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Viewing 164191 to 164220 of 183072
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670286
Richard H. Marshall
This paper covers the development of a front end shovel loader capable of meeting market requirements for increased productivity at lower cost per ton or cubic yard. Use of bigger hauling units required much larger mobile loading equipment, and on-the-job experience and research promptly determined the size and features required for its profitable manufacture. Following design and building of prototypes, proving ground, field, and laboratory testing eliminated deficiencies and the result, the Hough Model H-400, became available in 1965 as the world’s largest production-built articulated loader.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670283
Richard C. Bueler
Vehicle braking systems consist of four basic elements: generation, storage, control, and transmission of braking effort. The method of energy storage used as well as the interrelationship between it and the three remaining system elements, and the vehicle operator and foundation brakes greatly affect system reliability. Control should remain with the operator for both service and emergency actuation, except in extenuating circumstances wherein the driver fails to act.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670282
K. L Mason
Safety in construction equipment is a challenge to the engineer. This paper discusses the determination of accident causes, the determination and application of preventive measures, and communication to the man in the seat. The achievement by the operator of an understanding of what to do and how to do it is cited as the most difficult of these challenges.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670252
G. A. Lucchi
A number of design parameters are traded off in the design of an airborne weather radar system. The inter-relative effects of design tradeoffs can be meaningfully approximated by application of the standard range equation which takes into account such items as peak transmitter power, width of the transmitted pulse, target area and reflectivity characteristics, transmitter wavelength, antenna gain, and the receiver overall noise figure. Selection of that radar system which is best suited to the particular aircraft to be equipped not only increases the utility of the aircraft, but also the safety of operation within given weather margins. Optimal allowances made for such installational limitations as reflector size, radome design, and temperature environments enhance both the performance and the reliability of the radar.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670251
K. L Fletcher
New packaging concepts for avionics equipment are evolving as a result of extensive use of microcircuits and thin film circuits. These components, essentially planar in configuration, have naturally led to the development of new planar packaging systems. A system of this type currently being implemented uses planar circuit boards of a unique new design and also provides a method of packaging these boards in separate planar sections. Two or more of these sections, each with its own connector and dust cover, may constitute a complete airborne function such as VOR or VHF communication. The sections, which are shorter than standard ARINC units because of increased packaging efficiency, also facilitate equipment installation in smaller aircraft.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670959
C. K. Kummerlowe, M. D. Parker, C. L. Kevan
This paper describes the requirement for, and the development of, a self-contained, mobile, hospital utility service unit for the U. S. Army Medical Service. The unit is capable of supplying both 60 and 400 cycle electrical power, compressed air, refrigeration, air and water heating, air circulation, and water pumping services. The unit is powered by an efficient compact gas turbine engine developed for the U. S. Army Engineering Research and Development Laboratory as a member of a family of standard military gas turbine engines. The engine can operate on a variety of fuels and oils and is capable of supplying shaft and pneumatic power. Heat extracted from the engine exhaust provides energy to operate the water and air heating systems. The unit will function under a variety of climatic conditions ranging from −65 to 140 F ambient temperatures. The performance rating of the unit is based on an altitude of 8000 ft.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670956
J. L. Bame, J. S. Coon
Results are presented showing that through judicious choice of additive and base stock components, multigrade heavy-duty oils can be formulated to match the performance of single-grade oils with regard to cleanliness and durability. However, there are a number of benefits inherent with multi-grade heavy-duty oils because of their viscosity-temperature characteristics. Foremost among these is the ability of SAE 20W/40 oils to provide the improved starting characteristics of an SAE 20W grade oil while maintaining the oil consumption control provided by an SAE 30 grade oil. To the operator, this means decreased manpower requirements for cold weather starting, decreased use of starting aids, increased unit availability, and longer battery and starter-motor life.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670957
P. I. Brown
Some fleet operators feel that the use of highly dispersant nonfilterable oils will wear an engine out by carrying abrasives and other inorganic debris throughout the system. Laboratory and field test data are presented which show that the benefit of improved filter life obtainable with highly dispersant oils does not adversely affect control of abrasive wear in diesel engine service.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670938
D. T. Pratt, E. S. Starkman
A theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to establish whether or not parametric correlations could be satisfactorily applied to combustion of ammonia in gas turbine combustors. It was found that a usual parameter of the form I (Re)0.7 was satisfactory for establishing blowout limits in modeling. However, the attainable values of chemical loading I were at least an order of magnitude less than those attainable with hydrocarbon fuels.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670932
David M. Latson, Max Gordanier, Robert J. Dorgan, Russell L. Rio
This paper describes the results of the first step of a planned development program to produce a family of split path hydro-mechanical transmissions for military applications. The HMT-250 hydromechanical transmission has given superior performance, unlimited ability to change ratio without affecting service life, and a control system with the advantages of variable ratio. The control system and testing programs are described in detail.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670944
