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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 185215
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690485
L. M. Patrick, K. R. Trosien, F. T. DuPont
Safety performance of an experimental windshield with a thin, chemically tempered inner pane is compared with the standard windshield and other experimental windshields. The chemically tempered windshield has a penetration velocity of 35 mph compared with 26 mph penetration velocity for the standard windshield and has lower peak head accelerations than other types used in the experiments. The windshield tested produces a bulge on impact, which decelerates the head over a long distance with low accelerations. The bulge or pocket is lined with particles that are less lacerative than the standard annealed glass.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690486
Frank H. Veith
Advanced techniques to structure bills of material file on random access devices so that they may be used effectively by a computer are demonstrated. The balancing of requirements against supply orders for each material item in the product structure produces an economical inventory plan and can be achieved in an integrated data store bills of material file.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690483
Walter J. Gagnet
Initially, wire flame spraying was only capable of spraying low melting point materials such as zinc and aluminum. These coatings were used basically to achieve anodic corrosion protection. New flame spraying techniques such as the combustion powder process enabled industry to spray ceramics, self-fluxing alloys, and cermet mixtures. Use of fused coatings of self-fluxing alloys offered materials with greater resistance to wear, erosion, and abrasion. A further refinement in spraying techniques was plasma spraying with nontransferred arc equipment which allowed materials with extremely high melting points, such as tungsten, to be sprayed. With these newest developments, flame spraying offers a wide spectrum of material selection to solve most of the wear problems in industry economically and efficiently.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690497
C. A. Julien, H. M. Hung
The “identification of systems” is a generalized form of curve fitting pertaining to systems for which a mathematical model is known, and for which input/output data is empirically available, but for which actual values of parameters in the model are unknown and are sought. A technique for identification (that is, determination of parameters) in second-order, dynamic systems is presented and applied to a typical system; namely, a two-axle rubber-tired vehicle. The scheme is based on establishing a set of system model equations and their use with system response data to define one or more residue functions in a manner analogous to the defining of an error function in curve-fitting by the collocation method. A performance index is defined by treating the residue as a measure of least squares fit, and the parameters are then determined by finding the set of values which simultaneously makes all the first partial derivatives of this index with respect to the parameters vanish.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690495
J. M. Leinonen
Product failures in the customer's hands can be minimized through the use of a disciplined approach to vehicle proveout. In this paper, the Ford Truck Systems Engineering approach to product failure prevention is presented including definition of objectives, program reviews, testing, manufacturing and processing considerations, control of critical supplied components, and periodic status assessment. In addition, the techniques used to resolve critical component failure problems during a new vehicle experimental development program are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690494
Charles Lipson
In this paper, failures of machine components are described, systematized, and analyzed. An attempt is made to trace the causes of each failure, describe the mechanism, list the influencing factors, and suggest the remedies. A meaningful analysis of a failed part is one of the most useful sources of information available to the engineer. From the study of failure he can frequently learn whether the failure was caused by a defective design, inadequate material properties, poor production practice, or service abuse, and can thereby devise necessary improvements to eliminate failure.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690493
F. J. Hills, T. O. Wagner, D. K. Lawrence
Diesel smoke measurements were made over a broad range of smoke intensities with seven different commercially available smokemeters using a 4-cycle engine and a 2-cycle engine operated under steady-state conditions on two fuels of different smoking tendencies. Exhaust soot concentrations were also measured by two filtering methods, and smoke was rated visually by two trained raters. Correlations among the smokemeter readings did not differ with either fuel or engine. A nomograph correlating smokemeter readings was prepared, and agreement with published data appears generally good except for high readings from one continuous filtering smokemeter exposed to high sampling pressure, and unexplained low readings from a light-dispersion meter. The CRC Smokemeter Group believes these correlations, with the exceptions mentioned, give a firm basis for comparing measurements made with different smokemeters.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690492
