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Viewing 164191 to 164220 of 185270
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690552
Bradford H. Kenyon, Pete Thatcher
Fleet management is now possible at a more profitable level than ever before. There are ways of reducing the cost of the record keeping, etc., required by the many regulatory bodies imposing themselves on business. It is possible not only to reduce these costs, but to actually increase the available information and to improve one's profit by pinpointing hidden cost areas within a fleet that are not now apparent. A fleet owner now can have current information on each vehicle information to show which equipment is the most profitable to operate, information that allows for the testing of vehicle component parts, and even information to measure a vehicle's production compared with its cost of operation. Simple, flexible computer programs for vehicle management are made available today by large petroleum suppliers. Because these programs have already been designed and have proven to be successful, there generally is no need to make any capital investment in order to use one.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690563
A. R. Kaduk, G. Mladsi, E. D. Clise
Utility vehicles perform a specialized job, and consequently require special design consideration. Frame, spring, and axle selection for this type of vehicle can no longer be based solely on gross vehicle weight, but must be tailored to do the required job.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690564
D. Dana White, James L. Henderson
This paper demonstrates a way of applying an iterative computing technique to a typical engineering design problem, in such a way as to maximize a mathematical expression of the design criteria. Ways of writing this mathematical expression to express design criteria are explained through several illustrative examples. This technique of computer-aided design should allow the engineer to arrive at more than satisfactory designs in a minimum of engineering time.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690557
N. A. Henein, J. A. Bolt
Possible mechanisms for smoke formation in the diesel engine are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the effects of some engine and fuel factors on carbon formation during the course of combustion, including cetane number, fuel volatility, air charge temperature, and after-injection. The tests were made with a single-cylinder, open chamber research engine, with three fuels, covering a wide range of inlet air temperatures and pressures. There is evidence that smoke intensity increased with increase in the cetaine number of the fuels with inlet air temperatures near atmospheric. Increase in the air charge temperature caused an increase in smoke intensity for volatile fuels and had an opposite effect on less volatile fuels for the open chamber engine used. The smoke intensity was found to increase dramatically with after-injection, with all other parameters kept constant. The concept that flame cooling is the main cause for smoke formation is examined.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690558
R. L. Courtney, C. S. Roscoe
This paper characterizes the features and describes some of the benefits of the present generation of multigrade “MS” oils. Particular emphasis is placed upon viscosity retention characteristics as a function of the stability of the viscosity index improver. Comparative automobile field tests in private commuter, taxicab, and highway service are shown for both SAE 10W-30 and a carefully compounded SAE 10W-40 oil. Observations of cylinder and piston ring wear, crankcase deposits, PCV valve cleanliness, and oil economy are reported.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690606
John A. Farris
This paper discusses the causes of abrasive wear in mobile vehicle hydraulic systems and presents laboratory and field data that show why ultrafine filtration is required to control degradation of fluid system components caused by abrasive wear. Among the advantages of ultrafine filtration are the vehicle manufacturer's reduced warranty and flushing costs, and user benefits of longer fluid and component life, less downtime, fewer spares, and less maintenance man-hours.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690605
J. L. Blaylock
Abstract The best method and usually the final test to determine the performance of a filter is to install it in the hydraulic system. Tests were conducted using this method of evaluation. It has been shown that the performance of a filter in a given system can usually be determined after a few minutes operation. Test data also indicate that if properly applied, partial flow filtration can achieve the same results as full flow.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690604
E. C. Fitch
Abstract A new method of correlating hydraulic component contaminant tolerance levels with hydraulic filtration performance has been developed using a cleanliness level chart. The chart provides a means of expressing contamination levels from particle count data. Methods are discussed for deriving component tolerance levels and rating filter elements on the basis of their efficiency characteristics. The correlation achieved enables the designer to establish the performance, reliability, endurance, and ultimate life of the hydraulic equipment.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690611
J. L. Zeman, J. L. Bogdanoff
This paper presents the Statistical Energy Approach (SEA) method for estimating the gross response in complex interconnected structural systems. The method is intended to compensate for the difficulties present in evaluating parameters and excitation needed when attempting to use traditional methods of linear vibration analysis. The amount of information needed to apply the method is modest and the formulas are easy to use. Some limitation on application is demonstrated by a detailed example.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690609
L. E. Henyon
This paper describes a new series of power shift transmission and divulges the analysis made in determining capacity requirements. Design sequences are described which allow minimum component changes when progressing from minimum to maximum performance characteristics throughout the series.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690608
Brant G. Elliott
