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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 188288
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720043
William C. Waters
GPSIM is an automotive vehicle simulator that computes the operating conditions of the engine and transmission and the performance and economy of the vehicle as the vehicle is operated in a prescribed manner. The program can simulate a large variety of vehicles. The vehicle to be simulated is described by the user with a combination of steady-state test results and vehicle specifications. The simulator makes predictions from limited data for proposed vehicle combinations, or it makes more accurate computations based on component tests for production vehicles. This paper tells how the simulator computes the operating conditions and how these computations compare with test results. It also describes how engineers using the simulator have decreased developmental lead time, decreased the number of full vehicle tests, and focused developmental work on the best alternatives.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720038
John E. Theberge
Mechanical and electrical properties of 22 glass-and asbestos-fortified thermoplastic resin systems are presented. Large increases in tensile and flexural strength are noted with the glass- and asbestos-fortified nylon compounds; increases for other fortified resins are also qualitatively detailed. Flexural modulus data also demonstrate the ability of fortifiers to increase rigidity dramatically. Unnotched izod impact strengths are generally reduced by addition of fiber fortifiers, while notched izod impact strengths are increased for some resin systems and decreased for others. Increases in heat deflection are generally realized. The d-c electric properties of dielectric strength and arc resistance are generally enhanced in glass fiber-fortified thermoplastic resins. The a-c electric properties of dielectric constant and dissipation factor are similarly increased. Both increases and decreases in volume resistivity data are noted with the addition of fiber fortifiers.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720042
John W. Brodhacker, Howard C. Burns, Albert L. Fox
The new “S-T-A-R” battery design takes advantage of the properties of thermoplastics in manufacturing a superior battery having the shortest practical electrical path. The injection-molded three-piece construction provides a lighter, stronger battery case and the new design concept adapted to automated assembly provides increased resistance to vibration and improved starting power. The new design concept coupled with automatic assembly also makes possible improved quality assurance, a most important factor in meeting the cost effectiveness and uniformity objectives originally conceived. This paper describes such key elements of the design as the fastening of molded-in intercell connectors, molded-in high-profile bushings and terminal posts, and the three-piece construction.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720096
Edgar H. Sibley, Hasan Sayani
The engineer has been a pioneer in the use of information systems: the referencing of information in handbooks, the communication of information via blueprints, the specification of information for manufacturing, etc. The effect of the computerized information processing system is examined in the light of the expanding use of computers in the engineering environment, both technical and managerial. Because these systems are designed for engineers, who will use them for technical problem solving or data management control functions, the engineer must be aware of the characteristics and limitations of these systems. This paper, therefore, deals with the categorization of systems, methods of specification, tools for implementation, and their use. It looks at the historical development of information processing systems, and the factors that drive their implementation; finally, it attempts to postulate the future trends of large-scale systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720091
John R. Williams, Marshall W. Struble
The high level of reliability required of safety-related automotive parts, such as brake control system components, demands thorough functional testing of the component. A highly automated test system now in use at a component manufacturing plant helps to provide this reliability by performing 12 separate tests on each brake combination valve produced. The air test and the 11 hydraulic tests are described, features of test system design and operation are discussed, and the test equipment used is listed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720082
A. A. Zimmerman, L. E. Furlong, H. F. Shannon
Problems of fuel maldistribution have been accentuated in late-model cars which use lean carburetion to reduce emissions. This condition has resulted in increased drivability problems, such as hesitation and surge, as well as producing losses in power and fuel economy. Fuel distribution can be improved by gasoline additives which form a coating of low surface energy in the induction system. As a result of improved distribution, benefits were observed for many cars in drivability, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720073
Herbert G. Poertner
