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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 190966
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740928
C. Scott Clark, Robert D. Lingg, Edward Pesci, Edward J. Cleary
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740927
Jack D. Zeff, Richard Barton, LeRoy H. Reuter
This paper summarizes a study of combining ultra-violet radiation and ozone to purify water contaminated with microorganisms and organic compounds. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine the feasibility of the combination of ultraviolet light and ozone to sterilize and to remove organics from water, (2) define the concentrations of ultraviolet light and ozone required to remove predetermined levels of microbial contamination and organic substances from water, and (3) to describe operating parameters for water sterilization and purification that can be used as a basis for designing operating systems that can be used by the Army and in manned space flight. The study to date has found that the combination of UV and ozone is more effective in destroying test organisms than UV alone. About 2.25 ppm ozone plus UV will destroy about 99.7 percent of the organisms present and 3 ppm of ozone plus UV will result in complete destruction of the organisms.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740929
Barbara M. Greenough
Mechanical and electrical systems are well-known and widely used for environmental control. Thermostatically-controlled air conditioning is a common terrestrial example. In space and undersea situations, constraints such as remoteness (limited or zero resupply), lack of gravity, and a hostile exterior atmosphere provide a challenge to environmental control technology. In particular, the development of environmental systems for future long-duration manned space missions is leading to new and sophisticated applications of chemical and electrochemical processes to augment the basic mechanical/electrical systems. This paper highlights the role of electrochemical processes in spacecraft environmental systems development and, by example, describes the fundamentals of these processes.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740646
Torbjörn Knutsson, Bruce A. Hertig
This study was undertaken to determine the nature and extent of the formal and informal programs in ergonomics currently utilized in the industry. From these findings a theoretical schema is proposed to better apply the techniques of ergonomics in a systematic way. A more systematic approach to attention to the human factors in equipment design may provide, among other benefits, reduction in equipment-related accidents, product liability claims, and improvement in operator safety and efficiency. The schema may also suggest to the academic community areas where curricula might be modified to meet the changing educational needs of the agricultural industry.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740645
Mark H. Sickman, Garry O. Bowhall
A new, articulated, 4-wheel drive agricultural tractor has been developed which combines the advantages of 2-wheel drive tractors with the advantages of full-time, 4-wheel drive tractors with equal-size wheels. To accomplish this, the tractor incorporates a unique drivetrain and frame arrangement. An unusual cab-mounting arrangement is also used that reduces the chance of serious injury in the event of a rollover.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740647
S. J. Clark, W. H. Johnson
Current energy supplies are finite and are being used at an ever increasing rate. We can no longer evaluate alternatives on a cost basis alone. Crop production systems are no exception. We must now evaluate such systems on energy-use and environmental impact bases as well as on a cost basis. This study was to develop and compare energy budgets for wheat, grain sorghum, and wheat-grain sorghum rotation tillage systems. Energy inputs considered included machinery and parts manufacturing, crop production fuel, and tire and herbicide manufacturing. Our results show that energy requirements for crop production tillage systems vary considerably. Fuel consumed by tractors in performing the tillage operations was the largest input (39.6-82.5% of the total). Energy for herbicide, however, was almost as large as the fuel input for the grain sorghum no-till system. No-till systems use slightly more energy than till-plant tillage systems for grain sorghum (60.8 versus 54.5% of conventional).
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740655
Robert L. Fish
The literature provides considerable evidence confirming interaction of oil and friction material on performance characteristics obtained in a wet friction unit. Both elements can be modified to meet a wide range of requirements. Furthermore, it is well established that the performance obtained with any specific oil-material combination can be modified with usage. In this report, additional evidence of interaction is offered from test of five friction materials and five oil types. How the interactions are affected by conditions of use is also explored. Data on variable energy loading, power loading, oil sump temperature, oil flow, and sump volume factors are included, not only as a design guide on methods of eliminating or minimizing performance fluctuations resulting from such interactions, but also to demonstrate the kind of variable that can produce the chemical and/or physical change of sufficient magnitude to modify results.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740656
Leonard C. Shrewsbury
New “multifunctional” farm tractor transmission, hydraulic, and wet brake fluids are being introduced to the tractor industry. The background of tractor lubrication and hydraulic component development that created a need for these fluids is discussed. Fluid friction characteristics tailored to wet brake, power takeoff (PTO), and transmission clutch performance along with improved antiwear and extreme pressure (EP) protection for gears are taking on more importance with the continued increase in tractor horsepower. At the same time, a long-sought goal of simplifying the number of lubricants required by the tractor industry is being realized through the use of these new fluids.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740657
William P. Coyne
This paper presents the current status of the Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center's new Hydraulic System Test and Repair Unit (HSTRU). In addition to describing the configuration of the prototype, it discusses the military requirements which led to its development and the analysis of the engineering tradeoffs involved in the selection of its components. Throughout the paper, analogies are drawn between military and commercial needs for the repair and maintenance of hydraulic systems in fielded mobile construction equipment.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740659
