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Viewing 169981 to 170010 of 191313
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690014
C. A. Hall, A. E. Felt, W. J. Brown
Single-cylinder engine studies show that severity of the test cycle used for deposit accumulation markedly affects the level of exhaust emissions obtained with stabilized combustion chamber deposits. These studies also show that the relative stabilized emission levels with nonleaded and leaded fuels vary significantly with the aromatic content of the base fuel. An extensive evaluation in three groups of passenger cars operated by their owners in normal service showed no significant difference between the stabilized emission levels obtained with commercial nonleaded and leaded fuels. A dynamometer engine test procedure has been developed that simulates short-trip, city-type operation. The accelerated cooldown procedure allows for rapid accumulation of test mileage. Using this dynamometer procedure, the stabilized deposit emission levels of a commercial leaded fuel and a prototype nonleaded fuel are compared.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690011
Douglas W. Taylor
In this paper hybrid integrated circuits are defined by comparing them with monolithic (single chip) IC’s and conventional discrete component circuits. Some of the currently popular hybrid IC construction techniques are reviewed. The utility of hybrid IC’s for automotive applications is discussed and this leads to consideration of some of the basic problems in applying electronics to automobiles.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690017
Alden J. Pahnke, James F. Conte
Two consumer-type vehicle tests to determine the effect of leaded and unleaded gasoline on exhaust emissions have been completed. One test involved 122 cars without exhaust control systems and the other, 36 cars with exhaust control systems. In both tests, hydrocarbon exhaust emissions of the leaded and unleaded cars increased during the initial period of mileage accumulation and then leveled out as equilibrium was reached. Average hydrocarbon emission levels of the leaded cars were higher than those of the unleaded cars with the difference or net lead effect amounting to 7% in both the 122-Carand the 36-Car tests. No significant differences in carbon monoxide or nitrogen oxide emission levels were observed. Photochemical reactivity levels were essentially the same for the leaded and unleaded car groups in the two tests. A limited study of the effect of mileage accumulation conditions on exhaust emission levels was carried out.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690012
M. V. Hoover
Advances in integrated-circuit technology are making practical new orders of magnitude in electronic equipment complexity, performance, and reliability. This paper describes design principles, fabrication techniques, and application considerations for monolithic integrated circuits, in which both active and passive components are formed upon or within a single semiconductor substrate.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690018
J. E. Nicholls, I. A. EI-Messiri, H. K. Newhali
Parallel theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of inlet manifold water injection on nitric oxide emission from spark ignition engines have been performed. Theoretical analysis based on chemical equilibrium calculations indicates that the reduction of combustion temperature due to water injection at rates comparable to the engine fuel consumption rate is sufficient to yield significant reductions in nitric oxide emissions. Theoretical results further show that water injection may be accompanied by increased volumetric efficiency due to evaporative cooling of the inlet charge during induction. Experimental results obtained through modification of a CFR test engine confirm the predicted effectiveness of water injection on nitric oxide control. For a water injection rate 1-1/4 times the engine fuel consumption rate, nitric oxide reductions of over 90%were achieved.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690015
J. C. Gagliardi, F. E. Ghannam
Effects of various concentrations of tetraethyl lead (TEL) on exhaust emissions were investigated. Eight Ford Galaxies equipped with production non-exhaust emission equipped 289-CID, 2-V engines were operated in customer service for 18,000 miles in the Detroit area. Four fuel blends were used in mileage accumulation — Indolene Clear (a full boiling range non-lead gasoline), Indolene 5 (Indolene Clear + 0.5 ml TEL/gallon in a motor mix blend*); Indolene 15 (Indolene Clear + 1.5 ml TEL/gallon in a motor mix blend), and Indolene 30 (Indolene Clear + 3.0 ml TEL/gallon in a motor mix blend). All engines were operated on the same petroleum base engine lubricant. Exhaust emissions were monitored at approximately 3,000 mile intervals using the CMVPCB** seven-mode procedure. Additional seven-mode tests were obtained on each engine after combustion chamber deposits were removed at the completion of the mileage accumulation phase.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690016
E. E. Weaver
