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Viewing 164041 to 164070 of 185242
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690325
F. L. Roberts, M. S. Roush
The lubricating system of a small turboprop engine is described in terms of capacity, temperatures, type of lubrication, material of oil-wetted parts, system routing, and problem areas. The customer's installation and parent lubricating system are described and their importance discussed. A discussion of the SOAP analysis procedure is presented with reference to the sampling interval, interpretation of data, and a history of selected impending failures. The use of SOAP analysis to allow replacement of marginal design parts is discussed. The necessity to monitor engine lubricating systems during engine development is emphasized.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690323
William H. Furnivall, Robert L. Mettey
Aircraft propellers normally operate at extremes of environmental temperature. Specification of lubricants for these highly stressed and precision machined mechanisms has evolved over the past forty years, with the requirements for each generation of propellers becoming increasingly stringent. Experience with aircraft propellers is applicable to comparable mechanisms exposed to similar environments.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690319
A. M. Sabroff, B. D. Richardson, R. J. Fiorentino
Hydrostatic extrusion has been demonstrated to be a promising method for the manufacture of tubing in a variety of materials. In development studies at Battelle, the process has been used to fabricate tubes from alloy steels, hard aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys. This paper describes the equipment and techniques utilized in hydrostatic tube extrusion, and discusses how the process fits into commercial tube production operations. The potential capabilities for applying the hydrostatic extrusion process as a substitute for hot extrusion or as a substitute for conventional drawing or tube reducing of tubes produced by other means are summarized for a variety of materials.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690311
J. S. Mount, D. W. R. Lawson
The types of thrust reversers currently employed for business jet aircraft are briefly reviewed and their main features noted. The different types of reversers applicable to various powerplants - straight turbojets, low bypass ratio turbofans and high bypass ratio turbofans are pointed out, with comments on weight and cost. The advantages of reversers for business operations are listed and quantified and potential new uses are discussed. Alternate approaches to the thrust reverser control system are presented, with emphasis on the required procedures at the pilot station. Current federal aircraft regulation requirements for ground and in-flight qualification of reversers are discussed and experience gained from developmental and qualification tests on specific installations are described.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690339
Richard J. Lukso, Richard E. Spielmaker
This paper describes a new and unique type of static inverter (called a Digital Inverter) for aircraft in the power range 400 Va-4000 Va. The advantages of the inverter are precise frequency control, low weight, stiff load driving capability, and high reliability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690310
Jere G. Castor
A discussion is presented on the aerodynamic and mechanical design philosophy for the AiResearch model TSE36-1 240 shp gas turbine propulsion engine, which is currently being developed for the small two-to-three-place single engine helicopter market. The program objectives are to provide engines that have a low selling price and a low cost of ownership. The engine design is highly flexible and, thus, will be suitable for turboshaft and auxiliary power unit applications. This creates a large production base which, along with simplicity of design, will result in a low initial cost. Low cost of ownership will be possible due to a modular maintainability concept, high component reliability, and multifuel and oil operating capabilities. Experimental flight, development, performance, growth, and official FAA engine tests completed to date are also discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690338
N. B. Hemesath, D. H. Meyer, H. M. Schweighofer
The trends in air navigation, as indicated by military developments and current activity in the development of new aircraft for the airlines point to: 1. Continued use of VOR/DME as the basic short-range (continental) navigation aid 2. Inertial navigation systems (INS) as the primary long-range navigation aid and source of improved attitude and heading information 3. Increased digital computation and control for navigation and aircraft flight management. This paper discusses how the INS and digital computer can be used to complement the VOR/DME system to provide improved navigation accuracy and smoother operation in the VOR/DME environment.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690331
Charles R. Holt
A unique bleed air environmental system has been developed for the Turbo Commander. This system utilizes air-to-air jet pumps as “flow multipliers” to reduce engine bleed flow requirements. Bleed power extraction is reduced from an unacceptably high 12% to a more reasonable 6%. The system is integrated with the original air cycle cooling system and heating is by compression heat. The jet pumps furnish a solution to the problem of high bleed power extraction common to turboprops, at a modest increase in cost and weight and at practically no decrease in reliability or maintainability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690333
Lawrence D. Smith
The extended use of today’s business jets has also extended the requirements to operate in all types of weather environments. One of the problems of all-weather operation is the formation of ice on aircraft surfaces, such as windshields, wings, etc., which has plagued pilots and aircraft designers for many years. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the complete icing problem, including the types of atmospheric conditions that can produce ice, the types of ice formations that can develop, the types of systems used to prevent or remove ice formations, a method of analyzing the requirements of these systems, and the testing required to develop and prove each system. The paper is primarily intended to acquaint the analyst or the designer with the requirements and performance criteria of an anti-icing system for a given aircraft.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690256
Don P. Marquis
