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Viewing 169981 to 170010 of 187829
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660341
W. A. Herbst
This paper reviews available information on the fuel and lubricant requirements of vehicular size gas turbine engines to highlight important quality aspects and indicate potential trouble spots. The indications are that the hydrogen content, boiling range, and viscosity of the fuel are important parameters related to carbon deposition, flame luminosity, and spray characteristics. These turbine engines perform well on available petroleum base lubricating oils of good oxidation resistance and antiwear characteristics. Special fuels and lubricants can be provided for the automotive turbine, if necessary. However, their distribution and handling costs will be high. There will thus be a strong price incentive to use currently available products wherever possible.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660339
George R. Norman
Through proper treatment of diesel fuel, using a barium containing additive, exhaust smoke can be effectively suppressed in a wide variety of diesel engines. This additive has been found to produce no adverse effects on engine components and often results in additional benefits, including greater engine cleanliness and piston ring wear reduction.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660404
Marvin W. Jackson
The effects of air-fuel ratio, spark timing, an engine modification system, and the Air Injection Reactor System on the composition and reactivity of the exhaust hydrocarbons are reported. The reactivity index and composition changes are compared to those indicated by the nondispersive infrared analyzer. Either retarding the spark timing or leaning the air-fuel ratio reduced the hydrocarbon concentration measured by the infrared analyzer. In contrast, the reactivity index increased as the spark timing was retarded and the decrease in the reactivity index due to leaning the air-fuel ratio was only 1/2 the decrease in the concentration measured by the infrared analyzer. For equal reductions in the concentration measured by the infrared analyzer, the reactivity index with the engine modification system was 37% higher than that with the Air Injection Reactor System.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660340
Richard L. Keinath, Herbert G. Sood, William J. Polkinghorne
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660403
Walter J. Uchwal
Many assembly methods have never been mechanized or automated until recently. Automated operations in the differential and carrier assembly line recently installed at the Ford Motor Co. Sterling Plant are: automatic gaging for proper bearing preload; automatic check of pinion torque; automatic run-out and freeness of pinion and universal joint assembly; combination station to feed out the differential pinion shaft, press it into the case, feed and drive in the roll pin; automatic bolt inspection; automated bolt feed into case and run down to proper torque; and automatic removal of doweled bearing cap.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660406
R. F. Stebar, M. J. Cianciolo, F. M. Ward, D. A. Brownson
The tedious, time consuming task of hand reducing data from the California exhaust emission test has been alleviated through the use of digital data acquisition equipment and a digital computer. Analog signals from exhaust gas analyzers and an engine speed transducer are converted to digital measurements which are recorded on tape and submitted to a digital computer for data analysis and computation of results. In the data analysis, the computer identifies the required driving modes from engine speed changes, taking into account the sample delay time. “Reported” composite emissions determined by the automatic data reduction method agree within 5% with results determined by careful hand analysis of analog strip chart recordings. The results determined by the automatic data reduction system are more consistent and accurate because human errors prevalent in hand analysis have been eliminated, and because nonlinear analyzer response is accounted for.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660408
G. D. Ebersole, L. A. McReynolds
Practical and simple procedures have been developed to reliably estimate the quantity and reactivity of automobile carburetor and gasoline tank evaporative emissions. These methods along with previously developed exhaust hydrocarbon emission procedures have been used to determine the effects of fuel volatility on the quantity and smog forming potential, that is, weight of emissions multiplied by reactivity, of automobile total hydrocarbon emissions. Results on two different 1965 automobiles operated under average conditions showed that increasing fuel volatility decreased the smog forming potential of the total emissions from both automobiles.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660405
T. A. Huls, P. S. Myers, O. A. Uyehara
The purpose of the tests conducted on a single-cylinder laboratory engine was to determine the mechanism of combustion that affect exhaust emissions and the relationship of those mechanisms to engine design and operating variables. For the engine used in this study, the exhaust emissions were found to have the following dependence on various engine variables. Hydrocarbon emission was reduced by lean operation, increased manifold pressure, retarded spark, increased exhaust temperature, increased coolant temperature, increased exhaust back pressure, and decreased compression ratio. Carbon monoxide emission was affected by air-fuel ratio and premixing the charge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO + NO2 is called NOx) emission is primarily a function of the O2 available and the peak temperature attained during the cycle. Decreased manifold pressure and retarded spark decrease NOx emission. Hydrocarbons were found to react to some extent in the exhaust port and exhaust system.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660407
H. L. Muller, R. E. Kay, T. O. Wagner
The amount of vapors lost from an automobile fuel system is determined from changes in density of the gasoline as it weathers. The composition of the vapors lost is calculated from the initial composition of the fuel by simple distillation theory. The techniques are simple, precise, and generally applicable.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660411
R. T. Eddy, R. A. Wilson
Load sensing brake proportioning is a means of optimizing the ratio of front-to-rear wheel retarding forces for the full range of vehicle loadings and decelerations. A relatively simple system of providing two-axled vehicles with improved brake balance has been developed. Simulation studies of vehicle brake system requirements, effects of a pressure regulating device used to implement these requirements, and the resulting improvements are compared in actual tests of vehicle and hardware.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660410
M. Alperstein, R. L. Bradow
Techniques are described for determining the chemical nature of the end gas in a normally fired CFR Otto cycle engine. Apparatus for obtaining and chromatographically analyzing representative end-gas samples is described, and its utility illustrated using isooctane as a fuel. Twenty-seven carbon containing slow combustion products were identified before flame arrival; these consist principally of olefins, ring ethers, carbonyls, CO, and CO2. Product formation is shown to increase with increasing pressure and temperature stress and to be inhibited by octane number appreciating additives. Distinct product formation trends from the slow combustion of isooctane were observed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660390
