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Viewing 164461 to 164490 of 190617
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741157
P. R. JOHNSON, S. L. GENSLAK, R. C. NICHOLSON
Vehicle systems utilizing a stratified charge engine have been evaluated for their emission potential. They have shown the ability to meet the 2.0 gm/mi NOx emission standard without EGR at low mileage, but require some form of aftertreatment device to simultaneously achieve emission levels of 0.41 gm/mi HC and 3.4 gm/mi CO. The system hardware required in conjunction with the stratified charge engine is described.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741158
Shizuo Yagi, Tasuku Date, Kazuo lnoue
In this paper, the experimental results concerning the effect of the geometrical and operating factors of the CVCC engine on NOx emission, taking into consideration the fuel economy, are described with respect to a specific engine configuration, and they are compared with the results calculated by means of the mixture formation model. Furthermore the relationship between the NOx emission level and specific fuel consumption has been explained, and then it has been shown that the controlled combustion obtained with the CVCC engine is very effective for eliminating fuel economy penalty and reducing emissions.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741146
Robert B. Kurre
A new concept in school bus body construction, the Wayne Lifeguard bus, provides solutions to specific problems cited by critics of school bus safety. This report chronicles development of the Lifeguard bus from conception through production and compares it with traditionally built buses.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741156
O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers, E. E. Marsh, G. E. Cheklich
Obtaining and maintaining a stratified charge in a practical engine is a difficult problem. Consequently, many approaches have been proposed and reported in the scientific and patent literature. In attempting to assess the most profitable approach for future development work, it is important to group together similar approaches so that one can study their performance as a group. Making such a classification has the additional advantage of helping to standardize terminology used by different investigators. With this thought in mind, a literature study was made and a proposed classification chart prepared for the different engine combustion systems reported in the literature. For the sake of completeness, the finally proposed classification chart includes homogeneous combustion engines as well as heterogeneous combustion engines. Because of their similarity of combustion, rotary engines such as the Wankel engine are considered as “reciprocating” although gas turbines are not included.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741221
Trevor O. Jones
The growth of electronics from the vacuum tube to the transistor and finally large scale integrated circuits and the impact of this growth on automotive electronics is discussed. Brief descriptions of current automotive electronic sub-systems are presented. Several experimental automotive integrated electronic systems, including diagnostic systems and display systems, which have been developed and tested are covered. A simple digital system containing inputs from transducers and driver commands; outputs to displays and actuators, and a central processor is used to describe the problems associated with installing an integrated electronic control system on an automobile. The problems associated with automatic radar braking are enumerated.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741220
Bernard T. Marren
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741223
Hermann Eisele
Recent development effort concentrated on further improvement of emission control and fuel economy. The Bosch electronic fuel injection was advanced from using absolute intake manifold pressure as main input variable to an air metering system. This approach simplifies emission control combined with less cost gained by other improvements. Better fuel economy in combination with low emissions is achieved by closed-loop control employing the λ-sensor. The structure of this control loop allows the application of a self-adaptive control system responding to changing operating conditions of the engine. A further possibility is the closed-loop control at air-fuel ratios slightly richer or leaner than stoichiometric. This application widens the use of the λ-sensor to different emission control packages dependent on applicable standards.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741222
John R. Welty
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741217
William L. Miron
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741216
J. H. Whitley
Whether we like it or not, increased usage of automotive electronics is going to focus attention on a class of components which may have little glamour or exotic appeal, but which will assume a role of vital and critical importance in tomorrow's automobile-the electrical connector. Though we may think of them as simple hardware, electrical connectors and interconnecting devices have reached a surprisingly high level of sophistication. This paper reviews the basic physics of electric contacts, with the objective of demonstrating how an understanding of the fundamental phenomena governing the behavior of electric contacts can be useful not only to designers and manufacturers, but also to users of electrical connectors.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741219
C. Gordon Peattie
