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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 189359
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730482
J. Jakobsen, D. M. Sanborn, W. O. Winer
The importance of high shear conditions in automotive lubrication is discussed with respect to the influence on lubricant rheological properties. The distribution of shearing effects in lubricated components is also discussed. Two methods of simulating high shear conditions-an elastohydrodynamic lubrication simulator and a capillary viscometer-are presented, along with some data obtained from them on polymer-containing oils.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730471
P. H. Newell, W. A. Hyman, T. A. Krouskop, M. McDermott,
Some of the mobility problems faced by the spinal cord injury patient are presented in this paper. Existing automobile hand controls for the handicapped are discussed and current efforts at evaluation and standardization of this equipment are described. Design constraints are outlined for the development of new equipment to allow the more severely handicapped to drive.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730484
J. V. Brancato, Wildrick Hart
The purpose of the work reported in this paper was to develop a simple and reliable method of comparing the relative merits of various polymers in a homogeneous sytem of base oils that might be used in multigraded motor oil applications. It was demonstrated that by using consistent methods of tests, comparisons between polymers can be made, that more clearly define the properties of the polymers than methods that have been used in the past. It was determined that in a series of polymers of the same molecular type, those polymers with the lowest molecular weight will have the greatest shear stability. The contribution to low shear, low-temperature viscosity varies widely with variations in molecular type. A rating factor can be produced which is relatively constant for polymers of the same molecular type regardless of molecular weight.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730483
Richard C. Rosenberg
An experimental technique has been developed to measure the minimum oil film thickness of dynamically loaded journal bearings. Inductive transducers were used to measure the motion of the journal within the bearing clearance and with this information the relative oil film thickness was determined. The measured film thickness correlated closely with analytically predicted values for five base oils. However, tests on four oils which met the SAE multiviscosity engine oil classification (three SAE 10W-30 and one SAE 10W-40) showed that the low shear rate viscosity of these oils could not be used to predict the bearing oil film thickness developed by these oils.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730478
Michael L. McMillan, Chester K. Murphy
An analysis of oil pumpability reveals that engine oil pumping failures may occur because either the oil cannot flow under its own head to the oil screen inlet, or the oil is too viscous to flow through the screen and inlet tube fast enough to satisfy pump demands. To determine which factor is controlling, the behavior of commercial, multigraded oils was observed visually at temperatures from -40 to 0°F (-40 to - 17.8°C) in a laboratory oil pumpability test apparatus. Test results revealed that pumping failures occur by the first alternative: a hole is formed in the oil, and the surrounding oil is unable to flow into the hole fast enough to satisfy the pump. Of 14 oils tested, 7 failed to be pumped because of air binding or cavitation which developed in this manner. A model, which explains these failures in terms of yield point considerations and the low shear apparent viscosity of the oils, is proposed.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730485
A. F. Talbot, W. A. Wright, H. I. Morris
A procedure is described which employs an air-cooled, 4-cycle, single-cylinder engine of the type often found on lawn and garden equipment, driven by an electric motor at 3100 rpm. The equipment is simple, inexpensive, and requires a modest volume of sample. Results compare favorably with the shear stability tests of a series of 13 oils prepared and field-tested in a 78 vehicle fleet by Subsection B-1 of ASTM Division VII of Committee D 2. The degree of correlation is comparable to that observed in several tests conducted in full size laboratory engine stands, and superior to that recently reported for a variety of non-engine bench tests (pump rigs, sonic oscillator, dispersion mill). Viscosity losses are also reported for a variety of commercial 10W-40 grade service station engine oils, when tested by this procedure.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730479
R. M. Stewart, M. F. Smith
The inability of certain crankcase oils to flow and lubricate an engine at low temperature and the lack of a suitable bench test to predict this characteristic are of current concern to engine builders and oil formulators. Two critical areas of oil flow at very low temperatures have been recognized by SAE and ASTM subcommittees. These are: the ability of an oil to flow to the oil screen of an engine fast enough to prevent “air binding,” and its ability to be drawn through the oil screen and pump inlet tubing without causing “pump cavitation.” The interrelation between these two factors is discussed and some engine pumpability data are presented which illustrate how one of these factors may affect the other. Descriptions of four new bench tests are presented along with data to show their ability to predict the low-temperature pumpability properties of crankcase oils.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730480
A. R. Nolf
A bench test has been developed to simulate the ability of engine crankcase oil to flow from the sump to the pump inlet. The design of the system is geometrically equivalent to that found in a Chevrolet 230 CID L-6 engine. A number of crankcase lubricants have been evaluated in the rig to determine the effects of V.I. improver chemistry, soak time, fuel diluent content, and pour point on pumping rig delivery. In a more detailed phase of this study, the cold flow properties of 10 commercial oils have been compared to pumping rig results obtained at -20 and -30°F. The data suggest that the Brookfield viscometer is a more reliable indicator of oil pumpability than the GM pour time, CCS viscosity, or ASTM pour point.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730481
F. F. Tao, W. E. Waddey