Walter H. Korff
A major consideration for world land speed record automobiles is the influence of aerodynamic design on traction, stability, and speed. The features of the successful Goldenrod are described through preliminary design, wind tunnel testing, modifications, performance calculations, and vehicle tests on the Bonneville Salt Flats. These features include lowest minimum drag coefficient (0.1165); download (negative lift) from the shape of the basic body alone; and high-speed stability without the addition of horizontal or vertical fins, spoilers, or weight (ballast). Design requirements were achieved by the model in wind tunnel tests and the car performed as predicted by these tests, setting a new world record in third gear. The Goldenrod appears to have sufficient potential to also challenge the world speed record for piston engined aircraft.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660389
William D. Bowman
A set of empirical equations are offered which define the variation of aerodynamic coefficients with yaw angle for sedan type automobile bodies. These are derived from wind tunnel tests on 3/8 size models of 21 automobile body forms, of which 17 were production car specimens. The results show that while body form and features exert decisive influence on numerical values of force and moment coefficients, their mode of variation with yaw angle is independent of body shape and size.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660395
B. C. Vandermar, G. A. Ilkka
Effective performance of functional automotive components requires fluid sealing under compatible conditions. One method of determining this compatibility is through the use of immersion testing under a variety of conditions that simulate those experienced in actual use. By measuring the changes in the physical properties of the seal materials after immersion a judgment can be made regarding seal/fluid compatibility which will be encountered later in actual use. A series of immersion tests using representative seal materials and automotive fluids; namely, gear oils, transmission fluids, and motor oils were conducted within the framework of the Technical Committee on Automotive Rubber, jointly sponsored by SAE-ASTM.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660393
H. D. Harms
Late in 1965, Caterpillar introduced its 1676, a 340 hp diesel truck engine of completely new design. Construction details of this compact engine which features turbocharging, aftercooling, and four valves per cylinder are illustrated and described. Development problems and performance of the production engine are also presented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660397
M. C. Goodwin, J. J. Rodgers, G. A. Peters
Tests were conducted using older model cars with automatic transmissions to determine the effect of fluid composition on leakage past the rotating shaft seals. It was found that seal leakage was reduced or stopped by changing to seal-swelling fluids, and increased with seal-shrinking fluids. Leakage was also reduced by adding aromatic additives to existing fluids in the transmissions. Seal volume and hardness change results from bench tests support the car data.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660396
G. A. Peters, J. J. Rodgers
The Total Immersion Test (ASTM D 471) for seal elastomers, used in evaluating the compatibility of fluids and seals for automatic transmissions, does not, produce hardness and volume change results similar to those found for rotating shaft seals in service. The Tip Cycle Test was devised to provide better agreement with service results. In the test, one side of the seal is exposed to air, and the other alternately to fluid and to air-fluid vapor. Rotating shaft seals were evaluated in both car and dynamometer transmission tests, and in various bench tests. Agreement was poor between transmission tests and both the Total Immersion and the Dip Cycle Tests. Good agreement was found with the Tip Cycle Test.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660402
R. W. Laile
This paper describes four integrated, index type, parallel lines with intermixed manual and automatic operations used at Pontiac Motor Division to assemble rear axle differentials. Automatic pinion bearing preloading, gaging of pinion cone distance, gaging of side bearing shims, heating of ring gear bore, spreading of carrier, and on the line testing are the main features of this machine. Quality has improved through automatic gaging and the ability to perform automatic operations while the parts are stationary. Significant manpower reductions have been made possible with this automated assembly, which has a production gross of 270 assemblies per hour.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660401
J. Earl Fraser
This paper describes the role a manufacturers representative can play in the automotive industry. It defines a manufacturers representation, details his responsibilities, explains how he can help to sell a product, and gives examples of how his expertise stands him in good stead as a trouble-shooter.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660455
J. E. Erbs, R. R. Stickling
During the F-1 rocket engine program, turbine exhaust gases have been successfully used to film cool large thrust chamber nozzle extensions. This design concept provides the engine with a detachable nozzle of low weight, simple construction, and a service life equivalent to that of the basic engine. Several nozzle extension concepts are reviewed, and a comparison is made in terms of operational advantages and engine application as defined by required nozzle geometry, heat flux, and available coolant. The particular application for which the gas-cooled concept is the most desirable engineering choice is discussed in detail. Experimental data obtained during development are presented, with particular emphasis given to thermal analysis considerations. The correlation observed between predicted and measured temperatures is also discussed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660473
Wolfgang Lang
The turbocharged engine, by operating at intake and discharge conditions several times higher than atmospheric pressure, is capable of increasing its specific output to several times that of its naturally aspirated version, and at better fuel economy. Successful integration of the turbocharger requires recognition of the interrelation and interaction of both reciprocating and turbo machines and changes in their performance characteristics. This paper discusses the relation of intake manifold pressure to engine load and speed as a function of turbocharger performance, and methods of improving performance of the engine at part speed without excessive overboosting at rated speed.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660536
J. L. Fulton
This paper compares the performance of seat belts and shoulder Harnesses in high-performance vehicles used in hazardous traffic assignments by the Los Angeles Police Department. Results are positive in favor of the harness, and support the predictions of effectiveness reported in the many research and test projects concerned with restraining devices. Also discussed are the steps taken in the design and field testing of vehicle occupant “packaging.” A basic question is raised: Can or will the harness replace the seat belt in the near future?