In fulfilling their roles in today's sensitive environments, engineers and their works bring about a wide variety of reactions. The resulting consequences on the people who must interact with them, and on nature that must compete with them, are becoming subject to critical social evaluation in the context of awakening concerns for environment, community values, and social consciousness. Engineers and engineering educators should study and measure these impacts, develop an analytical awareness of them, and attempt to develop a methodology for forecasting the impacts of proposed engineering works and products. The planning, designs, and actions of engineers should reflect a philosophy that places the highest of values on the enhancement of the quality of living.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720162
A. R. Williams, T. Holmes, G. Lees
Pavement characteristics are dominant in the prevention of wet skidding accidents. The tire modifies the pavement properties together with the climatic conditions. Laboratory methods and site investigations have led to an understanding of the relative importance of pavement macro- and microtexture and to the isolation of the factors influencing wet road-hold of vehicles. Improvements in pavement characteristics are urgently required if wet skidding accidents are to be reduced; these changes will also influence future tire design.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720121
Max A. Freeman, Roy C. Nicholson
Three engine camshaft approaches to the reduction of oxides of nitrogen were investigated: increased valve overlap, variable camshaft timing, and variable valve overlap. The interaction of these systems with emissions, fuel consumption, and power was evaluated on a dynamometer engine. The effects of air-fuel ratio and exhaust backpressure were also reported. Results of the dynamometer study were verified with vehicle tests. Oxides of nitrogen levels of 1.2-2.0 g/mile were attained through camshaft design with acceptable drivability on the 1970 federal test procedure.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720117
C. K. Preus
Increasing winter abrasion of pavement surfaces led the 1969 Minnesota Legislature to order the Minnesota Highway Department to conduct an in-depth study of studded tire effects relating to pavement wear and safety. In the laboratory, studded tires without sand and salt abraded pavement specimens 100 times faster than unstudded tires with sand and salt. Laboratory wear rates correlated with those found on highway pavements. If pavement wear should continue to increase at the same rate, premature repairs would become necessary at great cost. Accident studies indicated that on icy and snowy roads studded tires provide slight advantage over snow tires, but it was considered unlikely that discontinuance of studded tires would make an appreciable change in traffic safety in Minnesota.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720100
Kenichi Ohtani, Michio Takei, Hikota Sakamoto
In the development of high-speed automotive vehicles, wind resistance and vehicle stability characteristics, particularly aerodynamic lift and side-force effects, must be better understood. For this purpose and other uses, the Nissan Motor Co. has constructed a new full-scale wind tunnel now in operation at its Oppama Proving Ground. The new wind tunnel has been used for experimental studies of the factors contributing to the aerodynamic characteristics of passenger car bodies, and the results are described herein. The authors have also clarified the relationship between aerodynamic characteristics and high-speed road performance. The effect of minor changes in car shape, with various attachments, has been investigated. Finally, the principle of a rear spoiler is treated both theoretically and experimentally at some length.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720289
Lawrence S. Lazar, Donald C. Herrschaft
In an earlier paper, a series of comparison tests were described that verified the cost/performance advantage of die-cast zinc over five unreinforced, engineering thermoplastics in tension, flexure, creep, impact, and fatigue when compared under identical test procedures and specimen geometries as dictated by plastics industry standards. Additional tests showed the superiority of die-cast zinc over these same thermoplastics in regard to thread strength, dimensional stability, heat distortion, weathering, flammability, and chemical stress cracking. This paper reports on a continuation of these same series of test procedures where die-cast zinc is compared with six 40% glass-reinforced thermoplastics. Again the results continue to show the cost/performance superiority of die-cast zinc over the reinforced thermoplastics tested.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720302
John A. Briggs
Mold clamping forces are commonly generated by hydraulic, mechanical, or some combination of hydraulic and mechanical methods. The characteristics of vertical hydraulic and mechanical molding machines are discussed and a description of molding two automotive parts in vertical mechanically driven modified metalworking presses is given. Both parts involved were of Fiber Glass Reinforced Plastic (FGRP) material with one part of Thermosetting Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) and the other of a Thermoplastic sheet. The mechanically driven metalworking presses involved were of the type commonly found in automotive stamping plants.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720325
Hector Daiutolo