A. W. Carey
An experimental investigation, conducted by an SAE task force to establish correlations between diesel smokemeters is described. Correlations between sampling meters (Bosch spotmeter, BP-Hartridge), opacity meters (USPHS, Beckman 912), and exhaust soot content are presented.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690491
F. Pinolini, J. Spiers
This paper gives an interim assessment of the characteristics of five smokemeters generally available in Europe which are currently under investigation on a cooperative basis in seven countries. This coordinated test programme, begun in 1967 by a Smoke Measurement Sub-Committee of the Coordinating European Council (for development of performance tests for fuels and lubricants) has also investigated alternative test methods, ranging from the constant full load, steady speed test to the so called “free-acceleration” method, on 60 different types of vehicle, representative of those in current use in Western Europe. The results of these tests are summarized, and it is concluded that the basic test for prototype approval for smoke emission level is that carried out as a series of full-load speeds, either with the engine on the test bed or with the vehicle on a chassis dynamometer.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690499
Wayne C. Hamann
The various computer techniques for simulation of dynamic mechanical systems are described. An example problem is solved, using the analog computer, a special purpose digital program, an analog-to-digital simulation language (MIMIC), and a problem oriented language (DYANA). The various methods are compared for time expended and efficiency in obtaining a solution. A number of typical automotive simulation problems are briefly described. The current and potential impact of time sharing and computer graphics systems on engineering simulation is discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690453
Nigel I. Palmer, William R. Alcorn, Daniel L. Mulkerin
In a conventional battery, specific energy density is approximately constant, while power density may be varied by design. In a fuel cell, by contrast, power density is essentially constant and energy density can be varied. The zinc-air battery is an intermediate case with an electrode derived from each type. Consequently, the weight of zinc must be maximized with respect to the remainder of the battery, for maximum specific energy density, but must be minimized with respect to plate area, for maximum specific power density. This basic tradeoff implies that a design optimization of the zinc-air battery is required for each application. A design procedure is outlined and demonstrated for the case of an electric passenger vehicle.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690448
Rowland Hill
There are many indications that Canada is moving slowly toward adoption of the metric system. Some groups and industries are making extensive use of it; other groups are laying plans or making preparations. Some metric standards are being published, while the Government of Canada is studying the implications of a change. As yet, no definite decision has been reached, and no national schedule for change has been established. Many Canadians are anxious to get on with the change, but realize that for economic reasons it will have to be coordinated with similar action in the United States.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690447
Ewen McEwen, F. E. Butcher
This paper presents an evaluation of the metric system within the United Kingdom. Psychological, administrative as well as technical aspects of metrication are discussed. At the present time, the British Government supports the metric change, but is relying on industry to execute the program. Implementation and publicity of metrication is discussed in terms of trade and general acceptance.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690456
Frederick E. Lueck, William A. Gartland, Michael J. Denholm
This paper discusses the development of a family of brake control devices capable of handling all vehicles from passenger cars through air-braked heavy trucks. These devices consist of: Hydraulic load-sensitive proportioning valves for passenger cars, light trucks, and vans; hydraulic load-sensitive proportioning valves for medium trucks; pneumatic load-sensitive proportioning valves for air-braked heavy trucks and tractor/trailer combinations; skid control systems for passenger cars; and skid control systems for trucks and tractor/trailer vehicles. The paper explains how this broad approach to brake controls allows the selection of a system which can be tailored to the particular brake control needs of a specific vehicle and its duty cycle. Except for the passenger car skid control, these devices are capable of being retro-fitted on existing vehicles.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690472
Kentaro Ishii, Mitugi Iwamoto, Toshio Shiraiwa, Yoshiyasu Sakamoto
The residual stresses produced by static and progressive induction hardening processes were investigated using different diameter bars and different heating conditions. The x-ray diffraction method of stress measurement was used. Compressive stresses were observed at and slightly below the surface in the hardened zone, while lower compressive stresses or tensile stresses were seen at the ends of this zone. These stresses depended on the shapes and sizes of the heated zone and the cooling patterns. Shot peening was seen to convert the tensile stress to a compressive value.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690465