Harold T. Adkins
Discussed and surveyed in this paper are the problems encountered, and techniques used, in making measurement in and on today's high performance, compact design turbomachines. Noncontact measurement of journal position, vibration, displacement and rotational speed are the primary items. However, tip clearance, fluid pressure, etc., and the resultant efficiency and life determining variables can be converted to displacement and measured with these transducers.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670943
C. Kuintzle, B. S. Goldwater
A test facility, test rigs, instrumentation techniques, and operating procedures have been developed to provide research and development capability for high temperature air cooled turbine components for gas turbine engines. The installation offers a wide range of flexibility for use as a high pressure air supply and as an experimental compressor test facility. Instrumentation techniques developed include kryptonated turbine parts and fiber optic infrared probes. These are discussed in detail.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670946
E. S. Starkman, G. E. James, H. K. Newhall
Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out for the purpose of predicting and measuring the performance which results from operation of compression ignition engines when anhydrous ammonia is used rather than diesel fuel. Predictions were that ammonia would give slightly increased output but that fuel consumption would also increase 2-1/2 fold. By equipping the engine with a spark ignition system, it was possible to operate successfully on ammonia at normal compression ratios and retain the same fuel injection system. Fuel injection and spark timing were found to be critical. Indicated power output was reduced by about 10%, which differed from prediction. The discrepancy was due to the poor combustion characteristics of ammonia. Predicted increases in fuel consumption were experienced. Because ammonia is not “smoke limited” as is diesel fuel, it was possible to increase the smoke free output from the engine by going to richer mixtures with ammonia.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670940
J. C. Firey, W. J. Thayer
Measurements were made of the rate of drying of lubricating oil on the cylinder wall of a cold running gasoline engine. Between jacket water temperatures of about 50–100 F drying rate was roughly constant, depending only on the rate of oil circulation to the cylinder. At lower temperatures the drying rate decreases. These results supply a means of estimating the rate of oil circulation to and from the cylinder wall. Conventional oil compounding holds water into the oil and as a result the oil remains wet during its stay on the cylinder. The possible relation of these observations to acid collection and engine wear is discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670941
R. L Langton, R. E. V. Westerhout
The relative merits of the engine or rig approach to aerodynamic testing of components for small gas turbines are briefly discussed. Rigs were used to test a centrifugal compressor to 91,000 rpm, cold flow turbines to 37,000 rpm, and for development of a plenum type exhaust duct. The latter two cases applied to the PT 6 free turbine engine. Facility, instrumentation, and operating experience are covered.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670942
Jerome L. Johnson
Fluidic sensors have been developed which possess the high response and environmental capability required for use in modern gas turbine engines. These new sensors enable new, more accurate instrumentation and control system through direct measurement of critical engine parameters. A description is made of four fluidic sensors and how their performance can be used to advantage in instrumentation and control system design. These sensors are of corrected engine speed, corrected turbine temperature, absolute turbine temperature, and absolute pressure ratio.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670069
H. L. Gregorich, C. D. Jones
Mark II GT Transaxles - This paper provides a description of the Ford Mark II GT transaxle as used in the 1966 Le Mans race. The functional requirements, as established by a simulated Le Mans dynamometer test cycle, are summarized through integration of the engine torque and speed data and compared with gear and bearing design parameters to reflect their capacities in hours of Le Mans usage. The areas where the development work was particularly important are highlighted in the discussion. MARK II GT TRANSAXLES* - While the specific subject of this paper, in a sense, did not exist as little as two years ago all of the mechanics for its functional needs were available. All of the mechanics, in fact, have been well developed for several years; the arrangement, however, is not in common use in this country and its application is treated as new.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670277
J. Rodney Mims
The Oroville Dam on the Feather River in California is one of the most automated construction jobs in the world. The approaches and equipment used have application to many other construction projects. This paper discusses in detail the design of the embankment dam, the embankment materials, and the equipment used to strip the area of the dam and to move the embankment materials. A railroad was constructed to haul embankment materials from the borrow pits to the main damsite. The railroad hauls the material to a reclaim tunnel at the site, a conveyor belt carries the material to a truck loading hopper, where trucks pick up the material for transport to final placement in the embankment. Excluding the truck drivers, the operation is run by 18 men.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670842
J. K. Jackson, R. L Blakely
Important parameters in designing regenerable adsorption beds for spacecraft life support systems are defined. Typical applications include synthetic zeolite, which is used for carbon dioxide removal; and silica gel, which dehumidifies the atmospheric gas prior to passing it through the zeolite beds. Bed performance is evaluated from correlated test data. A linearized solution of the dymanic mass transfer equations is presented, which provides a simplified method of bed design. This method is used to find the optimum design for a typical four bed regenerable, isothermal, carbon dioxide removal system. Results of this simplified analysis are compared with those of a detail digital computer study. This comparison indicates that the simplified method predicts system weight approximately 10% higher than the detailed evaluation.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670843
Sam H. Davis