A series of 22 dynamic tests was conducted on general aviation occupant restraint systems. These tests utilized lap belt, and lap belt/shoulder harness restraint systems. With the exception of general aviation aircraft type certificated after September 1969, the Federal Aviation Regulations require only lap belt restraint systems for emergency landing conditions. Based on the longitudinal deceleration/time response of anthropomorphic dummy occupants, it was demonstrated that the lap belt/shoulder harness restraint systems offered occupants successful restraint at occupant inertia force levels substantially above the current regulatory level.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720415
B. K. Hamilton, Craig Young, Claude P. Talley, K. Chakravarti, David E. Finlow, William H. Wright
Part I of this paper discusses a computer model of a hybrid air cushion inflator which models existing systems to a high degree of accuracy. Gas generator size and ballistic properties, stored gas composition, storage pressure, volume, temperature, and receiving tank parameters can be varied to accurately predict the effects of system changes on inflator performance. In Part II, an approach for analytically obtaining equations of motion for torsos during contact with gas cushions in frontal collisions and subsequent ride-down characteristics is developed. From these equations, calculations of torso “g” forces, cushion pressures and other system parameters can be made. It is then possible to optimize these parameters in terms of desired torso response under a variety of design criteria as a guide to system design and experimental verification.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720413
Foy McCullough, William F. Thorn, L. Bruce Katter, Eckart W. Schmidt
Development of reliable, low-cost inflators without toxic exhaust products is the key to successful inflatable occupant restraint systems. The characteristics and performance of gas generators and aspirator inflators are presented, together with cushion gas characteristics. Toxicity considerations, including both gaseous and aerosol constituents, are discussed. Results indicate that inflators can be produced that will meet stringent, yet realistic, toxicity requirements. The feasibility of the aspirator inflator has been established, and this unique device offers distinct and significant advantages over conventional direct inflation devices.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720416
Ronald C. Lawwill
Many anxieties have been generated concerning the introduction of an air cushion passive restraint system in automobiles for a variety of reasons; but, one of the most prevalent anxieties stems from the common lack of understanding relative to the functioning characteristics and safety of the inflator which is to contain some quantity of pyrotechnic material - this inflator becoming a permanent fixture in the passenger compartment of the vehicle. This presentation discusses in understandable detail the physical and functional characteristics of the basic pyrotechnically augmented inflator and how each of its major components contribute to form a controllable system which can be varied to meet various systems demands. It further discusses a proposed marriage of inflator and sensor in a system totally restricted from functioning by any other mode than the properly prescribedcrash energy signature.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720420
E. Pujdowski
Several IORS crash sensors are compared with respect to operating principle, performance, and potential vehicular use. Desirable characteristics of the sensor mount are described. Forward mounted crash sensors are discussed as a means of providing early crash discrimination. Rough road and barrier test results with crash sensors are reviewed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720422
Tohru Takahashi, Takayuki Makino, Kazuo Sato
This paper describes a radar sensor which is being developed as an adequate sensor for an inflatable occupant restraint system. The important characteristic of this radar sensor is that an optimum highly sensitive sensing zone is formed by the combination of two transmission antennas and two reception antennas in order to improve the collision judgment accuracy, minimize the difference of precollision time for various obstacles, and suppress the received signal level due to rain and snow, etc.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720438
H. George Johannessen, Gerald A. Yates
Developments leading to passive seat belts are discussed. A problem in semantics is identified, and a distinction is drawn between “passive” and “semi-passive” seat belts. A low-injury passive seat belt precursor is described, having a continuous webbing loop for lap and shoulder belt and an emergency-locking retractor. The seat belt system indicates potential for improving upon present seat belt systems, and with identifiable modifications, being converted into a passive occupant restraint configuration, and being later modified to provide 40-mph crash survival capability.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720469
C. V. Allen, F. D. Smithson
There is a growing need for specialized road surfaces in order to conduct a variety of tire and/or vehicle tests. This need arises in such areas as vehicle and/or component testing required by various Department of Transportation standards, dynamic calibration surfaces for road-monitoring “skid trailers,” and comparison of tires at multiple sites on a common basis. Surfaces which would fulfill this need should meet the following objectives: 1. Be entirely prescribable, utilizing easily obtainable components and simple construction techniques. This would assure that any organization could produce a desired surface with confidence of specific and repeatable results. 2. Provide the desired frictional characteristics. These could be “real world” surface characteristics, or a specific set of characteristics required as a particular test parameter. 3. Exhibit reasonable durability.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720478
