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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 188260
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720438
H. George Johannessen, Gerald A. Yates
Developments leading to passive seat belts are discussed. A problem in semantics is identified, and a distinction is drawn between “passive” and “semi-passive” seat belts. A low-injury passive seat belt precursor is described, having a continuous webbing loop for lap and shoulder belt and an emergency-locking retractor. The seat belt system indicates potential for improving upon present seat belt systems, and with identifiable modifications, being converted into a passive occupant restraint configuration, and being later modified to provide 40-mph crash survival capability.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720469
C. V. Allen, F. D. Smithson
There is a growing need for specialized road surfaces in order to conduct a variety of tire and/or vehicle tests. This need arises in such areas as vehicle and/or component testing required by various Department of Transportation standards, dynamic calibration surfaces for road-monitoring “skid trailers,” and comparison of tires at multiple sites on a common basis. Surfaces which would fulfill this need should meet the following objectives: 1. Be entirely prescribable, utilizing easily obtainable components and simple construction techniques. This would assure that any organization could produce a desired surface with confidence of specific and repeatable results. 2. Provide the desired frictional characteristics. These could be “real world” surface characteristics, or a specific set of characteristics required as a particular test parameter. 3. Exhibit reasonable durability.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720478
Ron K. Mount
New glass-reinforced thermoplastic foam resins have been developed that can be molded on conventional screw injection molding machines. The glass reinforcement of the thermoplastic foams results in the restoration of physical properties normally lost when unreinforced thermoplastics are foamed.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720542
Donald L. Flynn, Theodore K. Martin
The objective of the study was to estimate and explore the potential for reducing the costs of new urban mass transportation systems. The significance of major components of the capital investment cost was determined for guideway systems. Specific methods of reducing the cost of the most significant components were identified and examined in detail. These methods are (1) economies of scale in construction, (2) reductions in the requirement for guideways by utilizing a dual-mode vehicle, (3) eliminating tunnels by using super-elevated guideways, (4) new tunneling, (5) joint purchase of vehicles by several systems, and (6) reductions in initial vehicle purchases by reductions in the maintenance float. Three major conclusions were reached in this paper. First, there appears to be no opportunity to dramatically reduce the cost of urban transportation. All potential reductions are on the order of 5 to 10 percent.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720484
H. Kuroda, Y. Nakajima, Y. Hayashi, K. Sugihara
The Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program included the thermal reactor as one of the effective ways of oxidizing HC and CO in the exhaust system. However, this was accompanied by very substantial fuel economy penalties, especially in the case of small engine-low emission concept vehicles. Starting with a new concept aimed at obtaining the HC/CO oxidizing trigger temperature in the thermal reactor by modifying engine settings, the authors arrived at an economical technique of matching the thermal reactor to the engine.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720620
Eric O. Stork
Federal regulatory involvement with the automobile industry, automotive emissions of air pollutants in particular, is the main emphasis of this paper. Government concern with automotive air pollution is traced from the early 1950's to the present. The present document will focus on the process by which the government brings to bear the well being and concerns Of the American people in relation to automobile-caused air pollution.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720577
L. B. Marzoni, G. J. Chamraz
Increasing damage to rail- and truck-shipped merchandise provides the major point of discussion for Part One of this paper. Damage is caused by quality defects, normal damage caused by vehicles being moved from one location to another; merchandise being loaded or unloaded; theft; and vandalism. This paper outlines methods of shipping automobiles to prevent such damage. Part Two of this paper provides the engineering principals relating to the shipping method endorsed in Part One.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720770
Howard B. Felder
This paper shows the necessity of extensive machinery and instruments to test torque converters. Review of the principle options and reasons for choice of particular machines and instruments for testing torque converters through the full range of possible performance, that is, through coast and counterrotation as well as normal operation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720640
K. M. Eldred, B. H. Sharp