This paper deals with the development of a versatile hydraulic backhoe within a given company. The Long Manufacturing Co., in seeking to diversify, chose to produce a tractor-loader-backhoe combination. The author discusses marketing trends, specifications, requirements, and cost efficiency as elements in the decision to produce this piece of light construction equipment.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690607
Jack Jaeger
The Ackerman steered 922 and 944 was replaced with two new articulated wheel loaders. This paper deals with the steps taken to achieve the design objectives, and presents a general description of the two machines. The 920 weighs 16,000 lb and has a 1-1/2 yd capacity, and the 930 is 18,500 lb with 1-3/4 yd capacity.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690615
Joseph P. Young, Frank J. On
The process of reducing a physical system to a mathematical representation is a prevalent task mutual to all fields of analysis. Sometimes the system of equations, or mathematical model as commonly known, will be modified on a trial and error basis to make the model respond in some predetermined fashion or react so as to match behavioral data obtained from the actual physical system. This paper presents a survey of activities to produce logically based schemes to generate mathematical models by making use of experimentally derived information. Primary attention is given to modeling of mechanical structures for purposes of dynamic analysis. Emphasis is given to current effort at Goddard and in particular to the recent studies designed to verify the practical effectiveness of a specific modeling scheme. Strengths and weaknesses of the various modeling schemes are discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690612
R. H. MacNeal, C. W. McCormick
NASTRAN is a large digital computer program for static and dynamic structural analysis by the finite element approach. The program is intended primarily for large problems with hundreds or thousands of degrees of freedom. All mathematical subroutines are designed for efficient solution of large problems by taking maximum advantage of matrix sparsity and handedness. A flexible executive system facilitates addition of new functional capabilities. The paper describes major functional capabilities of NASTRAN and convenience features for the user.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690584
Gordon L. Scofield
The requisites of an engineer are discussed from the academic point of view. These requisites are related to the goals of engineering education. The synthesis of an engineer is considered to take place in the laboratory and classroom during the academic career of the student. The several aspects of engineering education are outlined and explored in order to stimulate thought on which experiences build technical competence and which experiences establish the complementary qualities required for a successful career in engineering.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690616
S. R. Lane
Full scale ground tests of explosive separation of missile stages defined the shock environment for sensitive components, and indicated the requirement for specification of test criteria according to component weight or location. Design and qualification test criteria for the components were derived by enveloping the peaks of ensembles of shock test response spectra. This approach was justified by analytical considerations. The resulting test criteria specified response spectra tolerance limits of + 100% and − 50%, and a damping ratio of 0.05 (Q = 10) for the shock response spectra analyses. A shock synthesizer electrodynamic shaker system was used successfully to conduct shock qualification tests using the criteria developed for the separation shock environment.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690587
J. Q. Griffith, C. R. Schoengold
Automatic transmission fluids, motor oils, and multipurpose tractor oils are now widely used in hydrostatic transmissions. These fluids provide adequate service in most of today's relatively low pressure equipment, but future requirements will be more severe and better lubricants will be needed for tomorrow's larger, higher pressure equipment. An improved hydrostatic fluid has been developed which should help optimize performance of present and future hydrostatic transmissions. Results of a 100-hr, 5000 psi hydrostatic pump test were excellent. Analysis of the used oil and examination of the equipment indicated the fluid would have continued to perform satisfactorily much longer.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690581
J. L. Hasten
The 992, 10 cu yd wheel loader represents Caterpillar's latest product specifically designed and developed as a primary loading tool for handling ore in mining and blasted rock; and other loading functions in the construction industry. Loading performance and operator comfort as they relate to productivity rank among the primary objectives for the 992 because of the demanding nature of rock loading on machine and operator alike. This paper discusses 992 features including its unique structural design, drive line improvements, remotely located and driven pump system and other major engineering features and designs towards the objectives of high productivity, reliability, serviceability, and safety in operation and servicing.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690582
Norwood L. Snowden
This paper presents a view of performance requisites of the engineer, and the engineer as a manager, coupled with helps for measuring an individual against them. The prime measuring tool is face to face interviewing. A method of obtaining maximum efficiency from this tool by conducting the interview without breaking the laws of listening is presented.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690591
R. W. Hook, K. E. Murphy
The trend to larger and heavier integral implements mounted on faster and more powerful tractors has brought increased emphasis upon the parameters for balanced design of implement-tractor stability, weight distribution, and hitch lift capacity. This paper discusses how load and depth response for an entire integral flexible implement and additional tractor hitch lift capacity may be obtained with a single-lever hydraulic control system. The system utilizes gauge wheels on a flexible implement which is mounted to the tractor three point hitch. The gauge wheels, mounted on the flexible outriggers of the implement, are actuated by hydraulic cylinders connected in series with the tractor rockshaft cylinder. Cylinder displacements are sized so that the flexible outriggers lift in synchronism with the tractor three point hitch. All cylinders synchronize at each full stroke.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690588
