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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 184415
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680424
W. D. Ross, E. M. Sharer, A. P. Blomquist, W. B. Herndon
This is a report of the status of the development of a Band Friction Test Machine that will measure friction of automatic transmission band-drum combinations used in current production passenger cars. The fixture’s operating requirements are described, along with a detailed listing of its features. The test procedure and test data from a prototype machine are discussed. It is hoped that this machine will enable greater correlation of data in this area.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680425
Joseph J. Parthum
The performance of sleeve bushings and plain thrust washers in transmissions is influenced greatly by their environment and operating conditions. In order to achieve optimum performance, an understanding of these factors is essential. This paper discusses these factors and their importance by reviewing the types of bushing and washer distress with emphasis on corrective measures. It also presents new data on the load carrying capacity of various thrust washer materials.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680403
W. Lewis Hyde
This paper discusses some of the optical problems associated with the conventional rear view mirror, convex mirrors, combinations of plane mirrors, and periscopes. Two kinds of periscopes are described in some detail. The first is called a view finder and the second a folded telescope. The first presents an image inside the automobile on which the driver must focus his eyes. The second presents an image which seems to lie far away so that the driver can look into it without changing the focus of his eyes. Finally, an unconventional system is described built of parallel cylindrical lenses and mirrors and operating as a unit magnification telescope. Models of the latter system have been successfully installed in a variety of automobiles.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680408
Richard E. Rasmussen, Anthony D. Cortese
Spring rate is one of several factors that affect the ride performance of passenger car tires. A technique has been developed for obtaining precise spring rate measurements in the laboratory under conditions approximating road operation. The spring rate properties of many different tire designs have been measured. The effect of wear and several tire construction variables on spring rate is presented. A correlation between the laboratory measurement of spring rate and vehicle ride evaluations is discussed. It is necessary to measure tire spring rate for the rolling condition with a resonance test technique in order to generate data that are useful for ride performance analyses.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680410
E. J. Ripling
The transition temperature of Mn-Mo armor steels, quenched and tempered in either the temper embrittling or tempered martensite embrittling range, can be significantly lowered by warm working. The improved toughness, however, is developed only when the direction of prestraining and testing is identical. Deformation in one direction followed by testing in the opposite direction produced an increased transition temperature.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680409
Donald L. Nordeen
This paper describes the application of laboratory test techniques to the development and improvement of some of the tire properties that affect vehicle dynamic performance. Base line tire properties are established, the range of existing performance is shown, and the significance and validity of the laboratory tests are verified by showing that those changes in tire performance which result in detectable changes in vehicle dynamic performance are quantifiable.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680412
R. A. Bock, W. M. Justusson
A modified Ausform process has been developed which improves the fatigue properties of spring steels. In brief, the process combines metal deformation with heat treatment. The fatigue resistance of SAE 5150 and 1052 steels is greatly improved by this treatment. The amount of deformation directly influences the fatigue resistance; and with more than 50% deformation, the fatigue life is improved by 700% over that of SAE 5160 spring steel. For a 100,000 cycle minimum life, both maximum stress and stress range can be increased by 30,000 psi over that of conventionally heat treated SAE 5160 steel. Superior fatigue properties have been obtained in sections with thicknesses of 0.200-0.500 in. Surface treatments such as sandblasting, shot peening, and glass bead peening are effective in prolonging fatigue life; glass bead peening was by far the most effective. Modified Ausformed steels display an unusual fracture behavior which is beneficial in fatigue and notch toughness.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680411
Michael W. Kaifesh
Sections approximately the size and shape of the load bearing portions of a standard track shoe for military track laying vehicles have been produced by an ausforging process. These sections were ausforged from H-11 consumable vacuum melt, H-11 conventional melt, and SAE 4340 conventional melt steel. Tensile strength ranged to 330,000 psi. Reduction of area ranged to 40%. Limited fatigue testing indicated a considerable increase in fatigue life over SAE 4340 steel. This paper covers the development program undertaken in preparation for the ausforging of complete track shoes.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680413
C. J. DiPerna, D. A. Law, H. V. Lowther
Recent advances in polymeric Viscosity Index improver technology have led to the development of premium quality, broadly crossgraded passenger car engine lubricants with unique physical properties. “True” SAE 10W-40 products can be made, where measured SAE 10W performance is obtained together with shear stability characteristics which enable the oil to remain in the SAE 40 viscosity range even after service in normal passenger car engines. “True” SAE 10W-40 lubricants provide oil economy characteristics significantly superior to those afforded by conventional SAE 10W-30 and SAE 10W-40 oils, and equal the performance of available SAE 20W-50 oils, while also offering excellent low temperature cranking and starting ability. Positive benefits of improved engine hot starting capability and reduced engine noise levels are also provided.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680576
James R. Voss, Ralph S. Warner
