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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 188746
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720368
George W. Melton
During design, development, and testing, the engineer is continually confronted with the task of transforming a large volume of freshly gathered, undigested data into a meaningful representation of “what's going on.” This paper discusses several types of analyses that have proved to be both useful and flexible. The necessary data processing tools, also described, vary in complexity from a desk calculator system to a large computer system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720208
D. Hurden
There are in the world about 20 different surface effect vehicles powered by gas turbines, but the bulk of engine operating experience has come from three of them-the British Hovercraft Corp.'s SRN 4 and SRN 5, and the Bell SK 5. Engine problems in all three craft have stemmed from the ingestion of foreign objects, including ice, sand, and salt spray. This paper describes these problems and the steps that have been taken to solve them.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720202
Peter Kyropoulos
The history and technical background of the Subcommittee Human Factors Engineering Committee on Control Identification of the SAE is reviewed. Recommendations are presented for a proposed SAE Information Report on Recommended Practice on Identification of Controls for Passenger Cars, with particular emphasis on guidelines for the development of new identifications.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720204
Henry S. R. Kao, Thomas B. Malone, Richard L. Krumm
This paper reports an analysis of the degree of control/display (C/D) standardization in location, operation, and coding characteristics for 1971 automobiles. For C/D location commonality, between-manufacturer and within-manufacturer and between-car-type designs were compared. For operation and coding analysis, a selected group of C/D was used. With 90% of domestic and 76% of imported cars surveyed, a great variability of C/D designs was found for all three measures. The second part of the study experimentally evaluated four alternate control concepts for passenger car three-beam headlight systems.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720203
Daniel D. Jack
The development of a procedure to evaluate the driver's ability to identify and attach meaning to automotive control identification symbols is outlined, together with the test results of Step I of a three-step procedure. The use of a standardized test methodology is essential in arriving at any standard set of symbols which are expected to have a high potential for immediate understanding by the driving population.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720217
J. E. Gibson, R. A. White
The feasibility of a demand responsive bus system for Oakland University is analyzed and the recommended plan is presented. Oakland is an isolated campus, located approximately 25 miles north of Detroit, between Rochester and Pontiac, in a relatively low population density area. The University is primarily a commuter institution, with almost 100% of its 5000 commuter students traveling to the campus in personal automobiles. There is no form of public transportation serving the University, except the personal taxi. Oakland's policy is to construct parking lots to accommodate the high commuter volume. As early as 1976, the University will have to consider building parking structures to keep the lots within a reasonable walking distance from the center of campus. This paper examines an alternative mode of transportation for Oakland.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720216
F. J. Mason, J. R. Mumford
Ford Motor Company has been active in the analysis and implementation of Dial-A-Ride, a form of public transportation in which door-to-door service is provided with a fleet of small vehicles operating in a shared-riding mode. A Dial-A-Ride system design methodology has been developed, a task which has revealed the nature of the modeling process for complex transportation systems. This methodology has been used successfully to design Dial-A-Ride systems currently operating in several cities. A discussion of this process as applied to Dial-A-Ride research is presented here. Several stages in the modeling process are identified. The analyst's knowledge of the system, his information needs, and the modeling technique chosen to satisfy these needs are described for each stage. A city for which Dial-A-Ride has been proposed is analyzed to illustrate each stage in the design methodology.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720219
Thomas F. Golob, Richard L. Gustafson
This paper presents an analysis of the economic feasibility of a demand-responsive transportation system employing driver-operated vehicles on existing street networks. The system is designed to meet the general public transportation needs of a suburban community. The analysis follows traditional economic theory in developing demand and supply curves for the transportation service as a consumer good, followed by an investigation of the equilibrium between demand and supply under various market conditions. Cost models specifically applicable to a transportation service with demand-responsive attributes are formulated to calculate the system supply functions, and an attitudinal survey is employed to generate estimates of demand in the case study community. The demand and supply equilibrium situations are investigated with respect to funding alternatives and sensitivity to changes in supply and demand variables.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720218