Horns, whistles and sirens are commonly used to convey information concerning time, location or warning. Of major concern to the community are the audible warning systems used on emergency vehicles and trains. The various types of existing audible warning systems and their historical development are discussed in this paper, together with an analysis of their effectiveness in fulfilling their prime function - namely, to warn people of imminent danger. It is concluded that such systems perform adequately in many situations, but not when the recipient of the warning signal is inside another vehicle. It is suggested that alternative means be developed for warning the occupants of vehicles of immediate danger so that audible warning systems of reduced acoustic power can be used to warn the pedestrian or other persons outside vehicles.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720849
D. V. Cox
The primary mission of the U.S. Navy's new Sea Control Ship (SCS) will be protection of underway replenishment groups, amphibious groups, convoys, and task groups which will not have aircraft carriers in company. The USS Gaum, operating as the prototype SCS, has had a helicopter squadron and a detachment of Harriers from the U.S. Marine Corps testing the concepts of antisubmarine warfare (ASW) systems, surveillance against antishipping missiles from hostile submarines, and V/STOL aircraft as possible air interceptors or for air-to-surface attack.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720792
D. E. Wandling, B. L. Johnson
This paper presents the describing equations of a pressurecompensated poppet valve; the magnitude and phase relationships of the open-loop system are examined, and stability predictions made, using Nyquist techniques. Effects of chang ing the valve mass, valve-cavity volumes, and the lengths of supply and discharge lines are discussed. Experimental data are presented on the observed system instability for various line lengths, valve-cavity volumes, and valve masses. The results of these studies are compared to the computer predictions, and other experimental observations are discussed. The usefulness of Nyquist's criteria in analyzing the stability of the hydraulic poppet valve is discussed with respect to the problem of determining the location of poles of the open loop.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720910
Clifford L. Hayden
A different approach to the study of drivetrain cost comparisons is presented, using 175 units operating within two fleets. Engine, transmission, clutch, driveshaft, universal joint, etc., were identical, item for item; the exceptions being identical brake types but different manufacture and differences in the manufacture of chassis. All units were serviced by the same mechanics. Use of a data bank by the mechanics gave a true cost/mile for the two fleets compared, and showed that good record keeping would provide fleet managers continued benefits.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720857
John D. Seaberg, Jerry R. Etter, Louis R. Records
Recent advances in electronics have enabled the Air Force to consider using remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) for missions now performed by manned aircraft. This paper describes the research and development program for the FDL-23 RPV, an extensively modified Air Force Model 147G drone. The vehicle is being used to initiate studies of techniques and applications of remotely manned aircraft capable of performing various RPV operations. A complete description of the FDL-23 RPV is offered, with special emphasis on the Remote Pilot Station, the Flight Control System, the Command/Telemetry System, and the Video System. A summary of 12 planned flight test missions is also presented.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720937
J. Panzer
Data were obtained on exhaust emissions at idle from four fleets of cars to develop information that would be needed for servicing vehicles rejected by state and city emission surveillance programs. As expected, emissions increased with car age. Pre-1968 European cars produced higher emissions and responded less favorably to tune-up than other pre-1968 cars. Idle emission standards already proposed can bring about rejection rates ranging from 10 to 60% of all cars depending on the emission standard and local car population. Extended idling can increase these rejection rates by 3 to 31% of all cars. Although most rejected cars passed emission standards after tune-up, a significant percentage required additional repair work in order to pass. It is clear that with several standards, some cars could not be made to pass at a reasonable cost. Evaluation of exhaust analyzers has led to development of criteria for service station equipment.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720911
J. E. Paquette
An initial report presenting order of magnitude data only. Owning, operating, and maintaining fleets of line-haul and pickup and delivery units has its own peculiar problems. This paper considers questions such as what manufacture of vehicle should be selected, reliability of the product, whether or not to perform maintenance, etc. Specifically covered is the possible problem area of drivetrains; a preliminary standard operating system developed by the American Trucking Assn., Inc. is given.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720975