Effects of four levels of tetraethyl lead (TEL) on the efficiency and life of a commercially available hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide catalyst were investigated. The four fuels used in mileage accumulation were the base Indolene with no added lead and blends containing respectively 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 ml TEL/gal. The vehicles were eight Fords equipped with 289-CID non-emission-controlled 2-V engines unmodified, except for a lean carburetor and the catalytic exhaust system. The eight vehicles were paired off, and each pair was operated on one of the four fuel blends. In each pair, a radial flow converter, which required no supplemental air, was located under the front seat in one vehicle and near the rear axle in the other vehicle. Exhaust emissions were monitored at approximately 3000-mile intervals during accumulation of 18,000 miles in customer-type service.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690041
Howard R. Ross, W. Robert Hamilton
A comparison of various land transportation systems, including rail rapid transit, automatically guided buses, manually controlled buses on private right-of-ways, conventional buses, and personal transit systems is made for small and medium sized cities. These systems are compared on the basis of cost of installation and operation as well as social factors. Some parametric cost data are presented for various parts of the overall transit systems as well as relative cost of each system for a range of patronage.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690040
Joseph C. Corradino
As federal funds have become available for analyzing transportation problems confronting urban areas, more communities have explored rapid transit as a vital element in a transportation system. These efforts have led smaller areas, with projected 1980 populations of less than 2,000,000 people, to the conclusion that Busways may be the answer to their traffic problems. A Busways system consists of a network of buses which circulate through residential communities for local pickup, then speed over reserved trunk lines to the focal point of the community, which in most instances is the central business district. It can provide fast, comfortable service. The system can be established quicker than most other high performance rapid transit systems and at one-half to one-tenth the cost. Because of these capabilities, Busways has become the rapid transit system of the future for intermediate-sized areas.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690039
W. S. Pickrell
Major airports throughout the world are faced with serious problems in the handling of passengers and their baggage, problems which are certain to increase with the anticipated increase in passenger traffic. One solution to these problems is a total airport system which incorporates high throughout capacity, reliability, and installation flexibility to satisfy specific requirements. Called the Telecar Baggage System, it sorts a high volume of baggage by carrier, flight, and destination; allows dispersed and remote check-in and claim of baggage; and has the ability to select, remove, or redirect an individual bag.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690045
Glenn B. Warren, John W. Bjerklie
A reciprocating engine with gas turbine type combustion at nearly constant pressure is being proposed for automotive application after an extensive design and computer analysis. It appears to have the expected advantages of 20–30% reduced fuel consumption and of almost complete elimination of undesirable exhaust elements leading to air pollution. It should operate well on a wide range of fuels without regard to octane or cetane number and, hence, would need to have no lead in the fuel. It should weigh little, if any, more per unit of maximum output in the supercharged condition, and it can be manufactured largely on the present tooling of the automotive industry. The overall engine envelope seems to present no problems for modern low profile motor cars. It should serve well in various numbers of cylinders and sizes throughout the present range of automotive requirements.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690038
Eugene T. Canty, Albert J. Sobey
General Motors Research Laboratories has recently completed an Implementation Study of New Systems of Urban Transportation for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. This has included the study of improved methods for the design, analysis, and socio-economic evaluation of new systems of urban transportation by means of which comprehensive planning of transportation may be achieved, taking into account user needs, urban planning goals and overall social objectives. The study has also included the conduct of seven case studies, each of a selected new system concept in a particular urban transportation application. This paper describes the results of the seven case studies which apply a broad range of technology to some of the more urgent transportation requirements in certain American cities.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690044
J. W. Bjerklie, B. Sternlicht
The paper deals with reciprocating and rotary Rankine cycle engines using steam and organic fluids. It compares these theoretical engines to the present existing Otto cycle. The comparison considers size, torque, economy, emissions, response, maintenance, and reliability. Advantages and disadvantages of the various power systems are discussed and problem areas are identified.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690043
Samuel S. Miner
Lower emission characteristics of external combustion engines, compared to internal combustion engines, have brought on renewed interest in the use of steam power in automobiles. The values for the performance and economy of automotive steam engines are comparable with the corresponding values for conventional automotive I. C. engines.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690042
K. Philip Rahbany