John Czarnecki
Customer demands for reliability in construction equipment are increasing. Reliability results first from adequate design and second from the capability of manufacturing in executing this design. The ultimate measure of reliability is performance for the customer. Information concerning good or bad performance must be communicated and used to improve new designs and correct existing machines. This can be accomplished effectively with the use of a reliability organization, operating independently of the line organization and with final approval of all products shipped.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740658
Jack Poley
This paper describes how a comprehensive oil analysis program is implemented in operations involving off-highway and similar equipment. Oil samples are taken on a routine basis and thoroughly analyzed in a laboratory. Tests are tailored to the equipment being sampled, and individual records are maintained per unit to allow monitoring of trends. Highly qualified data analysts review test results and provide practical maintenance recommendations. The result is an improvement in reliability, reduced downtime, and the direction of repair efforts only when and where necessary. Test significance and interpretation are discussed and exemplary case histories provided.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740626
Larry J. Eriksson
In addition to adequate sound and performance levels, practical exhaust systems are characterized by a large number of design considerations. These include size, weight, position, cost, durability, styling, and tonal quality. This paper discusses the severe constraints that motorcycles place on these parameters because of their relatively small size and high-performance levels.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740627
Charles T. Hare, Karl J. Springer, William Rogers Oliver, William H. Houtman, Thomas A. Huls
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740628
Gordon Jennings
Reports from the field offer widespread agreement that certain of the currently produced motorcycle forks and shock absorbers give superior results in terms of ride and handling. This study was undertaken to establish such correlation as may exist between the qualitative differences noted by experienced motorcycle riders and comparative suspension damping characteristics as revealed by instrumented bench testing. Substantial and significant variations were discovered in the course of these bench tests, not only in general damping patterns, but also in response to temperature increases typically encountered during dynamic testing. This paper describes methods and hardware employed, interprets results, and suggests future lines of development.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740630
Raymond J. Miennert
Antilock brake systems suitable for use on a motorcycle were investigated under an experimental safety motorcycle program. Due to program constraints, the only systems investigated were those already perfected by brake system manufacturers. This enabled utilization of the latest state-of-the-art principles to accomplish the desired result in the shortest time. Various types of systems and power sources were investigated. The system chosen for the motorcycle application was a fluid powered system in conjunction with a production hydraulic disc brake. Laboratory and field tests have been conducted with results exceeding expectations.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740641
W. A. Gebhardt
Product liability is a growing concern to both industry and engineers The number of cases involving product liability is growing rapidly, as is the amount of awarded damages. The history of this field of civil law is examined, as are its present-day ramifications and the courts' widely expanding view of manufacturer liability Also examined are the steps to be taken to reduce risk of litigation-through proper design and construction and prudence in advertising.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740642
Robert G. Jackson
The use of coal as a prime energy source is examined. The author focuses on the process of coal gasification to produce a synthesis gas for subsequent conversion to either gaseous or liquid products, and particularly on the methanol process. The production of methanol is described, as are ways of using it commercially.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740643
Charles Mischke
This paper advocates designing to reliability specifications. In this context, the author discusses design criterion, random-variable algebra, closure, loading as a random process, geometry as a random variate, materials behavior, and load-induced stress as a random variate. Mathematical equations are presented, as are computational examples.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740644
Bert Breuer
This paper deals with the development of system-vehicles-characterized by front-mounted safety cabins, front and rear hydraulic three-point hitches with automatic couplings for implements, and centrally mounted tanks or containers-for farm and industry. Technical configuration of a range of four vehicles with an engine output form 37,5 kW-DIN (51 hp-DIN) to 174 kW-DIN (236 hp-DIN) is explained. Particular attention is paid to problems concerning an automatic hydrostatic transmission. Farm and industrial applications of these vehicles are illustrated.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740617
Roger H. Hemion
The feasibility of approving the use of a rectangular shaped, sealed-beam headlamp as an alternative to round headlamps is discussed in terms of economics, service and maintainability, vehicle design, and styling. A conclusion of primary interest is reached, that design as well as performance standardization is in the interest of the buying public, under certain conditions, and proliferation of designs without compensatory gain should be avoided.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740616
Rex W. Oyler
This paper covers automotive lighting devices and allied equipment as they might be used in front, side, and rear lighting. Consideration is given to legal aspects, standardization opportunities, hardware involved, and criteria for final decision making. Comparisons of relative headlight seeing distances have been made, and suggestions for an intermediate or mid-beam configuration are proposed. The three-beam approach appears to offer the greatest immediate potential for head-lighting improvement.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740618
J. F. Hittle, A. R. Schuette