The paper reports basic adsorption data for CO2 and water vapor on molecular sieves and silica gel, a mathematical model used to predict the behavior of regenerative adsorption multibed systems, and prototype tests of an Apollo size system and comparison of this system with model predictions. The basic data include equilibrium isotherm data and non-equilibrium adsorption and desorption data taken in a small cross-section bed. The prototype tests were performed in a 6 by 6 by 6 in. adsorption bed that was packed with silica gel and molecular sieve.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670839
Robert Ebersole, Louis Pochettino, Walter Kugler
This paper presents the environmental control and life-support system design for the 21 and 30 day mission NASA Biosatellite program. A two-loop system is described which provides temperature control for the fuel cell power source, cryogenic gases, water and urine storage, and the gas management system. The latter provides control of the gaseous environment in the recovery capsule. It controls temperature, relative humidity, recirculation and filtration of the atmosphere, buildup of toxic and/or nontoxic gases and odors, and partial and total pressure of the nitrogen/oxygen atmosphere. Comparison of experimental results with analytical predictions are presented. Extensive thermal vacuum system testing was performed to verify design predictions; good agreement with analysis was achieved.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670851
J. E. Clifford
An oxygen-producing water electrolysis cell with phosphoric acid electrolyte can operate on the water vapor in recirculated cabin air and accomplish concurrent dehumidification. The development of the concept over the past 3 years involved research to define the components of electrode overvoltage and design analysis to provide a small, lightweight unit to compensate for the electrolysis power. Theoretical equations based on electrochemistry, fluid dynamics, and heat and mass transfer correlate with the observed steady state operation obtained in extended testing of experimental cells for over 1000 hr. Data on electrode life, gas purity, and voltage characteristics combined with size, weight, and power estimates indicate that the new concept would be competitive with other methods of oxygen generation for advanced space missions. The recent satisfactory performance of a prototype module in an extended test of over 1000 hr is reviewed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670844
A. J. Glueckert, P. P. Nuccio, J. D. Zeff
A regenerable absorbent in solid granular form has been developed for the removal of carbon dioxide from air or other gases. The unique features of the absorbent are: (a) no pre-drying of the gas stream is necessary prior to carbon dioxide absorption, and (b) only moderate regeneration conditions are necessary to desorb CO2, for example, heating to 180 F and evacuating to a 40 mm vacuum. An operating laboratory prototype having a four-man capacity was built and tested, continuously removing 0.41 lb/hr of carbon dioxide at a 7.6 mm CO2 partial pressure. The system penalties for the unoptimized prototype were: 1. Absorbent weight - 30 lb (7.5 lb/man) 2. Structure and controls - 63 lb (total: 93 lb, or 23.3 lb/man) 3. Electrical power - 288 w (thermal power(electrical or sensible), 472 w; total 760 w, or 190 w/man) 4. Envelope volume - 14 × 24 × 33 in.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670852
J. D. Zeff, B. J. Intorre, A. B. Hearld, C. A. Metzger
A novel prototype waste management unit for the collection, sampling, drying, and storage of fecal wastes in a life-support simulator, or aerospace flights has been designed, developed, and tested. The unit collects the feces, which are subsequently air dried at ambient temperature and pressure, and stored. The unit is designed for use in a weightless environment yet has the convenience of operation of an ordinary terrestrial toilet. Other design features include measures to prevent fecal contamination or odors from entering the space cabin, low power requirements, and minimum loss of cabin air overboard. Weight of the unit is about 50 lb.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670849
G. L Drake, J. R. Burnett
Selecting a specific technique for optimal integration with other functions of an environmental control/life support (EC/LS) system for a multimission spacecraft is a continuing challenge to the systems integrator. The task requires a broad understanding and appreciation of the detail technical aspects of EC/LS processes; the realities of their realizable mechanization and performance; other systems capabilities, interactions, and design selection effects -- both as applied within the EC/LS system and with other spacecraft systems; mission requirements; and the methodologies to relate and evaluate the evolving engineering information against the program goals. Selection of an oxygen recovery system provides a significant opportunity to illustrate the procedural aspects of the selection problem and the technical aspects of current approaches to, and experience with, oxygen recovery systems.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670853
L. Cooper, G. L. Fogal, R. W. Murray
A simple and reliable concept for the collection, processing, disposal or storage of human waste products has been developed for application under conditions of weightlessness. Psychological acceptance is achieved by utilization of a hardware design permitting conventional earth-like procedures. Bag type containers are not used for collection and storage, thus manual handling of waste products and storage containers is not required. The system is capable of handling urine and fecal waste as well as Yomitus and food debris. The solids are vacuum dried to permit bacteriostatic storage and urine can be jettisoned to space.
1967-02-01
Magazine
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670902
R. F. Stapells
This paper presents a survey of the development, design, and production phases of the CL-215 Water Bomber and the potential variants. The development phase was concerned with optimizing the configuration through operations research studies, wind tunnel tests, hydrodynamic tank tests, and preliminary design activity. During the design, certification, and production phase, close liaison between manufacturing and engineering is being maintained. In conjunction with engineering, marketing has determined the need for a number of different variants of the CL-215, including a Search and Rescue and a Transport aircraft.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670815
Rae E. Houke
Rule 66 of the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District requires control of organic solvent vapor emissions to the atmosphere if these emissions are considered to be photochemically reactive. The regulation affects some cleaning and vapor degreasing operations, and compliance with the regulation will require expensive control devices or substitution of materials or methods for those presently used.

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