Ron K. Mount
New glass-reinforced thermoplastic foam resins have been developed that can be molded on conventional screw injection molding machines. The glass reinforcement of the thermoplastic foams results in the restoration of physical properties normally lost when unreinforced thermoplastics are foamed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720542
Donald L. Flynn, Theodore K. Martin
The objective of the study was to estimate and explore the potential for reducing the costs of new urban mass transportation systems. The significance of major components of the capital investment cost was determined for guideway systems. Specific methods of reducing the cost of the most significant components were identified and examined in detail. These methods are (1) economies of scale in construction, (2) reductions in the requirement for guideways by utilizing a dual-mode vehicle, (3) eliminating tunnels by using super-elevated guideways, (4) new tunneling, (5) joint purchase of vehicles by several systems, and (6) reductions in initial vehicle purchases by reductions in the maintenance float. Three major conclusions were reached in this paper. First, there appears to be no opportunity to dramatically reduce the cost of urban transportation. All potential reductions are on the order of 5 to 10 percent.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720484
H. Kuroda, Y. Nakajima, Y. Hayashi, K. Sugihara
The Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program included the thermal reactor as one of the effective ways of oxidizing HC and CO in the exhaust system. However, this was accompanied by very substantial fuel economy penalties, especially in the case of small engine-low emission concept vehicles. Starting with a new concept aimed at obtaining the HC/CO oxidizing trigger temperature in the thermal reactor by modifying engine settings, the authors arrived at an economical technique of matching the thermal reactor to the engine.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720620
Eric O. Stork
Federal regulatory involvement with the automobile industry, automotive emissions of air pollutants in particular, is the main emphasis of this paper. Government concern with automotive air pollution is traced from the early 1950's to the present. The present document will focus on the process by which the government brings to bear the well being and concerns Of the American people in relation to automobile-caused air pollution.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720577
L. B. Marzoni, G. J. Chamraz
Increasing damage to rail- and truck-shipped merchandise provides the major point of discussion for Part One of this paper. Damage is caused by quality defects, normal damage caused by vehicles being moved from one location to another; merchandise being loaded or unloaded; theft; and vandalism. This paper outlines methods of shipping automobiles to prevent such damage. Part Two of this paper provides the engineering principals relating to the shipping method endorsed in Part One.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720770
Howard B. Felder
This paper shows the necessity of extensive machinery and instruments to test torque converters. Review of the principle options and reasons for choice of particular machines and instruments for testing torque converters through the full range of possible performance, that is, through coast and counterrotation as well as normal operation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720640
K. M. Eldred, B. H. Sharp
Horns, whistles and sirens are commonly used to convey information concerning time, location or warning. Of major concern to the community are the audible warning systems used on emergency vehicles and trains. The various types of existing audible warning systems and their historical development are discussed in this paper, together with an analysis of their effectiveness in fulfilling their prime function - namely, to warn people of imminent danger. It is concluded that such systems perform adequately in many situations, but not when the recipient of the warning signal is inside another vehicle. It is suggested that alternative means be developed for warning the occupants of vehicles of immediate danger so that audible warning systems of reduced acoustic power can be used to warn the pedestrian or other persons outside vehicles.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720849
D. V. Cox
The primary mission of the U.S. Navy's new Sea Control Ship (SCS) will be protection of underway replenishment groups, amphibious groups, convoys, and task groups which will not have aircraft carriers in company. The USS Gaum, operating as the prototype SCS, has had a helicopter squadron and a detachment of Harriers from the U.S. Marine Corps testing the concepts of antisubmarine warfare (ASW) systems, surveillance against antishipping missiles from hostile submarines, and V/STOL aircraft as possible air interceptors or for air-to-surface attack.

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