The readiness with which a transportation mode can be cashed-in (liquidity of transportation) is a critical aspect of demand for transportation and therefore the design of transportation systems. This factor as well as the use of transport vehicles for nontransport functions and expanded public sector participation in determining consumer preferences are significant influences on present and future transportation.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690032
Charles A. Amann, David W. Dawson
In a free-shaft gas turbine engine the static efficiency is a more realistic figure of merit for the power turbine than the frequently used total efficiency. The influence on these two efficiencies of design work coefficient and flow coefficient is examined. The effect of an annular diffuser located behind the power turbine for partial recovery of the otherwise-unavailable kinetic energy is discussed, both at design and off-design operating conditions. Test results from power turbines and exhaust diffusers serve to illustrate the application of some of the concepts considered.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690031
Christian J. Rahnke
In gas turbine vehicular applications, a power turbine with a variable-position nozzle results in several operating advantages. These advantages, as well as the design considerations of a variable nozzle power turbine are described. Test results are presented and discussed for two different variable-nozzle power turbine configurations. The first configuration consisted only of the nozzles and rotor while the second configuration included both the turbine stage and its associated ducting.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690029
Alan Herman
In recent years the phenomenal growth in the number of research submersibles has given rise to the need for research into trainers for submersible pilots and scientific observers similar to those used by aviators in Link-type trainers. This paper presents the design approach being taken by the NAV-TRADEVCEN in building a device which will be used as a research tool for future trainers. The system which includes a vehicle that moves in a tank of water containing bathymetric models is described. Details of a sophisticated optical system which is used to scale the view realistically as seen through an underwater TV and an optical port are presented. How the vehicle is provided with 6 deg of freedom of motion and is navigated using simulated sonar guidance systems and other instrumentation standard on Alvin-type submersibles is discussed.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690037
David N. Goss, Daryl J. Rinehart
A new approach is persented for analyzing the interrelationships among transportation technology, place, and people in major urban activity centers. Such a comprehensive approach is necessary in order for transportation system designers to understand the importance of developing transportation concepts with design characteristics that are responsive to urban travel needs and compatible with existing or proposed land-use environments. In addition, examples of current transportation system deficiencies in downtown areas are presented to stimulate an awareness among system designers of the role of transportation in achieving a viable downtown area and the types of system characteristics that must be implemented to achieve this viability.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690036
Homer J. Wood, William A. Bass
Two nondimensional parameters are used to describe relative sizes of regenerative heat exchangers, regardless of type or surface characteristics. These are: and They are related to gas turbine cycle factors to demonstrate that, for fixed bsfc goals, heat exchanger matrix sizes are very sensitive to turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio, and flow path efficiency. Methods for optimizing engine cycles to minimize the sizing factors are described. A general trend toward higher pressure ratios in future recuperative gas turbines is indicated.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690059
R. C. Burck
Cast solid urethane elastomers can be formulated to vary some properties. The injection molding grade urethanes can be blended with other plastic resins to lower cost and to modify properties. There is now a trend toward custom formulation for specific end use applications. Microcellular urethane elastomers combine the “toughness” of solid urethanes with the advantages of a cellular structure. This material performs as a self-compensating bumper. It responds gently to light loads but firms up under heavy loads. Microcellular elastomers are now used commercially in a number of automotive applications such as auxiliary springs, under-car bumpers, vibration dampeners and seals.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690060
William R. White
Sandwich structures provide high stiffness at low weight and the use of polyurethane foam core has provided a versatile material for some time. Polyurethane duromer is the name of a new material which can produce a strong structural sandwich composite molding with integral solid urethane skins and a microporous core. Skins and core are produced simultaneously in a single operation from identical raw materials. The process is similar to injection molding, at relatively lower costs. These factors may provide the impetus to efforts directed toward making automotive body panels of plastic in economical mass production.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690062
V. R. Degner, W. W. Velie