Because of the increasing complexity of commercial trucking operation and management, the truck automatic transmission is being found to be an asset in terms of overall vehicle economics-in addition to its long recognized features of ease of operation and safety. A number of salient vehicle cost factors upon which the truck automatic transmission has an impact are discussed-along with the transmission design principles which lead to that impact. Acceptance of this premise by the trucking industry is shown by market segment. In addition to discussing the contribution of the truck automatic transmission toward improving the overall economics position of today's commercial vehicles, this paper gives indication of forthcoming refinements in transmission design which will further reduce fuel consumption costs.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740619
T. D. Hutton
The size and weight of commercial motor vehicles have been effectively frozen since the adoption of the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956. The removal of political barriers for the liberalization of these restrictions will help stem the tide of inflation, while at the same time making potential fuel savings of as much as 21% for intercity freight trucks a reality. With transportation a recurrent cost in every phase of production, distribution, and service, fuel becoming more expensive, and the security of supply more tenuous, the significant increase in transportation efficiency provided by the triple trailer combination must not be withheld from the nation's economy. Millions of operational miles have clearly demonstrated that our nation's highways have been built to the point where they can safely handle this equipment, with triples having established the best safety record of any vehicle ever used on our highways.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740622
Q. W. Robbins, C. K. Salter
The application of an advanced state-of-the-art air inlet system has produced a high specific output, high torque rise, heavy-duty diesel truck engine. By integrating a compact plate-fin air-to-air heat exchanger with the cooling air driven by a novel tip turbine fan, a 25% increase in power output has been achieved with minimal increase in mechanical engine loads. The use of an aluminum two-piece piston which prevents side thrust loading on the ring-carrying head section results in improved ring life and reduced oil consumption.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740620
D. L. Berry
The widespread problems of gasoline availability have caused motorists to take new interest in the fuel economy of their cars and in gasoline conservation methods. As a means of illustrating a variety of effective fuel saving techniques, reference is made to the performance of four cars that have achieved outstanding fuel mileage (150-376 miles/gal) during competition in Shell Mileage Marathon contests. Suggestions are offered for ways in which the average driver can improve fuel economy in current-type automobiles. The importance of proper vehicle maintenance is also stressed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740625
W. J. Holt, R. W. Corey
Las Vegas, Nevada, is one of the ideal urban environments for a Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) System. The city operates on a “round the clock” basis and highway traffic congestion is becoming severe with the growth of tourism. The principal industry is tourism and a fare structure can be imposed which will make a PRT system self-supporting. A PRT system is described which meets the anticipated Las Vegas requirements of 24 h/day operation, vehicle and service being designed to compete favorably with the automobile. The PRT system elements described include vehicle, guideway, control features, stations, and maintenance facility. The results of a maintenance plan analysis and financial considerations are also discussed.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740623
T. A. Lancaster, D. L. Hearn
With the nation looking more and more to mass transit to solve its urban transportation problems, the innovative Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems with their “second car” characteristics can be expected to complement bus and rail services, especially in medium-density population areas. After summarizing the role each of these three forms of public transit plays and is projected to play by 1990, the paper describes current specialized PRT applications in the United States and abroad.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740604
Franklin B. Airheart
Various approaches to truck disc brake design are discussed. Design of the disc and the effect of its design on brake performance show current designs being proposed may be inadequate. Lining area must be adequate for long life without restricting cooling. Piston retraction and adjustment by mechanical means is more reliable than seal retraction. A multiple disc oil-cooled hydraulic disc brake can provide extended life and high torque in a small diameter package. Air-actuated disc brakes eliminate the need for hydraulics, but introduce problems in force multiplication and brake-to-brake balance.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740605
Tasuku Date, Shizuo Yagi, Akira Ishizuya, Isao Fujii
This paper summarizes some of the technical considerations upon which Honda's CVCC system is based, relating to reduction of pollutants in automobile engine exhaust gases. The CVCC engine employs a stratified charge to produce stable combustion of an overall lean mixture. A unique mixture is formed immediately before ignition to reduce three pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx) simultaneously, as well as to improve fuel economy. This mixture is produced by contolling fuel mixtures supplied to the engine and by geometrical combustion chamber design features. An evaluation model conceived by Honda to evaluate emissions and fuel economy during the driving cycle mode is explained, and a comparison of estimated values obtained from the evaluation model with those obtained under actual driving test conditions is made.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740607
G. R. Thurman
The sound level of crossbar-type truck tires was found to be only slightly affected by the texture of the portland concrete road surfaces used. Rib-type tires showed higher noise level on coarse than on smooth surfaces, but the ranking of different tires was unaffected. Clearance of the truck bed above the tire was relatively unimportant. Noise level increased with increase in speed. Sound persistence after truck passby is related to tread design and possibly to the radiation pattern from the road-tire interface.

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