disc brakes. Using the results of mathematical and computer analyses, as well as road test experiments, relationships for predicting the temperature and thermal stress response of the rotor are developed for braking in a single stop. Special emphasis is given to determining the onset of surface cracking as a result of different braking conditions. A design criterion for avoidance of surface rupture in a single stop is developed. Results obtained in the analytical and experimental study indicate that acceptable correlation between temperature prediction and measurement require an exact assessment of the distribution of braking energy between tire and brake and rotor and pad. Thermally induced surface rupture was found to occur when the theoretical compressive surface stress exceeded the yield strength of the material.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720445
R. L. Carter
This paper examines the engineering and economic feasibility of inflatable restraint systems and structural modifications required to achieve passive protection for occupants in passenger car frontal collisions at 50 mph equivalent barrier speed. Vehicle structural modifications, already proved in prototype tests, are examined for compatibility in car-to-car crashes. The special aspects of inflatable restraint systems capable of 50 mph protection are also discussed, taking into account the improvements in system behavior made possible by structural modifications. Costs and benefits are also projected. It is concluded that cost-effective 50 mph protection can be achieved.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720441
Jule Brinn
Abstract This paper discusses some of the very serious problems associated with the use of anthropomorphic dummies in crash testing of automobiles. These problems arise primarily from the non-repeatable behavior of the dummy and from the unknown correlation between it's behavior and that of the human. The combination of these factors leads to scatter in test results and in their interpretation which are well beyond the usual range of engineering practice. The systems approach to crash testing can only be placed on a true scientific basis by increasing our understanding of the dummy/human relationship and by decreasing test scatter. Test programs relating to these problem areas are described. These tests demonstrate that the results obtained are heavily dependent on the data analysis scheme employed. Results obtained by use of the mathematical analog technique are compared to other methods.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720439
Geoffrey Grime
The new passive restraint system comprises a pad or cushion automatically retained in place against the chest of a car occupant, and a knee restraint. In normal circumstances, the chest restraint is held in contact with the occupant by light spring pressure so that he is free to lean forward to reach door handles and the like; in an accident, the arm supporting the pad is locked in position, and forward movement of the chest is then controlled by the force exerted by the pad. Variation of this force with distance is determined by the characteristics of an energy absorber, which governs the movement of the arm. The forward movement of the lower part of the body is controlled by the knee restraint which must be capable of considerable deformation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720533
Gregory V. Schultz
Containerization was the first step in a globally standardized physical distribution system. It precipitated a system of intermodal unit loads and modular packaging dimensions known as “Total Pack.” As part of this system, reasons are presented why the air-cargo mode should adopt an intermodal unit-load 54.00 × 45.00 in (1372 × 1143 mm). Usage of intermodal and interline containers is traced through the entire distribution system, including solutions to key problems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720535
E. A. LaMarre
The air freight terminal has evolved from its beginnings as a by-product industry. It evolved like an unwanted child. The first terminals were patchwork copies of trucking terminals with modifications, but through many trials and errors, they have become the diverse, compatible, flexible series of systems that they are today. Air cargo terminals, even within the same system, are largely autonomous. This is as it should be. The terminals are individually keyed to the needs of their local shippers and their freight. Similarities exist, naturally, but the systems and the extent to which they are employed differ from station to station. Any attempt to impose uniform operating conditions on the various stations would impair their ability to respond to their local customers.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720537
John B. O'Loughlin
The U. S. Customs Service is working through international organizations to further its policy of facilitating the flow of cargo in international trade while interdicting the movement of contraband. These organizations, with United States participation, seek to harmonize customs procedures worldwide by developing international conventions and preparing recommendations to member states. The Service is also moving toward an automated merchandise processing system and is adapting its procedures to rapid technological advances in land and water transportation in the fields of containerization and the movement of cargo by lighters carried aboard seagoing vessels.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720540
Holt W. Webster
The air freight forwarding industry is assuming more and more complex duties and creating innovative services at the same time that it is providing customers with dollar-saving “trade off” opportunities. The maturing industry has begun the air shipment of garments on hangers, and has launched the Overland Common Point (O.C.P.) Tariff for combining ocean transportation with connecting domestic air service. Forwarders have crusaded for greater container use, and, now, air carriers are beginning to offer incentives for containerized shipments. The industry also has assumed greater single-carrier responsibilities, developed sophisticated world-wide communications systems, and created simplified billing procedures.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720541
G. V. Wickstrom
Existing transit services in the Washington, D.C. area are faced with increasing costs and diminishing patronage, resulting in declining service. Top priority tasks are to provide for the improvement of existing bus services, planning for integrated and efficient bus operation before, during and after construction of the rail rapid transit system; and initiation of new and expanded passenger and service improvements. Future transit planning must recognize, however, that land use and travel patterns dictate the choice of travel mode. In fact, highway improvements will also be required in order to serve the land development and travel generated by the transit lines themselves.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720544
Littleton C. MacDorman
Furnishing transit service to smaller urban communities in a way that is workable physically and economically is the main point of discussion in this paper. The important issues relating to public transportation in small urban areas include financing, community service, institutional considerations, and image. Finding the best system for each respective community is the relevant problem, the systems must be planned to enable each community to grow and prosper.

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