This paper summarizes an internally funded program to develop a self-contained externally fired Rankine cycle power system capable of silent operation in a tactical combat environment. System working fluid considerations, including ultimate application requirements, materials compatibility, thermal stability, lubricating properties, and thermodynamic characteristics, led to the selection of monoisopropylbiphenyl primarily because of its low melting temperature. Over 400 hr of testing, conducted on this self-contained system to assess the noise and performance characteristics under a range of ambient conditions, are reported. These test results establish the basis for applying this concept of dynamic power generation to a relatively wide range of future military requirements.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690056
J. J. Lawser
The practicability of specific hole sizes is known to be influenced by power tool dynamics, material characteristics, finishes, and screw type. Less attention has been paid to resulting internal thread geometry. Historically the engineer controlled tapped hole thread geometry by appropriate thread form specifications. The advent of thread-forming screws has seriously limited his direct knowledge of internal thread geometry. This paper derives the important geometrical parameters for internal threads produced by thread-forming screws. Equations relate internal thread geometry to external thread form and hole size. Without complete standards for thread-forming screws, the technique is illustrated for a Type C and a sharp crested nonstandard thread form. Percent thread and percent volume filled between threads are given by charts.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690057
H. W. Ellison, G. L. Van Ermen
One of the functions of the Fastener Technical Section at GM Engineering Staff is to investigate the basic variables which affect fastener torque-tension relationships. The primary tool used for these investigations is the FTS Torque-Tension Test Machine. This machine has the capability of applying and measuring the torque to tighten, the resulting tension, the shank torque in the bolt, the number of degrees of rotation, and driver speed and air line pressure. In typical torque-tension testing, the tension in the fastener, the total tightening torque, and the torque in the bolt shank are measured using strain gaged load cells. In order to minimize test, and particularly, data reduction and analysis time, a computerized recording system is used. As a test is run, electrical signals from the load cells are stored and then automatically read into an IBM 1800 computer.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690051
R. M. Grant, G. M. Brown
Holographic interferometry -- a unique and versatile new method of nondestructive testing (HNDT) -- is now available for industrial design and quality-control purposes. Coherent laser light is used in recording and reconstructing three-dimensional images and interference fringe patterns. HNDT can quickly, accurately, and reliably detect hidden flaws in tires, rubber-to-metal bonds, metal-to-metal bonds, and other objects of interest to automotive engineers responsible for design and testing. Through mild stressing (heat, pressure, creep, vacuum, vibration, etc.) of the test object, well below its elastic limit, subsurface anomalies are manifested in the form of minute surface displacements. These displacements, as small as a few microinches, are easily apparent in holographic interferograms, clearly indicating the location, size, and shape of a variety of common anomalies.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690052
Russell G. Whittemore
A typical electrically heated, tempered backlight is described and its merits listed. Design criteria including line or stripe spacing, width, and location, together with bus construction and electrical reinforcement are discussed. Defogging and deicing capabilities are reviewed. Variations in power output with ambient temperature are particularly noted. This new product appeared on some 1968 American automobiles as an option, and on additional 1969 models. It is an important contribution to safety because of improved visibility to the rear.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690053
David R. Grove
The development of a windshield antenna for automobiles is discussed. A review of the program since 1957 is presented, then the author describes various problems encountered in constructing an acceptable windshield antenna.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690054
William J. Evans
Resistance spot welding, projection welding, and drawn arc stud welding, are discussed as processes for the attachment of welded fasteners. Recent development work in the drawn arc stud welding process is emphasized. The drawn arc stud welding process offers the greatest flexibility of fastener design with minimal heat affected zone problems.
1969-02-01
Technical Paper
690046
Sotiris S. Kitrilakis, Edward F. Doyle
Three steam engine driven prototype portable generator sets ranging in power from 100 W (e) to 1500 W (e) are described. To a large extent, these sets have demonstrated the potential capability of the Rankine cycle for low noise, low exhaust emissions, high reliability, acceptable efficiency, and multi-fuel operation. Design criteria used in the development of these units and their general applicability to reciprocating Rankine cycle systems are discussed. Recent developments make this power cycle attractive for commercial applications in present sizes as well as in scaled-up versions.

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