This paper outlines six problems encountered in the design of universal joints for automotive drive lines and explains how each problem was solved. Solutions included: elimination of undercuts from operating area of journal surface, control of uniformity of loading on ground and thrust surfaces touched by the needles, use o f dual-system precision seals, use of plastic retaining rings to freeze the joint on center, and removal of impediments to the process of precession.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690257
J. M. Roethlisberger, F. G. Aldrich
The Tri-Pot universal joint, a tri-axial variant of the conventional ball and trunnion joint, satisfies design requirements of the Toronado inboard drive axle. While the conventional pot joint may meet basic requirements, its nonconstant velocity produces vibrations under heavy torque. By evaluating the Tri-Pot joint’s statics and kinematics, its constant velocity can be justified. Having three equally spaced drive elements, the Tri-Pot joint offers rotational motion at constant angular velocity. Friction is translated into a cyclic axial force along the spider and axle shaft axis. Thus, the Tri-Pot joint satisfies both the angular and axial travel requirements for the inboard drive axle joint.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690258
A. H. Berker, B. J. Hoover
A systematic vehicle design and development procedure to minimize axle noise has been developed. This method reduces engineering lead time and optimizes the vehicle design through the utilization of computer analysis, laboratory testing, and road testing.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690259
Walter M. Esser
A dynamic absorber is now in production which will effectively reduce rear axle whine in automobiles. Simple construction and ease of assembly, combined with adaptability to existing drivelines, produce a low cost replacement for present axle noise control devices. This paper deals with the causes of axle noise, how to deal with offensive resonances, and the new Internal Vibration Absorber (IVA) designed to overcome these problems. In model year 1968, 500,000 IVA equipped automobiles were released and this number was increased to two million for 1969.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690275
F. A. Badia, P. K. Rohatgi
Gall resistance of cast aluminum alloys containing dispersed graphite particles was investigated. Graphite particles were introduced by injecting nickel-coated graphite powders through an inert gas stream into molten aluminum alloys and then rapidly solidifying the melt in permanent mold castings. Incorporation of graphite particles permits aluminum alloys to withstand poor lubrication conditions (low bearing parameters) successfully without galling. Gall resistance increases with graphite content over the range studied. Aluminum-silicon-nickel alloys containing more than about 1.8 weight per cent graphite in one or both mating members are able to run under conditions of boundary lubrication without galling. Dispersed graphite improves the gall resistance of aluminum alloys through a combination of several mechanisms; the principal one being the formation of a graphite-rich layer on the bearing surface of mated members.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690271
Harold W. Krauss, Gene Scofield, Paul Young
The engineer, using a digital computer to analytically evaluate a rear view mirror, can now obtain a full scale, body view drawing of the mirror, eyes, and vehicle components. An accurate reduced scale drawing also is produced describing the ambinocular field of view defined by the entire mirror. In addition to the design function, the computer can be used to show compliance to desired viewing requirements. The great number of available design options make this technique a comprehensive, flexible, and economic tool.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690276
Harlan W. Van Gerpen
This paper discusses experience with a data acquisition system at the John Deere Waterloo Tractor Works Product Engineering Center. This system handles the engineering design calculation load and, on an interrupt basis, logs data from test stands. In addition, several applications are discussed which make use of the high speed acquisition system for more accurate recording of high speed phenomenon.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690301
W. G. Bair
Total energy systems are being installed increasingly in office and industrial buildings, schools, and shopping centers. This paper surveys existing systems, including operating data, distribution, and types of installations. Several recent equipment developments are mentioned, including a completely packaged engine-generator set heat recovery modules, sets of two or more turbine alternator modules for continuous-duty precise power requirements (such as computers), complete turn-key plants, and installations combining steam and gas turbines.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690264
John A. Larson
An X-ray diffraction analysis involving integrated intensities was applied to a series of 99.85% Cu, 0.15% Cd alloys which had been cold-rolled and annealed. It is shown that the reduction in integrated intensity, due to extinction, can be correlated with tensile strength. In addition, it is shown that the annealing behavior of this alloy can be characterized by a “tempering parameter” containing both time and temperature.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690263
W. H. McFarland, H. L. Taylor
The mechanical properties and microstructures of low carbon alloy-free martensites are discussed as well as engineering aspects such as joining techniques, fatigue, protection from corrosion, and forming practice. With the properties that have been developed, it is shown that the low carbon martensitic steels can compete with high carbon quenched and tempered or austempered steels as well as such high priced materials as aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel. Similarly, the relatively low cost of low carbon martensitic steels, plus their high strength to weight ratio, makes these steels potential substitutes for plastics and fiber glass. Crash bars, welded tubing, fasteners, small spring-type parts, and corrugated panels are discussed as applications and supporting data are presented.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690262
W. W. Gerberich
A combination of chemical balancing and thermal-mechanical processing has led to a new class of high strength steels. These steels utilize the strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation to produce unusually good combinations of strength, elongation, toughness, and corrosion resistance. The principle behind enhanced elongation is discussed in terms of the increased work-hardening rate provided by the hard martensitic phase. The mechanism responsible for enhanced toughness is discussed in terms of the plastic energy absorption occurring during the transformation. It is further shown that elongation is three times greater, toughness may be two times greater in thin or thick sections, and corrosion resistance is an order of magnitude greater than the comparable properties of conventional, high-strength martensitic steels.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690269