Ichiroh Kaneshige, Yukio Funaya, Yasumasa Sakano, Toru Ogawa
In recent years, many papers have dealt with the demand responsive bus system as a promising new transportation system for urban and suburban areas. In this paper, the authors show the algorithms of a demand bus system that is able to control trips from many origins to many destinations and their simulation techniques. A case study of this system in a newly developed Japanese residential area is illustrated. From an investigation of the case study results, this system seems to be applicable. The authors have developed a digital, fully automatic communication and control system and a bus body design for the implementation of demand bus service. An outline is described in the latter part of the paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720213
R. C. Dennis
This report describes the nature of two fundamental innovations in computer applications necessary to diffuse computer usage completely into the general design and development process-list processing and parametric representation of curves and surfaces. Acquisition of current change level information regarding engine design parameters looms as a major part of the total activity. List processing techniques are required for an operationally feasible procedure for data base maintenance. Parametric representation of curves and surfaces must be incorporated so that engine assembly and detail drawings can be “stored” in computer memory. The payoff lies in establishment of one nonredundant data base serving all activities related to the valve train. Such an integrated design engineering aid can be easily applied to other engine subsystems and ultimately the total engine.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720215
L. L. Ting, D. W. Hall, J. E. Mayer
Applying hydrodynamic lubrication theory for porous bearings and boundary lubrication theory, this paper presents a method of analyzing the performance of a water-lubricated sleeve type porous bushing in an automotive water pump design. Relations of bearing load capacity versus shaft speed have been obtained and compared for sintered iron-graphite bushings (a cermet material developed by the Ford Motor Co.), sintered iron or sintered bronze bushings, and steel bushings. The load capacity was computed, based on a minimum allowable film thickness during hydrodynamic operation, and on a maximum allowable temperature during boundary lubrication operation. The results show that sintered iron-graphite bushings are superior to sintered iron or sintered bronze bushings, as well as steel bushings, in this application, due to the lower coefficient of friction.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720188
Robert S. McKee, Boris Borisoff, Frank Lawn, James F. Norberg
A test bed electric vehicle was developed to provide a most favorable operating environment for state-of-the-art lead-acid storage batteries. Performance data were acquired using portions of SAE J227, Electric Vehicle Test Procedure. Test results illustrate the performance potentials for special purpose road vehicles designed around this power source.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720189
Isamu Takaoka, Ichiro Umotor, Shiro Kawakatsu
A recently introduced Japanese electric light truck, the Daihatsu S-37, is described. Its dimensions are: length 9.84, width 4.25, and height 4.25 ft. The truck's maximum speed is 40 mph. The driving range per charge with a payload of 450 lb and two persons is 40-50 miles. The vehicle contains a series-wound traction motor of 10 hp peak power rating, an SCR chopper speed control unit, and six 12 V batteries of 150 AH capacity. In Japan many Daihatsu S-37 vehicles are in commercial use as delivery trucks for milk and other goods and have acquired a good reputation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720190
Berkeley S. Hender
The battery electric vehicle has had limited success except in the United Kingdom, where large fleets operate mainly for the dairy industry. Changing social conditions are now bringing modifications to these fleets where many vehicles are used as traveling shops dealing in a wide variety of domestic goods. The development is seen as the forerunner of wider use of general-purpose vehicles, requiring improved performance and range. The operating costs and high reliability of the vehicles have been proved. Some typical costs are given, together with those for backup mechanical handling industrial trucks. Improvements in energy sources and other components are now becoming apparent. These, together with growing worldwide interest, predict a vast growth in the industry, particularly in commercial applications for battery electric trucks and vehicles.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720191
M. R. Andrew, W. J. Gressler, J. K. Johnson, R. T. Short, K. R. Williams
A DAF 44 saloon car has been extensively modified to study some of the problems associated with building, controlling, and driving a car powered by a fuel-cell battery. A prototype hybrid car has been made, using as a power source two 12-cell hydrazine/air fuel batteries in conjunction with six conventional 6-cell lead-acid accumulators. The car has been successfully demonstrated on several occasions, and its performance has been measured. The performance of the car, in its present form, falls between that of today's internal-combustion-engined vehicles and that of secondary-battery-powered ones. However, unlike more conventional electric cars, its ranges under town driving conditions and at its steady cruising speed are not limited by the quantity of stored electricity. Some general comments are made on possible future developments
