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Viewing 164191 to 164220 of 181983
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660199
R. W. Volpe
This paper points up the advantages of d-c electric drive systems for off-highway vehicles and compares their performance with diesel or gas turbine powered vehicles using conventional differential drives. It is shown that the independent wheel drive system provided by the electric drive develops torque at each wheel that allows the wheel to minimize slipping or sliding. This is accomplished by the motorized wheel described herein.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660196
M. G. Beard
Analysis of turbulence incidents since 1959 indicates that the record could have been much better if a good CAT detector had been available. A device which defines CAT areas and indicates the degree of turbulence could be more exact than weather radar is in indicating storm areas. This paper briefly summarizes the turbulence incidents during the last six years and discusses the causes of some of the more severe ones.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660197
John B. Clark
Clear air turbulence and thunderstorm turbulence are compared. The flight technique to be used is the same in all turbulence. Upsets in thunderstorm turbulence are discussed. Years ago there was evidence of a clear pattern in the upsets involving propeller driven airplanes. There was heavy airplane nose down elevator use following a violent updraft with eventual recovery from a deep dive. A similar pitch axis pattern is apparent in jet upsets. The swept wing jet has different stability characteristics; has a motor driven horizontal stabilizer as well as an elevator to control around the pitch axis; has improved flight instrumentation. Pilot training and a stabilizer modification have contributed to a dramatic decline in incident reports.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660194
Joseph J. George
The flight problems of clear air turbulence are brought into focus. The forecast problem is reviewed and airline practices in forecasting are described. It is demonstrated that adding the requirement of an axis of minimum temperature at levels from 300 to 200 mb reduces the average forecast box appreciably as well as adding accuracy. A practical forecast procedure is suggested.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660195
W. Boynton Beckwith
The development of techniques employed by the airlines in overcoming the problem of clear air turbulence is outlined. Improvement in transport aircraft brought new sets of challenges in this area which were overcome by applied meteorological studies conducted by the airlines and assisted by military and government research. A distinction is made in the methods of bypassing the turbulence regions caused by wind shear and those caused by the mountain wave. A new study on mountain wave turbulence evasion showing considerable promise is discussed. Recommendations are made on methods for keeping pace with an increasing exposure to this important operational problem.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660206
L. Bush
ABSTRACT
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660207
Arthur E. Miller
The importance of oxygen in our environment is briefly reviewed, and a number of potential future developments which might result in radically different oxygen storage and distribution systems in aircraft are described and discussed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660204
George R. Biggs
The purpose of this paper is to give a brief outline of the philosophies and methods used in the quality and reliability programs of the leading manufacturer of business and personal aircraft. As noted in the article, the personnel involved are numerous and range from trainee to scientist covering every basic modern science except the most exotic ones. While the activities are not radical, they do represent practical refinements of techniques which have been proven by results. We hope they contribute to the progress of our industry.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660205
Ben Gebhardt
Continued prosperity in the aircraft industry can lead to costly inefficiencies. Management is using data processing to offset these inefficiencies, but many applications are only partially effective. This paper reviews a system application at Mooney Aircraft, Inc., that was developed from “ideal” operating concepts. The theory behind the system development is outlined and the critical control procedures and objective operating results achieved are identified.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660202
Archer K. Mabe
This paper presents the current hydraulic system on the Cessna Model 210 aircraft and some of the problems encountered during its development. Several cross-section views of the various components are illustrated, along with a schematic of the system, to aid in explaining how the necessary sequencing is accomplished with a combination of electrically and hydraulically controlled sequencing devices. In view of the demands made of the system, it is a practical, reasonably simple, and reliable light aircraft landing gear retraction system.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660143
J. C. Vaverek
A unique 400 electrical horsepower chassis dynamometer capable of rolling five loaded axles of any wheelbase at speeds up to 90 mph provides the environment for demonstrating tractor-trailer ride dynamics. An actual tractor cab pitch problem occurring in the cruise speed range is described. Dynamometer data gathered during the definitive stages and from attempts to improve tractor ride by changing trailer geometry are presented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660203
Harold L. Wise