Bertil Rietz
Studs are the best and most used antiskid device for tires today. Cemented carbide has, due to its extreme hardness, contributed highly to this state. The paper reviews the history of antiskid devices, and states the basic principles for the construction and function of studs as well as their fitting into tires. Special problems with regard to heat buildup and wear are treated, and how these matters influence the choice of material and design for the stud jacket. The ability of the stud point to penetrate into ice of various hardness is considered.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690266
Robert M. Huffaker, Charles E. Fuller, T. R. Lawrence
Approximately four years ago, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center initiated a program to develop a laser Doppler heterodyne technique for the measurement of a local mean and fluctuating gas velocity with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper contains design considerations and description of a laser Doppler velocity instrument capable of three component velocity measurements. This instrument has been applied to the measurement of subsonic jet turbulence. Comparison of these measurements with hot wire anemometer data obtained in the same facility indicate the laser Doppler velocity instrument is capable of making accurate turbulence measurements.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690489
Albert Grotewohl
After a short introductory consideration of wheel suspension layouts, the influence of the suspension on major vehicle characteristics in the steady-state condition is investigated and the theoretical results compared at various points with measurements made on the VW 411. In the second part of the paper, the front and rear suspension and the safety steering system of the VW 411 are described in detail.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690490
R.E. OWEN, M.R. LADD
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690488
T. Kohno, S. Tsuchiya, N. Komoda
This paper describes experimental and analytical approaches which were developed for the purpose of planning, designing and tuning up not only steady state but also dynamic characteristics of the vehicle maneuvering performance. As regards experimental approaches, outlines of the testing methods and relationship between the measured typical characteristics and the drivers' feeling are presented. They were investigated and developed in order to qualify the general characteristics of produced vehicle dynamics, effectively and accurately, and to apply the results to the vehicle design. As regards analytical approaches, the seven degrees' theoretical model is introduced. It is established for the purpose of analyzing the influences on vehicle performances by changes in design parameters, including the lateral rigidity of tires, the torsional rigidity of the steering system, and some nonlinear dampings in steering and suspension systems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690487
Norman B. Johnston
A system for retrieving specific design information on parts to facilitate their reuse in new designs where applicable, and to assist in standardization programs to eliminate existing duplicate or near-duplicate parts. The technique adapts itself to data processing and for use in analytical studies outside of the engineering design area.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690485
L. M. Patrick, K. R. Trosien, F. T. DuPont
Safety performance of an experimental windshield with a thin, chemically tempered inner pane is compared with the standard windshield and other experimental windshields. The chemically tempered windshield has a penetration velocity of 35 mph compared with 26 mph penetration velocity for the standard windshield and has lower peak head accelerations than other types used in the experiments. The windshield tested produces a bulge on impact, which decelerates the head over a long distance with low accelerations. The bulge or pocket is lined with particles that are less lacerative than the standard annealed glass.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690486
Frank H. Veith
Advanced techniques to structure bills of material file on random access devices so that they may be used effectively by a computer are demonstrated. The balancing of requirements against supply orders for each material item in the product structure produces an economical inventory plan and can be achieved in an integrated data store bills of material file.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690483
Walter J. Gagnet
Initially, wire flame spraying was only capable of spraying low melting point materials such as zinc and aluminum. These coatings were used basically to achieve anodic corrosion protection. New flame spraying techniques such as the combustion powder process enabled industry to spray ceramics, self-fluxing alloys, and cermet mixtures. Use of fused coatings of self-fluxing alloys offered materials with greater resistance to wear, erosion, and abrasion. A further refinement in spraying techniques was plasma spraying with nontransferred arc equipment which allowed materials with extremely high melting points, such as tungsten, to be sprayed. With these newest developments, flame spraying offers a wide spectrum of material selection to solve most of the wear problems in industry economically and efficiently.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690497
C. A. Julien, H. M. Hung
The “identification of systems” is a generalized form of curve fitting pertaining to systems for which a mathematical model is known, and for which input/output data is empirically available, but for which actual values of parameters in the model are unknown and are sought. A technique for identification (that is, determination of parameters) in second-order, dynamic systems is presented and applied to a typical system; namely, a two-axle rubber-tired vehicle. The scheme is based on establishing a set of system model equations and their use with system response data to define one or more residue functions in a manner analogous to the defining of an error function in curve-fitting by the collocation method. A performance index is defined by treating the residue as a measure of least squares fit, and the parameters are then determined by finding the set of values which simultaneously makes all the first partial derivatives of this index with respect to the parameters vanish.

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