Electronic reliability, as related to the automotive system, is discussed in four parts: the dual requirements of high reliability and of low unit price imposed on the semiconductor industry by the automotive system; how semiconductor device reliability has been and is being raised to levels of reliability commensurate with the needs of the automotive system; some suggestions as to how the semiconductor industry and the automobile industry might work together most effectively; and the overall situation as the semiconductor industry sees it. The automobile system represents a stringent environmental requirement for semiconductor devices. Reliability-wise, the requirements are not too different from those of military- and space-use situations. The automobile system imposes on the semiconductor industry two diverging requirements. One is a rigorous level of device reliability and the other is a demandingly competitive price figure.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741218
Robert N. Noyce, William H. Davidow
Improvements in cost or performance of an order of magnitude are occurring in the technology available to make small computers. This is occurring both in the processing unit with the microprocessor, and in the memories supporting the processor. As cost/performance is improved, the computer can be dedicated to more mundane tasks, such as carburetor control, while already being used in traffic light control. This development, permitting the use of arbitrarily large amounts of intelligence at low cost makes electronics capable of performing control functions formerly done with mechanical or hydraulic systems.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741229
G. F. Villa
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741231
Robert F. Stoessel
THE SIXTH FORUM, held in conjunction with TRANSPO 72, was built around the theme “The Air Cargo System -- a Profitable Solution.” This Seventh Forum recognizes that air cargo is, in reality, “coming of age” and that it is timely to define precisely its position in the marketplace; hence, the theme: “Air Distribution -- Maturity in Marketing.” Some of the discussions at the Sixth Forum pertained to containerization, operating costs, rate structures, multi-modal movements, and to transport of cargo by contract and by private carriage. These categories are still applicable to our status today, despite the impact of the energy crisis and the resulting increases in the cost of aviation fuel and other petroleum products. Admittedly, there are a number of areas where there has been little or no progress since the last Forum -- and some of these will be mentioned. Nevertheless, the main thrust of this review will be to focus on the progress made in our industry during this two-year period.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741228
B. V. Vonderschmitt
To ensure cost-effectiveness, automotive industry solid-state device requirements, a small percentage of total U.S. consumption, will be met through custom designs using technologies applicable to non-automotive applications as well. N-MOS and complementary-MOS technologies with their cost and performance advantages and smaller size will prevail in digital signal processing; bipolar IC's plus IC's combining bipolar and MOS technologies on the same chip will be used for linear signal processing. Multiple-epitaxial structured silicon power devices will be used as actuator drivers. The reliability/cost equation will be solved by using buffered power sources to permit use of custom-designed low-voltage IC signal-processing circuits. Power devices having device characteristics that can withstand the high voltage transients will provide the interface between the low-level signal processing and actuator drivers.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741225
Takio Kitano
Through development and production of automotive electronics, we have faced various experiences and problems and set out requirments therefor. Now electric cars and traffic control systems are under development. JAPAN SAE and various industries are engaging actively to develop automotive electronics.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741224
Jerome G. Rivard
A brief evolutionary history is followed by a technical description of the current Bendix EFI system concepts. Application requirements are reviewed in relation to vehicle emissions, fuel economy and driveability. The advantages of feedback control are discussed with emphasis on the need for low-cost durable sensors. EFI is compared to the carburetor and other competitive systems in terms of cost, fuel control accuracy, and fuel economy. The current status of EFI electronic circuit technology and a projection of future generation designs are reviewed. System manufacturing considerations, including costs, are covered. Finally, the necessary application developments are reviewed, including the future potential of integrated electronic controls.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741227
E. McEwen
The historical and current state of the art on transducers have been very well covered in papers presented to SAE, in particular in a paper by Mr. R.B. Hood at the conference in February this year (740015). The opportunity is now taken to forecast the direction of further development and future usefulness of various types of transducers as seen through European eyes.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741226
Donn L. Williams
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741187
Charles K. Kroell, Dennis C. Schneider, Alan M. Nahum
Previous studies of human thoracic injury tolerance and mechanical response to blunt, midsternal, anteroposterior impact loading were reported by the authors at the 1970 SAE International Automobile Safety Conference and at the Fifteenth Stapp Car Crash Conference. The present paper documents additional studies from this continuing research program and provides an expansion and refinement of the data base established by the earlier work. Twenty-three additional unembalmed cadavers were tested using basically the same equipment and procedures reported previously, but for which new combinations of impactor mass and velocity were used in addition to supplementing other data already presented. Specifically, the 43 lb/11 mph (19.5 kg/4.9m/s) and 51 lb/16 mph (23.1 kg/7.2 m/s) conditions were intercrossed and data obtained at 43 lb/16 mph (19.5 kg/7.2 m/s) and 51 lb/11 mph (23.1 kg/4.9 m/s).