David J. Romeo, Richard A. Rose
The program objective was to develop an effective inflatable occupant restraint system for unbelted rear seat occupants of motor vehicles. An extensive series of developmental and evaluative impact sled tests included variations in occupant position and size using a standard-size American sedan as the basic vehicle for incorporation of the passive restraint. The restraint system includes a crushable honeycomb knee bar to limit femur loads and to control the head and upper torso trajectory of the unbelted occupants. At speeds below which the airbag deploys, protection is provided by energy-absorbing padding on a head bar as well as on the knee bar. For high-speed crashes, the airbag deploys, and the bag loads are carried out through the head bar and the knee bar support plate. Nondeployed protection is provided for crash speed pulses up to approximately 20 mph in order to satisfy multiple impact considerations, and nonvented side bags are used for oblique impact protection.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720840
T.A. Dickey, E.R. Dobak
The factors influencing the design of the ALF 502 engine are reviewed in context with explanations and some retrospective comments. Early experiments are outlined, followed by a more detailed account of the intense short-term development which culminated in the Pre-Flight Rating Test. The conclusion reached is that, in the 6000 to 8000 lb. thrust class, the economy and rapid availability achieved by combining a carefully tailored fan module with a simple, well proven core engine of modest pressure ratio can outweigh the advantages of higher cycle efficiency obtainable with a more complex machine.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720365
Walter R. Wise, Jerry R. Mitchell
Gylon is a proprietary family of filled fluorocarbons that are the new, high-speed, high-performance friction materials of now and the future. The energy absorption, life, and power transmission capabilities it contributes to heavy-duty, wet clutches in both over-the-road and off-the-road vehicles have been demonstrated to be markedly superior to those of metallic and semimetallic friction materials currently available. Gylon friction material is providing substantive commercial solutions for current problem clutches as well as for new-generation, high-speed clutches now on the drawing board.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720004
K. H. Eberhard Kroemer
This paper attempts to serve three purposes: 1. To summarize the open scientific literature on muscular force applicable to pedals, and on the efficiency of foot motions on or between pedals depending on the body support and the body posture of the seated operator. 2. To discuss the applicability of such studies in automobile (or other equipment) design, especially to the design, selection, and arrangement of foot-operated controls. 3. To point out that for most conventional vehicles and equipment, modes of seating, and of pedal arrangement and operation follow largely common experience and tradition, and only partly scientific findings. For new man-machine systems, new solutions seem possible.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720467
T. W. Rogers, W. Lemke, J. Lefevre, T. Ohzawa
Discussion of the rotary-combustion engine's history, operation, and lubrication illustrates the role of various quality level engine oils in providing the necessary functions of engine seal wear protection, bearing lubrication, rotor cooling, and overall combustion chamber area cleanliness. Specific examples of current quality and experimental-type engine oil influence on overall engine durability, including seal and housing surface wear, are cited for various engine designs. Data evaluating lube oil effects on engine cleanliness and oil consumption characteristics are also discussed. Analysis of used oil from a number of test engines is presented showing the rotary-combustion engine to yield oil deterioration typical of current piston engines.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720490
L. M. Niebylski, R. J. Fanning
Evaluations of aluminum foams show they can be efficient energy absorbers. They are especially interesting because they have virtually no rebounding characteristics. The load-compression response characteristics of the foam can be controlled by variations of alloy composition and foam density, thereby controlling foam strength and ductility. This makes foamed metals attractive candidates for a number of automotive energy-absorption applications. The energy-absorption properties of a number of aluminum alloy foams have been studied under low and medium speed impact, up to 25 mph. The foam density, volume, and size required for a 5 mph “single shot” impact shock absorber have been determined for two automotive weight classes. Nonshearing, columnar, high-density foam structures have been developed to withstand basal compressive loads. These columns have potential for multi-impact shock-absorbing applications.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720288
R. B. Caldwell, R. F. Johnson, R. A. Simon