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720182
A. Kasak, G. Steven, T. A. Neumeyer
Application of the powder or particle metallurgical (P/M) method to the production of high-speed tool steels is an effective means of controlling segregation problems. Macro- and microsegregation are virtually eliminated. The characteristics of carbides in the microstructure are appreciably changed; this has important effects on the pertinent properties. The P/M high-speed steel products offer significant advantages in the manufacture and performance of tools. The advantages include superior grindability, machinability, size change uniformity, cross-sectional hardness uniformity, hardening response, and tool life under intermittent cutting conditions. The observed property and performance advantages are rationalized in terms of the rapid solidification rate inherent in powder making, as well as in terms of basic microstructural characteristics of the P/M products.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720183
C. J. Havel
This paper discusses the use of powder metallurgy to produce gas turbine components. Various methods of manufacture are mentioned, with particular emphasis on hot isostatic pressing. Because rippling, buckling, and similar problems are associated with HIP, the use of glass or vitreous containers was attempted and found very satisfactory. The use of Astrology, Inco 718, IN-100, and Rene 95 in this technique is described. The success of these alloys, the wide shape flexibility, and the wide operating temperature range prompt the authors to feel many materials can be produced by this process.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720187
H. G. Raschblichler
Abstract The development of an innovative electric transport vehicle of self-supporting plastic sandwich construction (FRP/PUR sandwich) is described. The specific advantages inherent in this plastics technology as applied to electric transport vehicles are illustrated. A short survey of the production technology as well as of the materials behavior is given. The propulsion and control concept in addition to the design of the source of energy are clarified. The test results obtained with the prototype, undergoing testing since one year, are given, and an automated data processing system for evaluating the test results described. The battery change technique is outlined and the important features discussed. Vehicle and operating costs of the innovative electric transport vehicle are indicated in brief.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720199
David C. Hammond, Ronald W. Roe
This report presents the results of the SAE Human Factor Committee Driver Control Reach Study conducted in June-August 1971. Over 100 test subjects were measured on three test fixtures representing a sports car, a typical passenger car, and a heavy truck. Finger grasp reach was recorded to 40 locations in front of the driver. The report presents the background information for a forthcoming SAE Recommended Practice on Driver Arm Reach.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720200
David C. Hammond, Ronald W. Roe
Results of previous SAE drivers' eye-location studies have been used to develop a fixed seat eyellipse and contours that describe drivers' head locations. Centroid data from these and other eye-location studies are used as a means of locating the SAE eyellipse according to seat back angle. Part I comprises the discussion of these data. Studies recently completed provided data on drivers' eye locations for varied vehicle packages ranging from sports cars to heavy trucks. The results are summarized in Part II as a series of tables, which include statistical definitions of tangent cutoff eyellipses. Part III of this report describes a method for positioning a fixed seat eyellipse according to seat back angle. A method is also shown for measuring headroom relative to seat back angle.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720192
M. R. Andrew, W. J. Gressler, J. K. Johnson, R. T. Short, K. R. Williams
This paper describes the development of the pumps, blowers, and electronic control systems for a fuel-cell/lead-acid-battery hybrid electric car. Wherever possible, commercially available equipment was used in order to reduce costs and expedite the completion of the vehicle. With the chosen components and their associated control circuits, a vehicle was completed which behaves much like conventional cars with two-pedal controls. It is concluded that if low-cost fuel cells were to become available, the construction of auxiliaries to provide a satisfactory vehicle would not prove difficult.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720257
Edgar Rose
This paper describes analytical and experimental methods used to ensure a maximum amount of safety in the design of a high-speed snowmobile. Constructional features of the resultant record-breaking 140 mph snowmobile Pegasus are related to the various specifications considered essential to operator safety. Development of this vehicle involved investigation of crucial parameters such as yaw and drag on directional stability while operating at high speeds. These effects and other aerodynamic influences are explained as they affect single-track and dual-track vehicles. The final design of this snowmobile incorporated measures to counter adverse tendencies during high-speed operation, as well as backup devices such as a rollover bar, auxiliary braking system, fire protection, and an escape mechanism.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720244