The self-rectifying automotive type alternator is being modified for light airplane usage. The alternator is rapidly replacing the conventional d-c generator in light commercial airplanes because of its greater output at low speeds, weight savings, simplicity of control, and eventual cost savings. The change from d-c generator to self-rectifying alternators has required that the airplane's electrical system and accessories also be modified to accept the inherent electrical “noise” developed by the self-rectifying alternator. These first applications of the automotive alternator are the beginning of a series of electrical system improvements that lie ahead for the industry.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660145
O. L. Tiffany, E. M. Zaitzeff
A planning study of support systems for use in conjunction with Project Apollo to explore the moon is described. Engineering design of the support systems requires preliminary definitions of typical scientific mission plans. This paper discusses some of the more recent measurement results which affect decisions in lunar mission planning, including geophysical techniques used on the earth which will be useful for lunar exploration, lunar site selection, typical sortie traverse design, and statistical data on lunar missions.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660142
Walter L. Luli, Warren J. Young
Abstract A concept of an entirely new single point tandem axle suspension designed only for highway operation, featuring a torsion rubber spring, independent wheel action, high spring deflection, controlled axle movement, and maximum arm articulation is presented. A superior ride, easier steering, reduced tire wear, weight reduction, ease of maintenance, elimination of friction, no lubrication required, and a balanced driveline under all load conditions are featured. NOTE: This is not a walking beam design of a suspension. This paper attempts to give as broad a picture as possible of the design, development, testing and operational features of the suspension.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660144
Herbert Schaefer
Three different methods of testing mobility systems of lunar surface vehicles (LSV’s) under simulated lunar gravity conditions and the types of mobility test articles (MTA’s) required for such tests are discussed. A proposed outline for an LSV mobility test program is given which is based on three types of MTA’s. These MTA’s are: a Block I, with a linear scale of 1:1 and a mass scale of 1:6; a Block II, which is essentially the MTA Block I ballasted to its full mass; and a Block III, which has a small linear scale and a mass scale corresponding to the applicable model scaling laws. The MTA Block II requires the use of a lunar gravity simulator; several types of such a simulator are being discussed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660147
W. B. Sponsler
In order to resolve some of the many variables associated with lunar surface vehicle design and to evaluate early analyses and assumptions, an operating model vehicle was constructed and tested over a wide range of surface conditions. The resulting test data permitted making preliminary performance comparisons of 4, 6, and 8-wheel, split-track and full-track vehicles, and predictions of prototype performance. The conflicting requirements imposed by the variable mission and surface conditions stress the necessity for an adaptable or flexible locomotion system. Common wheel or track systems which employ fixed relationships with the ground cannot provide the combination of reliability, efficiency, traction, stability, and maneuverability so important to lunar missions.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660146
Richard E. Wong, Louis Galan
System concepts for lunar exploration beyond current scheduled Apollo/LEM flights have been the object of study by both NASA and industry for several years. Notable is the Apollo Logistics Support System (ALSS), in which a lunar mobile laboratory (MOLAB), is considered as one of its pay-loads. Preliminary design studies of the MOLAB system have demonstrated its feasibility. These studies have shown that for an optimum system, special emphasis should not be placed on any single subsystem such as mobility, and that trade-off must be made between MOLAB’s many subsystems. Subsystem design characteristics and performance specifically covered are: mobility, power, cryogenic storage, life support cabin, astrionics, and tie-down and unloading subsystems.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660149
F. Pavlics
This paper outlines an approach used for determining locomotion energy requirements for lunar surface vehicles. Both analytical and experimental techniques are discussed based on methods developed for the mechanics of terrain-vehicle systems. Factors affecting energy requirements are considered, including motion resistance, vehicle speed, slip, and mechanical efficiency. Motion resistance factors discussed include grade, inertia, rolling, soft soil, and obstacle resistance. Special attention is given to energy expended due to surface roughness. Some experimental results are presented to verify the soundness of the approach.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660148
D. Schuring
The exact model rules for lunar vehicles whose performance on the moon has to be tested on earth are derived. A true picture of lunar performance can be obtained by taking highspeed motion pictures of a 1/6-scale model. The experimental restrictions imposed by exact model rules can be relieved by resorting to approximated similarity to get away from the linear scale factor of 1/6. Examples are given for a full-scale model.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660151
GEORGE PASCOE