S. L. Soo
A uniform end interval (time) method was devised for digital computation of wave motion in pipes. Illustration was given for waves in exhaust manifold of an engine with uniform time intervals in terms of crank angles. Method makes convenient the analysis of multicylinder engines.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690466
Walter R. Brandstetter
The theoretical investigation of the charging process results in 10 dimensionless parameters which specify the behavior of the unsteady process. The calculation of the volumetric efficiency and the oscillation phenomena in the intake system are therefore valid for all engine sizes. The influence of each parameter and the dependence on engine speed, intake pipe length, stroke-bore ratio, and the ratio of the intake pipe diameter to cylinder bore diameter are shown and discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690478
John V. Long
As the demands for materials with improved high-temperature properties continue, more research is being directed toward combining materials into composites to provide properties not available in a single material. An excellent example is a coated metal where the corrosion and oxidation resistance or other properties of an alloy are improved or modified by a thin layer of ceramic, cermet or other metal bonded to the surface. Early developments during World War II and continuing research have produced a number of high-temperature coatings which provide a designer with a unique method for extending a specific materials capability. This paper is a brief review of some ceramic, cermet, and metallic coatings which indicates the scope of the coating development and applications.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690480
D. K. Hanik, Q. O. Shockley, J. O. Hodshire
The need for surface protection of nickel base alloys to prevent hot corrosion and/or sulfidation is discussed. Results of controlled engine test cycling and the rig testing of turbine blades are discussed to establish laboratory test correlation. The relative corrosion resistance of a number of commercial alloys is shown, and the response of these alloys to corrosion resistance with protective coating is covered in relation to their limitation in erosion/oxidation deterioration. Finally, some technology results and general methodology applied to electrophoretic processing for applying coatings of aluminum and combinations with chromium are described. The processing advantages and disadvantages of this coating process and general results are compared with present production.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690479
R. B. PUYEAR
Modern gas turbine engines require superalloy components which have a combination of strength at high temperature and resistance to oxidation and sulfidation attack not obtainable with conventional alloys. These requirements are met by a composite of strong superalloy bodies protected with metallic diffusion coatings, formed by alloying the surface with aluminum and other elements. Novel processing methods are frequently required to meet the needs of today's increasingly sophisticated applications. By working together, engine producers and coating vendors have been able to develop procedures to meet these needs.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690481
C. R. Most
The use of surface coatings in industry is rapidly increasing. Surface coatings, used principally for their wear qualities, can be divided into three broad categories: chemical platings, hard facings, and flame spraying. Processes are briefly described; examples are given of the uses of the surface coatings produced; and comparisons are made. Particular attention is given to the various flame spray processes and coatings. The importance of particle velocity to the qualities of flame spray coatings is demonstrated. Examples are given of some recent advances in the technology of flame spray surface coatings, and related data are presented. Porosity of coatings and porosity measurement techniques; efficacy of epoxy sealing of coatings for enhanced corrosion protection; very high purity plasma-applied compositions; and the use of plasma coating techniques to fabricate parts are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690412
E. Caffier
The particular design of the SNECMA thrust reverser on Concorde results specifically from the general nacelle arrangement, and also from the exhaust system requirements. In this context, the author justifies the present arrangement of the SNECMA thrust reverser system. He describes in detail the technological features and the tests completed, which allowed the thrust reverser system to meet performance, safety, airworthiness, and operational requirements for the flight development phase on the Concorde prototype. In this respect, further consideration is given to the reliability and maintenance aspects, as an important feature of the design.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690419
P. W. Theriault
Short-haul transportation, particularly in the Northeast corridor, has been the subject of many studies. Several modes have been used and several others are being demonstrated or will be demonstrated. We will concentrate on the air transportation mode and, in particular, on the compound helicopter as a moderately high-speed vehicle, which could provide an appreciable benefit to the public and the existing air carriers.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690418
Lynn L. Bollinger