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660544
J. C. Ingamells, R. K. Stone, N. H. Gerber, G. H. Unzelman
Octane number requirement studies were made with eight late-model passenger cars to evaluate effects of temperature, humidity, and altitude. Primary reference fuels and 1965 CRC full-boiling reference fuels were used. Temperature and humidity tests were made on a chassis dynamometer at sea level, while effect of barometric pressure was studied on the road at altitudes up to 6000 ft. Regression analysis was used to study the correlation between changes in octane number requirement and changes in temperature and humidity. These correlations were linear and varied among the cars. The average changes in ONR were somewhat smaller, but in fair agreement with those reported in the literature. The altitude effect also varied among cars tested and was generally nonlinear. On the average, the effect of barometric pressure from sea level to 3000 ft was smaller than concluded from earlier studies; from 3000-6000 ft, the pressure effect was larger.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660546
G. C. Hass, M. P. Sweeney, J. N. Pattison
A study of driving conditions in the central Los Angeles area has led to the formulation of a new chassis dynamometer test cycle for exhaust emissions testing. A single vehicle was used to develop a street route representing a variety of morning peak hour commute trips. A cycle was then compared against the street route with seven vehicles of varying size to assess the validity of the cycle in terms of mode pattern and exhaust emissions.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660548
Miles L. Brubacher
The California legislature, engine manufacturers, fleet operators, and enforcement agencies have pursued an active program of diesel smoke reduction since 1939. This program has resulted in creditably low smoke levels. While diesels do not contribute substantially to total community air pollution problems, the public complains about the bad appearance of diesel smoke. There are many fruitful approaches for fleet operators to reduce diesel smoke, including more strict maintenance, fuel additive, driver indoctrination, and engine derating. Fleets in the Los Angeles area have achieved excellent smoke reduction by these methods and, at the same time, maintain clean, first-class, economical operations. Two of these fleets are analyzed in this report.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660412
A. R. Spencer, W. M. Spurgeon, J. L. Winge
Automotive brake lining is a complex composite of organic resin binder, asbestos fiber reinforcement, and friction modifying fillers. Laboratory and vehicle tests used to select and qualify specific formulations are time consuming and not generally suitable for quality control. A new integrated system of tests is therefore proposed. The tests are X-ray radiography and optical resinography for structural definition; thermal analysis for chemical composition and state of cure; and a short sliding friction (drag) test utilizing the widely available SAE J661 friction materials test machine. The tests are described in detail and typical results are presented.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660413
Charles E. Cooney
Procedures for designing and evaluating a tandem truck driveline are presented here in a form that requires only basic algebra and trigonometry for using the graphs, illustrations, and tables. Phasing of a two joint driveline with the joints in two different planes, angular velocity relationship, and prediction of universal joint bearing life are all expressed in simple equations. Important design considerations are presented for the spline, tube and cross. Stress formulas and fatigue curves that provide technical assistance to a designer for these components are illustrated and explained.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660415
John R. Young
Slip (or axial length change) is almost required where universal joints are used to transmit power. Universal joints permit angular or offset misalignment while transmitting torque between power source and power user. Truck drive trains may use universal joints to connect any or all components between the engines, transmissions, auxiliary transmissions, transfer cases, axles, or axle wheels. Length variations during operation may be intentional for design function or unavoidable. These relative movements in trucks are generally allowed by a sliding section in the driveline. This paper will discuss prevalent conditions, current state-of-the-art, and what may be in the offing for the future.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660431
Theodore J. Budzynski, Robert J. Parker
This paper analyzes present-day heavy truck steering systems to provide a basis upon which to continue improvements. The discussion includes areas which mechanically and physiologically affect steering efforts and structural loads. Consideration is given to steering geometry, component design parameters, and human factors influential in the steering acceptability of a vehicle. This analysis is based on actual vehicle test data and a literature survey of related anthropometry.
1966-02-01
Technical Paper
660434
R. C. Petersburg
The Cord Sportsman Model 810 is a unique concept in the automotive industry. It is the restoration of a classic design but utilizes modern materials. Its Royalex body provides advantages such as reduced weight, durability, corrosion resistance, and low cost tooling. The latter makes the production of this low volume production automobile feasible.

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