Ford Motor Company has developed and put into operation original computer programs and numerical control systems for computing the non-analytical automotive body surfaces, and numerically machining such surfaces on dies and other body tooling. Thousands of templates, hundreds of wood models and many lines of dies have been surfaced through the new systems. Quality, accuracy and symmetry of numerical surfaces are superior to those produced conventionally. In combination with computer-aided design developments, N/C systems will be employed to perform or assist in a number of operations now performed conventionally in styling, product engineering, manufacturing engineering and tooling, to improve tooling accuracy and product quality, and to minimize lead-time from clay models to production of new cars.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660153
W. M. Hogue
Mathematical definition and manipulation of part surfaces within a computer assists the body engineer in the design of automobile components and in the evaluation of tentative designs. Methods have been developed to design hardware mechanisms rationally, to evaluate optical distortion characteristics of tentative windshield designs, and to generate data about the effects of component tolerances. Methods have been established for the application of analytic surface methods to actual body parts.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660152
W. L. Johnson, J. W. Sanders, N. E. South
A method of analytic definition of surfaces in space, proposed by Prof. S. A. Coons of M.I.T., was investigated and the results reported. The investigation involved: 1. Development of computer programs to implement the method. 2. Development of means to display the generated surfaces. 3. Study of the nature of the surfaces which can be produced. 4. Determination of the control that the user has over surface shape. The method was found to be well adapted to computer use and to available display equipment. It produces a great variety of surfaces over which the user has excellent control, and it holds promise in surface design and replication applications.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660155
E. S. Starkman, H. K. Newhall, R. Sutton, T. Maguire, L. Farbar
Anhydrous ammonia has been demonstrated to operate successfully as a fuel for spark ignition engines. Principal requirements are that it be introduced in the vapor phase and partly decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen. Spark timing for maximum performance must be advanced slightly for ammonia but sensitivity to spark timing is little greater than with hydrocarbons. Increasing the cylinder wall temperature aids in effecting successful and reliable operation. The maximum theoretically possible indicated output using ammonia vapor is about 77% of that with hydrocarbon. Specific fuel consumption increase twofold at maximum power and 2-1/2 fold at maximum economy when using ammonia as a replacement for hydrocarbon.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660158
Kenneth G. Brown
This paper discusses a linkage analysis of the Jaguar type C torque reactor, reducing linkage configuration to a simple distance ratio and providing for an additional link to assure directional stability during braking. The suspension described is of value to automobile builders who, for cost reasons, must use a solid, live rear axle, but wish to improve performance through improvement in rear wheel adhesion with this simple four-bar linkage.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660159
Louis J. DiFrancesco
In applying needle roller bearings to universal joints, it is desirable to identify and quantify several factors, recognizing the interrelationship of these factors in order to obtain the ultimate in successful performance and increased life. This paper discusses various aspects to be considered in bearing design (proportions and clearances); manufacturing tolerances; use of different materials; and the importance of proper yoke and cross deflection, cross end play, cup grind relief and trunnion chamfer, crowned races, and controlled contour rollers.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660160
Howard Yarbrough
The shell type of radial needle bearing provides maximum antifriction capacity, while occupying generally the same space as plain bearing bushings, and fills a critical design need in larger and more complex machinery. Capacity, life, maintainability, and cost must be considered in the selection of the type of needle bearing in a particular application. This paper discusses its various applications.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660161
Homer J. Wood
The sophistication factor “S” is a number expressing deviations from isentropic operation of a gas turbine flow path due to gas dynamic effects. It may be used with remarkable accuracy in polytropic equations to analyze gas turbine cycle performance. When related to statistics, it provides a means of evaluating proposed or existing engines with respect to current technology status. A corresponding technique for dealing with recuperators is also presented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660162
William J. Sidelko
The design requirements for the frame as a load carrying member are discussed in relationship to a highway truck and its basic vehicle package. The theoretical and experimental procedures are given in detail to demonstrate the techniques for frame design. The features of a method to laboratory test a frame with correlation to service miles is discussed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660163
J.M. CHANDLER, J.H. STRUCK, W.J. VOORHIES
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660164
Paul L. Connolly
The high-speed highway environment of today places great demands upon the physiological and perceptual capabilities of the driver's visual system. Suggestions for reducing accidents and fatalities on the road are offered from the standpoint that vision is the one common denominator in all the four elements involved in highway safety - the vehicle operator, the vehicle itself, the highway, and the highway environment. Detailed aspects of these four important factors are examined, and the results given of various studies to obtain more knowledge on human vision as related to vehicle and highway performance.

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