The development of the AUTO TEMP II Temperature Control System used in Chrysler Corp. vehicles is summarized. A description of the design, development, function, and manufacturing aspects of the control system is presented, with emphasis on unique control parameters, reliability, serviceability, and check-out of production assemblies. Auto Temp II was developed by Chrysler in conjunction with Ranco Incorporated. The servo-controlled, closed-loop system, which has a sensitivity of 0.5 F, utilizes a water-flow control valve for temperature control, along with a cold engine lockout. The basic components are: sensor string, servo, and amplifier. All automatic functions involving control of mass flow rate, temperature, and distribution of the air entering the vehicle, are encompassed in one control unit. All components are mechanically linked through the gear train and are responsive to the amplifier through the feedback potentiometer.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720868
E. A. Hirzel
The essence of braking control is to adjust the brake pressure properly at all times to maintain brake torque at the correct level to balance the tire-runway friction force at its peak value, and thus give the aircraft maximum available deceleration. Hydro-Aire has been involved in the development of skid control systems from the days of the old “tire savers” to today's fully automatic braking controls. This paper presents the technical history and evolution of the modern brake control or “antiskid” system.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720933
R. J. Wahrenbrock, J. B. Duckworth
Drivability tests were conducted on 12 cars at four ambient temperatures with seven fuels of differing front-end and mid-boiling range volatility levels. One fuel was a typical winter grade gasoline, one was typical of summer grade, and the remaining five were blended to provide various combinations of Rvp and ASTM 50% evaporation temperature. Three driving schedules were used on the chassis dynamometer-a cold-start driveaway schedule to study operation from cold start through warmup, a warm-vehicle procedure to evaluate drivability with a thoroughly warmed-up car, and a hot-start vapor lock procedure to observe hot-fuel handling characteristics. Road tests were run at one temperature on four cars with two fuels for correlation between road and dynamometer results.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720493
George J. Currier
The Chrysler Corporation made use of a thermosetting polyester sheet-molding-compound (SMC) to provide an efficient, neat-appearing, and economical station wagon air deflector for its 1969 full-size station wagons. This marked Chrysler's first usage of this material for a major automotive body component.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720767
David J. Cronberger
The rotary actuator, a device which converts hydraulic fluid under pressure into rotary mechanical motion, is very useful in applications that require limited turning motion. Several applications are described in this paper, and illustrations are presented. Descriptions of the two basic types of rotary actuators, the vane and the piston, are offered. The latter type is further divided into the helical-spline, piston-rack, and piston-chain.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720924
T. R. Wik, R. F. Miller
A conceptual framework has been developed for investigating the generation of sound by tires. Recent measurements have quantified some of the characteristics of truck tire sounds. The characteristics that have been measured include the peak A-weighted sound level and its dependence on the tread pattern, speed, and deflection of the tire; the effect of the road surface on tire sound levels; and the spectral distribution of tire sounds. These characteristics are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of tire sound generation.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720925
David A. Corcoran
The A-weighted sound-level measurements of truck tire sounds are dependent on a number of variables. These parameters, in general, include vehicle speed, load, inflation pressure, tread wear, test surface, tread pattern, distance from the microphone to sound source, time, number of tires used on the vehicle, tire size and type, etc. These parameters are individually considered and their effects on the A-weighted sound level measurements of truck tire sounds are discussed in this paper.
1972-02-01
Technical Paper
720797
Jackson Medley
High labor and operating costs have led to the demand for more reliable and productive equipment. OSHA is further demanding safer, quieter, and cleaner working conditions for the operator. A fleet of Kress 150-ton single unit, rear engine, bottom dump coal haulers, now in operation at the Captain Mine, are an interesting solution in meeting these demands. By eliminating the weight of the gooseneck, hitch, and tractor frame, and using 175,000 psi yield steel, these units have payload to weight ratios of approximately 3:1. This is between 60-90% improvement over conventionally designed tractor-trailer units. This new coal hauler design concept became possible with the development of a dual tire front axle module which includes an oleo pneumatic suspension and 90 deg steering capability. The automatically leveled suspension system has a 20 in stroke, allowing relative deflection rates 1-1/2 times softer than the softest passenger cars.

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