Well proven, existing STOL technology today stands ready to serve increasingly urgent needs in the Northeast Corridor economically and profitably. There are no technical obstacles. A modernized regulatory framework appears to be the next requirement for progress. Federal authorities, however, are necessarily dependent upon a modicum of industry consensus and guidance. This has to date been conspicuously missing. The accompanying case studies and commentary are presented to help give industry personnel a better understanding of aspects on which unified action appears desirable.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690417
D.S. LAWRENCE, R.H. SHATZ
The potentialities of VTOL systems are examined in terms of cost effectiveness. A comparison of VTOL, STOL, and CTOL systems shows that the operational cost effectiveness of the VTOL system is at least competitive, and is frequently advantageous. When the costs of ground facilities, ground access time, and social penalties are added, VTOL is seen to have a significant advantage over CTOL and STOL systems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690422
Robert B. Meyersburg
Airport congestion, combined with the rapid and continuing growth of corridor air traffic, has spurred the development of potentially viable VTOL and STOL systems. As these systems grow, they will introduce new close-in airports in metropolitan areas, as well as increase the efficiency of existing airports for medium and long haul transportation. New and more efficient methods of utilizing the terminal airspace must be developed to control the mix of conventional and V/STOL aircraft to minimize traffic delays, and to support in every way the maintenance of a safe, fast, reliable all-weather intercity air transport system. This paper treats methods of interfacing CTOL and V/STOL terminal traffic to achieve these objectives.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690421
LAURENCE SCHAEFER
This paper assumes the development of a Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) commercial aircraft as an aid and a competitor to the Conventional Take-off and Landing (CTOL) aircraft. It also assumes the development of an IFR navigation system which will permit STOL operations independent of and compatible with CTOL operations. The city center STOLport may have to be designed into an environment which creates additional challenge to the Airport Planner. Criteria has to be applied to sites restricted by surrounding obstructions, developed communities, congested ground access systems, and a reluctance on the part of the community to accept an aviation facility because of noise, congestion, and safety. STOL aircraft can help amelioriate airport capacity problems facing the nation today while offering the major segment of the short haul market better service. Care in site selection will certainly be a major factor in the success of the new mode of air travel.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690427
Peter L. Fleischner, Jay R. Hodshon, Karsten H. Styhr
The concept that a “high purity” oxide ceramic is a generic term describing a family of materials, which could exhibit various performance characteristics in critical thermocouple applications, is introduced. Individual products require complete characterization of composition and micro-structure in order to predict the specific physical, chemical and thermal properties of the selected part. Recent applications of newer high purity fabrication techniques to hyper-environmental temperature sensors are presented, including the chemical vapor deposition of BeO. A brief discussion of the toxicity of BeO indicates tonnage quantities of beryllium compounds have been processed since they were recognized as toxic in the late 1940's, with few, if any, confirmed new cases of the beryllium disease.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690426
Teh Po Wang, Arnold J. Gottlieb, C. Dean Starr
Effects of environment on the EMF stability of a thermocouple are discussed. Stability of EMF of 0.128 and 0.032 in. diameter Type K thermocouple at 1800 F in air under laboratory conditions is presented and method of test described. The EMF change of an individual thermoelement with respect to its initial condition is compared with corresponding change in microstructure. Test data for the 0.032 in. diameter wire extends to 1000 hr while those for 0.128 in. diameter wire extends beyond 4000 hr. The stability of EMF for a temperature range of 1800-2200 F in air of a Type K thermocouple is compared with Tophel II- Nial II * in both laboratory and industrial conditions. The EMF changes of a 0.128 in. diameter Type K and a Tophel II-Nial II couple of the same size upon exposure to a reducing atmosphere at 1750 F are presented. Approaches to the design of a more stable thermocouple are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690431
P. W. Mossey
A pyrometer was built for the measurement of the surface temperature of turbine rotor blades on operating development engines. Two new concepts were used: a purged, line-of-sight viewing tube, and a method of signal processing to reject the interference of carbon particles in the turbine gases. This report describes the new system and the results obtained in testing on development engines. The data have been analyzed and recommendations are made to improve the measurement accuracy further. The pyrometer has potential for measuring, condition monitoring, and in-flight engine control.

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