The viscosity-shear dependence of multiviscosity oils measured in a rotary viscometer at low shear rates fits the Power Law model, relating viscosity to shear rate. A simulated oil pan rig permitted calculation of critical shear conditions and viscosities for engine pumpability. Critical conditions of apparent viscosity and shear stress were computed to be 400 poise at 5000 dynes/cm2 from data on a series of ASTM reference pumpability oils.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730412
Paul D. Clark, Darrold E. Roen
A system has been developed to load the power train of a lab test vehicle with field recorded torques. This loading is accomplished with hydraulically activated axle load brakes which are controlled by an electro-hydraulic servo system. The entire power train is then tested as though the tractor was operating in the field. The advantages of the test system include 24 h/day operation regardless of weather conditions and very consistent day to day loading of the test vehicle. This paper presents the reasons for starting the program and a description of the power train test system.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730388
Harold Gold
Cost reduction in aircraft turbine engines may be obtained through performance reductions that are acceptable for ranges that are considerably shorter than the range for which current and costly engines were developed. Cost reduction in the fuel control for these cost engines must be achieved without significant performance reduction. This paper describes a fuel control approach that appears to meet this requirement and reviews the work that has been performed on it over the past few years.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730411
William J. Bowman
This paper consists of viewing graphics as a language showing it is critical to effective visual communication Equally important is the process of visual translation itself, the practical application of graphic language to expressive requirements. This paper identifies in logical order some of the major message functions of graphic language, and to develop these functions in terms of specific communicative options available to the designer.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730387
J. K. Siddons
Three airlines-AA, TW, and UA-have combined talents and experience to agree on 10 fuel-handling standardization documents. These documents provide detailed specifications and procedures for turbine fuel, safety, quality control, aircraft servicing, refuelers, hydrant vehicles, equipment performance tests, storage facilities, and hydrant systems. This paper reviews the fuel-handling standards program and highlights each document. The documents, while providing complete coverage, are presented as the groundwork for universal fuel-handling standards.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730386
A. T. Peacock
The DC-10 fuel system is described with details given for the various subsystems. Reasoning is given for some design features of the several subsystems. System performance capabilities are discussed, including refuel rates and times for various nozzle configurations and fuel supply pressures, defuel capability using pressure and suction methods, pump sizes, and jettison rates. System refinements made since introduction of the DC-10 into commercial service are described. Service experience with the fuel system is discussed.________________
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730385
J. A. Bert, L. J. Painter
This paper reports the results of an evaluation by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) of a new test to measure the thermal stability of jet fuels. This new test, the jet fuel thermal oxidation test (JFTOT) by Alcor Inc., was designed to improve upon the ASTM-CRC Coker test. The Alcor JFTOT is described as to fuel system, the heater test tube section, the thermocouple calibration tube rating methods-both visual rating and light reflectance methods, test program format, effect of test time on deposit formation, the heater tube temperature profile, and visual and tube deposit rater ratings. The relationship between the ASTM-CRC Coker and the JFTOT is evaluated, and the precision of the JFTOT and various measurements are discussed.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730384
Austin Corbin
The AIRTRANS system now under construction at the new Dallas/Fort Worth Airport is truly a complete intra-airport transportation system. It is designed to carry passengers and employees (in separate cars), transport all interline baggage and mail, remove all trash from the terminals to a central dump, and deliver commissary supplies from a common warehouse to the terminals. It is a fully automatic system with guarantees on trip times and mechanical performance. The system contains some 13 miles of guideway within the airport, 68 vehicles plus service vehicles, and a central control point to provide surveillance over the automatic operation. Automatic container handling equipment is also included in the airlines operations area to ease the task of the airlines. The system has been under design and fabrication since spring 1971.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730420
William J. Lux
The job of an engineering department is defined in terms of its relationship to the business enterprise. This establishes the perspective between the engineering department and the parent enterprise. Two basic assumptions are made: that the business requires product engineering and that the business is not a research institute or contract engineering organization. The author then takes his premises through incorrect concepts of engineering, the engineering job, design or synthesis, paperwork, level of confidence, and costs.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730381
K. T. Tanemura, B. C. Hainline
Use of primary propulsion engines to supply secondary power for future airplane systems will incur increasing penalties due to technological and ecological considerations. This paper compares the relative merits of four secondary power system (SPS) concepts most likely to mature in the 1975-1985 time period. It also indicates that a promising payoff is available by the use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit (APU) SPS concept (in-flight APUs) for future near-sonic, long-range transports. Improvements to current technology APUs will be required before the APU can be further integrated in the SPS and can be depended upon for in-flight system power.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730419
William S. Petch