R. H. Schaefer, R. L. Black
The usage of special heavy duty transmission fluids has proven their value over earlier use of engine oils in powershift transmissions. But due to continued demands by the earthmoving and construction industries for improved transmission performance and durability, the need for a significant increase in the quality of those transmission fluids became apparent. Thus, a specification for a new fluid, Type C-2, was developed. This paper discusses the new fluid specification in terms of its requirements, the procedures setup whereby the various companies of the oil industry may qualify their fluids, and the continuing program to evaluate the performance of approved Type C-2 fluids.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690589
M. R. NORTH
The J.I. Case Company has introduced a new series of agricultural tractors for 1970. Improvements include open-chamber diesel engines, power shift transmission, power accessories, and restyling. Operator comfort and safety have been given prime consideration in the development of this series.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690595
Lynn E. Nowak
This paper discusses the NORPAK* solid state control system which is manufactured by the Square D Co. The NORPAK system employs a single function approach to logic design. This means that one function, the NOR, is used alone or in combination with other NOR's to achieve all logic functions. Knowing the one NOR logic function permits understanding of at least 90% of the logic components in the system.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690596
Robert Gagnon
For several years now, there has been a need for standards on a new type of equipment called mobile hydraulic cranes. This is a recent development which is advancing rapidly in design and offers extended mobility and flexibility in operation. In 1967, the PCSA general membership requested PCSA Standards Committee to formulate and draft a standard for mobile hydraulic cranes which is now called PCSA Standard No. 2. The purpose of this paper is to outline briefly the background and activity of the PCSA committee and its working together with other important committees, to clarify some of the values in the standard and the importance of proper machine inspection and maintenance and application and operation therein, and to recognize accepted standards for these machines.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690592
Lester L Nighswonger, James H. Polacek
The need for improving tractive performance of the farm tractor gave the impetus for developing this hydrostatic front wheel drive. Design features of the drive and its components are given along with a discussion of how it integrates into the basic tractor. Field studies comparing two wheel drive tractors with auxiliary front drive equipped tractors are presented. Some considerations made in arriving at front wheel torque are noted, as are various lab tests conducted in developing drive components.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690599
Harry I. Hazzard
The Power Mac 6 loggers chain saw at 2 cu in. and 6.5 lb cuts 2.8 sq ft of wood per minute. It was designed to satisfy both the casual user and the professional market, where its light weight and ease of handling make it quite attractive. The weight and configuration of the saw are analyzed to show developments which permit more productive and safer modes of operation. Component design and functioning are reviewed principally in their relation to the whole package and its performance.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690601
John L. Hobson, Kenneth O. Switzer
Accelerated testing has become a very big tool in the product engineering of light industrial machines. Measurements and testing under field and lab conditions produce information to guide the designer on new machines and rapidly measure his success. The availability of advanced computer systems, tape recorders, lab test facilities and life prediction theory has improved the ability to predict life of the machine. This paper outlines some of these techniques being used at the present time.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690597
L. W. Livengood, N. C. Hargreaves, G. C. Noll, R. J. Bushong
Hydraulic crane boom design factors, such as loading, weight, extension method, and configuration are discussed with special emphasis on the practical aspects of their effect on mobility, lifting capacity, and boom length. A brief history of hydraulic cranes and telescopic booms as well as future potential is discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690639
R. A. Neustein, P. P. Mader, G. V. Colombo, D. E. Richardson
Abstract A systematic study of the effects of atmospheric composition and gravity level upon the ignition and propagation of flame has been conducted to provide a better understanding of the phenomena of flammability. The principal purpose of this study was not to evaluate materials but to fill in gaps where information was required to help determine the relative effects of atmosphere composition, pressure level, ventilation rate, and gravity level on flame propagation rate and ignition phenomena. Common materials were selected to determine the effects of atmosphere and gravity on burning phenomena. This paper reports procedures and methods applied during the study, and presents the data obtained.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690652
D. W. Bouwer, G. J. Schott
Abstract The traditional method of determining the net thrust of an engine in cruise is explained. It is shown to result in a satisfactory net thrust uncertainty for jet and low bypass ratio engines but to be unsuitable for high bypass ratio engines. A redefinition of net thrust results in a new thrust determination method, called continuity method, which yields acceptable levels of net thrust uncertainty. The new method no longer requires supporting tests in a simulated altitude facility. The question is raised whether in future programs the demonstration of guaranteed cruise performance of an engine should not be carried out in flight tests rather than in an altitude test facility.

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