W. P. Evans, R. E. Ricklefs, R. A. Hanson, J. A. Larson
The data from five residual stress round robins run by the X-Ray Fatigue Division of the SAE Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee have been studied. Many factors affecting precision have been isolated during 16 years of testing. Some of these relate to the sample?material hardness and geometry- while others, such as alignment, are instrumental or procedural. Laboratories using proper techniques can achieve an interlaboratory standard deviation of 2.5 ksi on a stressed, hardened steel cylinder.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720243
R. W. Buenneke
Two applications of x-ray residual stress measurements in steel are reported. One application shows how residual stresses have a direct bearing on fatigue strength caused by varying material and heat treatment. The other application shows how x-ray diffraction measurements can help determine the cause of grinder cracking in carburized and hardened steel parts. Grinder cracking occurs by overheating the surface which produces tensile residual stresses that exceed the fracture strength of the steel. Also, there appears to be a relationship between retained austenite content and the grinder cracking phenomenon.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720265
Lee E. Tucker
A procedure for designing against fatigue failure of notched parts is presented. It is based on measuring nominal loads or strains and estimating notch root stresses and strains using Neuber's rule. Other inputs to the procedure are axial smooth specimen cyclic stress-strain response, fatigue properties, and fatigue notch factor. Miner's cumulative damage rule is applied to the local stress-strain history and fatigue life predicted. Examples are given where life predictions are compared to laboratory test results.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720261
James A. Newman, Shui-chih Cheng, Vipin K. Suri
This paper describes the development of a hybrid-computer simulation of a recreational snowmobile. The vehicle has been mathematically represented by a displacement-driven, damped nonlinear spring-mass system with two degrees of freedom. The analog circuit and the logic level control system of the analog/hybrid computer is discussed. The use of a hybrid system using Hytran Operational Interpreter to perform OFF-LINE and ON-LINE checks is also discussed. Finally, a method to display a visual representation of the vehicle on an oscilloscope screen is presented. The simulation permits vehicle designers to vary at will the various design parameters and to observe immediately the effect of so doing.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720259
Hjormund Kummen
Off-road vehicles, to negotiate snowcovered terrain reliably and economically, must comply with a narrow range of design parameters. The practical lessons of past experience are evaluated, indicating the superiority of the four-tracked vehicle configuration. The design details essential to achieve snowmobility are indicated. Engineering information and the current state-of-the-art indicate that a functional, low-cost ordnance vehicle can be designed for use during all seasons in the Arctic.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720222
Charles L. Meteer
Lead vinyl coated fabrics, new composite vinyl films, and molding compounds have been developed that have application as flexible sound barriers in transportation and recreational equipment. The material consisting of fine lead particles disbursed in PVC compounds for coating, casting films, extrusion, injection molding, thermal form sheets, and rotational casting combines the high mass of lead and the properties and formability of vinyl. These composites provide a limp high mass sound barrier material.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720241
M. E. Hilley
Basic stress-strain principles of elasticity theory are related to elastic strains that could occur in metals and alloys. The equated relationships are expressed as a function of the diffraction line shift that occurs because of a variation in the spacing d of the atomic planes in a crystalline material that is due to applied or residual stress. This fractional change in d is a strain from which stress can be calculated and which can be determined by the change of angular position of a diffracted x-ray beam.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720242
C. F. Jatczak
The measurement of stress by x-ray diffraction techniques is considered from both the technical and practical viewpoints. Basic principles are discussed and the techniques and x-ray instrumentation presently in use here and abroad are described and compared from the standpoints of accuracy, precision, and time required for stress determination. Both diffractometer and film or camera techniques are covered. Other factors discussed are alignment requirements, selection of optimum instrumental conditions, required corrections to raw diffractometer data, specimen surface preparation, and stress constant evaluation methods. Step-by-step procedures for the novice with illustrations of typical data and calculations are finally presented for the two exposure and sin2ψ diffractometer techniques and for the two-exposure camera method.

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