Metal castings made from patterns made of wax or another expendable material have been made for about 4000 years. When the need for large quantities of turbine blades arose in World War II, the “lost wax” or investment casting method was brought into use. Investment casting produces a part with close tolerances and good surface finish, and can result in considerable cost savings on particular items while improving the product.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730418
Harvey E. Henderson
This paper describes ductile iron castings used in the earthmoving industry. Ductile iron is a cast ferrous alloy with carbon (in the form of graphite) and magnesium in its iron base. The graphite form can be evaluated by ASTM A-247. Ductile iron has many of the properties of gray iron, cast-iron, and steel, but it has certain excellent properties of its own. It is strong, elastic, has a low melting point, and has good wear resistance. Various grades with different Brinell hardness and microstructure can be produced. The method of production is detailed, and the many applications of ductile iron are shown.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730417
R. W. Zillmann
This paper discusses the principles involved in the design of steel castings, the characteristics of which are advantageous from both an engineering and an economic point of view. The responsibility for quality, soundness, strength, and serviceability rests not in the foundry but with the designer. Most designers, however, have little experience with casting design. The basic design rules, which are based upon the laws of chemistry and physics, are thus presented as well as a description of testing techniques, various properties, and behavior under specific service conditions. It is through the close cooperation of the knowledgeable designer with the foundryman that ultimately the optimum design results.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730416
F. J. Larkin
This paper discusses the relationship between users of construction equipment and the manufacturers and dealers of the equipment The people involved in this relationship are the deciding factors in whether all participants are satisfied, as the people are responsible ultimately for the product The paper points out that the major qualities necessary in the considerations behind a user's satisfaction with a manufacturer's product are those belonging to people, ingenuity, improvement, and integrity. Examples are shown from the user's point of view of the need for these qualities, of which integrity is the most important.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730414
David S. Gedney
Highway design and construction processes can and do have significant impact on a community and its environment. Geometric design innovations can significantly reduce air and noise pollution for a completed facility, but construction noise is especially difficult to control within tolerable limits unless engineers and equipment manufacturers seek better methods through investment in additional cost and improved technology.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730415
L. J. Mattson
After-sales product information remains one of the most vital and elusive inputs required by a profitable manufacturer. Tracking of capital goods products, such as construction machinery, is especially critical because of its high product-unit value, extended product service life, and the market demand for continued product improvement. This paper presents a system designed by a manufacturer to accumulate, assimilate, and disseminate timely product service information.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730427
Kenneth C. Kirkland
A patented test facility has been developed for the purpose of analyzing exhaust noise emissions. The facility isolates the exhaust system noise source and allows noise tests to be conducted under the SAE J366a test site conditions. The exhaust system is piped and positioned in a manner similar to that found on the vehicle. Noise tests are conducted under steady state engine speed and load settings resulting in a high repeatability of test data.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730429
Vincent P. Byrne, John E. Hart
An intake and exhaust system mathematical model has been developed with the ability to predict the effects of specific acoustical elements on acoustic system performance. This paper discusses typical systems, the acoustical elements that make up the system, and a mathematical modeling of a system. It will also cover the effects of changing acoustical elements-exhaust and tail pipe lengths-on a noise spectrum.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730425
Douglas B. Uthus
The military land-clearing conducted in the tropical vegetation of Vietnam was the largest operation of its kind ever undertaken. Teams of basically commercial track-type tractors with commercial land-clearing accessories were used to achieve the task. Equipment operation and maintenance was performed by military personnel. This paper discusses the problems encountered with the tractor and its accessories in the military, tropical environment, and the modifications to the tractor and accessories that evolved from the operation.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730426
A. R. Allen
This paper describes the mining operations in the Athabasca Tar Sands in Alberta, Canada. The development of the mine is detailed, along with the earthmoving equipment required. Experience to date has revealed a number of problems which the earthmoving industry will have to solve: extreme cold weather which affects all phases of vehicle operation, nature of the terrain, nature of the tar sand itself which is a frozen lumpy mass that can interfer with vehicle operation, maintenance, parts service. This experience is described, and some solutions offered.
1973-02-01
Technical Paper
730423
C. P. Killough
Four acceptance test programs and delineation of responsibilities for determining acceptability of construction equipment prior to shipment from the factory are discussed. The four test programs are referred to as Preproduction Acceptance Tests (performed on preproduction prototype units), Product Evaluation Tests (performed on initial production units of new models), Quality Conformance Inspection (performed on each production unit), and Customer Acceptance Test (performed on random sample units from production). They are four of many procedures by which the quality manager manages product quality by detection, correction, and prevention of defects. Machines are looked at from the positive viewpoint of acceptability-not just defects-and must pass these tests before they can be shipped from the factory. The quality manager has full responsibility for the quality of products shipped and for customer acceptance of products.

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