An all electric governor is described for constant speed applications, especially engine-generator sets. The various parts of the electric governor are described. An analysis of the transient characteristics of this governor system on a particular engine is presented. General application of this governor is described.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680575
E. Ralph Sims
There are several “generally accepted accounting practices” which can be applied in the development of manufacturing costs. However, most of these techniques are developments of, or modifications of, “distribution accounting” methods. As a result, although they are legal and ethical from a tax and financial point of view, they do not offer a basis for “precision” in cost estimating, cost control or inventory valuation. The “total absorption standard cost” technique provides a basis for “precision costing” at all stages of manufacture and distribution. This technique also simplifies the application of computer technology to cost extimating, performance simulation, and automated design engineering. The heart of this precision costing concept lies in the application of a matrix type “code language,” the development of a “landed cost of sales” approach to inventory valuation, and a “building block” element cost technique.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680578
Walter M. Misterka, Michael J. Piteo
The breakthrough in low cost electronic switching devices has brought about the design of solid state, breakerless, capacitor discharge ignition systems. Through the use of a magnetic pickup, permanent magnets, and these new solid state devices, a maintenance-free ignition system can be designed. Through the use of these components, an ignition system can be designed to meet the particular needs of the 4-cycle engine.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680577
C. F. Feindt, B. B. Barnes
In speed control of prime movers, precise steady-state and transient control of frequency and close control of electrical load division among paralleled generators are a challenge to the control designer. The inherent adaptability of an electrical device to control these electrical characteristics, makes it a good choice for this type of application. The electrical speed-control system discussed in this paper fulfills these requirements. Components include electrical circuits for sensing speed and load and an electrohydraulic actuator which converts electrical signals from the amplifier into useful mechanical motion for operation of an engine fuel control. This system has been used with all type engine-generator sets. It is also readily adaptable to high speed compressors and pumps. Reliability is a proved feature as its design is very conservative and all components being used are well within their ratings.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680571
Joseph R. Harkness
Two balancer developments are followed through the conception and development stages into production. One design utilizes gear driven auxiliary flyweights, and the other, an oscillating counterbalance driven by crankshaft eccentrics. Vibration reductions up to 85% have been realized.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680570
Rodger W. Asmus, William R. Borghoff
Application of the hydrostatic transmission to a farm and light industrial tractor involved many special design and manufacturing considerations. A brief description of the transmission is given, and some of the special considerations along with their solutions are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of having the proper control system to provide desirable performance and endurance characteristic for the tractor. Because the controls of a hydrostatic by necessity are quite different than for a conventional tractor, particular emphasis is placed on the control portion of the overall development program.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680572
Helmut Keller
After stating all advantages of the new Wankel engine design, the development status of small, air cooled, rotary combustion engines from 6-20 hp is reported. These engines are now completely competitive with conventional reciprocating piston engines. The housing is cooled by air and the piston by the fuel mixture. Specific fuel consumption is comparable to that of a 4-stroke reciprocating engine of equal size. Lubrication is done by mixing oil and fuel in a ratio of 1: 50. A metering oil pump can be provided for separate tanking of fuel and oil. Some typical applications are specified.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680574
L. B. Eberhart, P. E. Hanser
Features, specifications, and some of the major design requirements for the new John Deere 570 hydraulic motor grader are presented in this paper. This grader is maneuverable, versatile, it is comfortable and safe to operate, it is easy to service since currently available parts are used when possible, and it has a precise and nondrifting control system.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680584
Shellie O. Williamson
Modern data acquisition methods combined with new testing and analysis techniques are revolutionizing product design and development. Detailed analysis of recorded vehicle drive-line data has given today's engineer new insights into drive-line dynamics. This paper discusses how vehicles can be analyzed as a series of torsional springs and inertia masses. A two axle, 300 hp, 15 cu yd earthmoving tractor scraper (model 621) is used to illustrate significant factors. Main emphasis is on drive-line resonant torsional vibrations and shock loading. Diesel engines as torsional vibration exciters and transmission clutches as the major shock load producers are covered in some detail. How analog computers can effectively be used to facilitate vehicle development is briefly discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680585
H. B. Felder, C. E. Kramer
Primarily a review of hardware details that allow quick changes and high utilization of dynamometers and kindred equipment. Discussed are tachometry, torque measurement quick disconnects (electrical and shaft), desirable control system characteristics, and chassis dynamometers.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680586
Lyle F. Yerges
The engineer is often faced with the problem of forecasting the effects on human beings of the sound produced by equipment operating within the environment in which they live or work. A detailed measurement of sound pressure levels throughout the frequency spectrum is necessary for a complete analysis, but the standard sound level meter is probably adequate for most purposes and nearly as accurate as more complex computations. This paper provides useful criteria for specifying performance of equipment or for limiting the exposure of human beings to noise in certain acoustical environments.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680579