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741188
Raymond F. Neathery
The chest impact data of Kroell, et al., and Stalnaker, et al., were examined to determine the relationships that might exist between the physical characteristics of cadavers, impact conditions, and responses. It was found that while the Kroell male, Kroell female, and Stalnaker data had similar physical characteristics, their responses were not related to their physical characteristics and impact conditions in the same manner. Regression equations were found that fit the Kroell male data extremely well. Based on a regression analysis of the Kroell male data, scaling rules were developed that allowed performance requirements for chest response to be defined for 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile dummies. Previous response requirements were for 50th percentile dummies only and were based on averaged responses from subjects whose average characteristics differed widely from 50th percentile characteristics.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741189
Gerald W. Nyquist
Biomechanical guidelines for the development of an anthropometric dummy knee have been lacking. Quasi-static tests were performed on adult male volunteers and embalmed cadavers to define the force-penetration characteristics of the knee when loaded by a rigid, crushable foam of known crush properties. The test subject was seated erect with the thigh horizontal and lower leg unrestrained. Axial thigh (femur) force and knee penetration were recorded as a block of foam was pressed against the knee. The test was conducted incrementally with increasing peak load, and a new foam block was used for each increment. This enabled evaluation of the foam indent volume as a function of peak load. Pertinent anthropometric data are presented for each subject, and normal distribution theory is used to develop percentile scaling rules for the knee response. Loading corridors for biomechanically sound 50th percentile performance are suggested.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741190
W. R. Powell, S. H. Advani, R. N. Clark, S. J. Ojala, D. J. Holt
Longitudinal impact tests were conducted on the knees of four seated embalmed cadavers using an impact pendulum. Impact force and femur strain histories were recorded, and peak force at fracture was determined. The results show that femur stiffness (average = 3.29 MN) for impacts is nearly the same as for static loads. Peak fracture loads varied from 8731-11570 N, all above the fracture criterion proposed by King, Fan and Vargovick. Strain histories and fracture patterns suggest that bending effects play a major role in determining the response of embalmed cadaver femurs to longitudinal impact.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741183
H. Schimkat, R. Weissner, G. Schmidt
Abstract This paper describes the results of 13 tests simulating a frontal impact against a fixed barrier at 50 km/h and 25 g. The results showed a marked increase in the severity of injuries with increasing age and more frequent chest injuries than head and spinal injuries. The tests were made with two types of restraint systems, both of which seemed equal in occupant protection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741185
Harry J. Richter, R. L. Stalnaker, James E. Pugh
Since the airbag passive restraint system may be in general use in early 1976, and in fact is now an option on some automobiles, its potential biomedical hazards need to be thoroughly examined. Previous investigations in this area have been extermely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local slap pressure of airbag deployment against the external ear and tympanic membrane and to measure its effects on subsequent hearing acuity. Adult and infant squirrel monkeys were used as experimental subjects, because the gross structure of their ear and tympanic membrane closely resembles man's. To create an adequate simulation of the airbag trauma, a small airbag was fabricated and mounted on a pneumatic impact facility. This device was designed to produce a specific velocity to determine the behavior of objects under impact conditions simulating accident kinematics.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741184
Edwin Hendler, Joseph O'Rourke, Marvin Schulman, Mark Katzeff, Leon Domzalski, Stephen Rodgers
Human volunteers were exposed to increasing levels of sled acceleration and velocity during simulated barrier crashes while seated in a padded, bucket automobile seat and restrained by an advanced, passive, three-point belt which contained energy-absorbing fibers and was integral with the seat structure. By muscular tensing, bracing, and riding with the head flexed, two of the subjects were exposed to crash velocities as high as 30.0 mph (over 33 mph, total velocity change), without suffering significant pain or injury.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
741186
Stanley A. Shatsky, William A. Alter, Delbert E. Evans, Vernon W. Armbrustmacher, Kenneth M. Earle, Gary Clark
High speed cinefluorographic studies were performed on anesthetized primates during graded, experimental blunt impacts of the head or chest. Cineframe data were analyzed frame by frame to identify dynamic anatomic movement patterns during each injury. The results indicate that the brain and heart undergo significant displacements within the first few milliseconds (ms) post-impact and these transient interior motions were correlated with physiologic and pathologic changes as well as impact force and deceleration.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740011
C. Frank Wheatley
The field of integrated solid-state technology is most broad. In this paper, hybrid monolithic thin-film and thick-film technologies are discussed with emphasis on monolithic integrated circuits. Processing, component construction, characteristics and limitations of the components, and pertinent parasitic effects are described and illustrated. Packaging, thermal considerations, reliability, and cost are discussed as well.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740201
Dennis Lee Otto
Arrays of triangular asperities have been developed for surface treatment of rigid sealing members of either radial lip or face sealing systems. The arrays consist of multiplicities of closely spaced triangular asperities and can be varied in geometry to control the flow of lubricant within the lubricant film which separates the sealing members. The asperities are oriented so that the base of each triangle is parallel to the direction of seal travel. Lubricant flow is directed toward the apex of each triangular asperity. Asperities can be modified in shape to increase fluid film thickness. This technique provides control of seal leakage, temperature, and wear, the primary factors affecting seal performance.

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