T. Frazer Carmichael
High reliability and simple repair and maintenance make this breakerless capacitor discharge ignition system not only competitive but also vastly superior to those systems operating with breaker points and batteries. The new system is the result of developments in solid state switches and alternators using permanent magnets. This paper details the design, describes the operation, and outlines tests that substantiate its desirable capabilities.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680580
W. O. Hermanson, D. G. Janisch, S. L. Smith
The major deterrent to long term, service free life, of the conventional induction magneto used on small engines is the breaker point system. A multiple spark cycle, capacitor discharge magneto system, controlled by solid state switching, provides extreme long life operation without system deterioration. A simple electronic spark advance system can be included where necessary Modular construction affords ease of fabrication and provides design flexibility Consistent engine spark timing is assured throughout the life of engine and ignition system.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680582
Marvin W. Dundore, Raymond C. Schneider
A method is presented for computing the energy dissipation rate in a wet clutch that is part of a vehicle transmission system. This method takes into account the transients in the vehicle prime mover, the hydraulic torque converter, the powershift transmission, and the vehicle load. The clutch energy rate is then used as an input to attempt to predict the interface temperature at the clutch surface. The solution of the Fourier-Poisson unsteady state heat conduction equation is carried out using a finite difference method. The calculation of this interface temperature, called temperature index, is then correlated to actual clutch failure through experimental laboratory clutch testing. Results show a temperature index level above which failure is likely to occur regardless of the variation of clutch parameters.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680581
Alvin M. Fischer, Herschel J. Anservitz, William T. Deibel
This paper outlines the conception and development of rating brakes. It is related to the adoption of the snub method of rating brakes as described in SAE Recommended Practice J880 and proposes an alternate continuous drag test method utilizing a dynamometer adapted to a road vehicle.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680593
Walter E. Nichols
An emergency brake system for combination vehicles is described. It provides the driver with control similar to service brake control of all of the emergency brakes on combination vehicles, whether it is panic or controlled application. Operation of the modulated emergency valve is explained, as are valve characteristics, system timing, and installation.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680594
G. P. Blair, M. B. Johnston
This paper attempts to illustrate some of the reflection characteristics of exhaust systems, suitable for piston ported, crankcase compression, naturally aspirated two-cycle engines. In particular, the application is even narrower, being concerned principally with those engines of the spark ignition, gasoline burning type where a high bmep is desirable. The two principal exhaust systems considered are the diffuser and the expansion chamber. Both are analyzed experimentally and theoretically and presented as measured and digitally computed pressure-time diagrams in simulated and actual engine exhaust systems. These are compared and discussed.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680588
S. D. Pool, Calvin Rickerd
For the cab isolated operator to monitor properly the operation of his machine requires a new complexity of early warning signals, failure warning signals, and process monitoring signals. This paper discusses the operator’s requirements and the signal sending and readout hardware available and/or required to meet those requirements.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680589
Alan G. Galbavy
Has the wheel taken us to the end of our road? Biomechanics’ functional morphologic approach to problems reveals the feasibility of machine designs through studying living phenomena. In addition to the solution of standing problems, the method leads to a series of advanced concepts -- from a one-man cupola simulating an arthropod claw to a weapons firing platform based on the structure, form, and movement found in a snake -- which are useful for new weapons development in the light of our rapidly advancing technology. Outgrowths are expected from this type of investigation through design ingenuity.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680601
Curtis L. Shufflebarger
This report is oriented to: 1. Research and development in highway transportation under sponsorship of the Bureau of Public Roads. 2. Traffic operations and control aspects of highway transportation. 3. Importance of combining vehicle engineering and human engineering along with highway engineering in programs to improve the service, effectiveness, and safety of highway traffic operations. As these new traffic systems, or improvements in the performance of highway transportation emerge, they will require new and far reaching decisions not only for highway users and administrators but for industry as well. Along with decisions there must also be commitments and investments of a scope and magnitude not experienced before. This report describes how new traffic systems are developing, what they consist of, and how they will be of benefit. It treats major features of new traffic systems which very directly involve vehicle and human engineering.
1968-02-01
Technical Paper
680804
J. L. Solomon, G. E. Hitt
This paper describes the use of the electron microprobe analyzer as an analytical tool for microelectronic devices. A comprehensive description of the construction and working of the electron microprobe analyzer is first presented. Included is a brief description of some of the basic physical laws regarding X-ray generation and analysis. Three major innovations which have made the probe the tool for microelectronic analysis are described in detail; these are: the electron beam scanning system, secondary electron display, and high resolution nondispersive energy analysis. Several examples are shown Of how these techniques may be applied to microelectronic analysis.

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