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Viewing 169981 to 170010 of 188744
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670883
L. J. Onewein
The Boeing SST design incorporates a variable-geometry wing. Some of the wing-pivot-joint and actuation-system configurations considered during the development of the SST variable-geometry design are discussed herein. In addition, the selected SST design is described, and detailed maintainability and maintenance requirements are reviewed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670884
G. C. Newell, F. E. Marsh
The United States SST must be capable of equaling or exceeding the reliability of today's subsonic jets to be profitable in scheduled revenue passenger service. This paper describes reliability aspects of the wing-sweep actuation system for the Boeing SST in terms of (a) the hardware interfaces, functional purposes, and basic design concepts; (b) the basic requirements and design criteria established by Federal Air Regulations, Tentative Airworthiness Standards, FAA-established numeric goals, and Boeing-evaluated airline economic goals; and (c) reliability analyses relating the hardware design to specific requirements.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670889
A. G. Tokarcik
A wide range of threaded fasteners for structural applications is available to fulfill the ever-increasing demands of the aerospace industry. Each of the basic designs was developed to fulfill a need and, consequently, possesses certain characteristic features defining that need such as extended fatigue performance, superior notch toughness, exceptional corrosion resistance, and new wrenching configuration. These characteristic features, in combination with the dimensional and mechanical property characteristics, define a product having a potential performance capability. The objective is to define the basic parameters considered mandatory for utilizing this performance capability in a structure.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670891
M. J. Church
Aircraft and accessory builders can cut airline operating costs by more careful selection of fasteners and fastening methods. Fastener performance, reliability, standardization, availability, ease-of-use, interchangeability, tooling, corrosion control, safety, re-useability, and identification are all important factors that must be considered. For optimum cost performance, keep fastener designs simple and “standardize on the best.”
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670894
Bruce W. Pince
A physical model capable of credible simulation of human trauma is badly needed in automobile safety research. Development of such a model has been limited, not only by lack of biological and engineering data, but by lack of a coherent, sequential plan of attack on the problem. Such a plan, based upon the systems approach, is offered. The plan has two major phases. The first phase includes qualitative analysis, hypothetic modelling, and program planning; the second provides for emperic research, system modlling, and design, fabrication, and test of a physical model.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670895
R. J. Melosh, D. M. Kelley
The potential for rapid and precise predictions of car crash response lies in recent developments of computer-augmented structural analysis techniques. The essential step required is to develop and validate a mathematical and numerical simulation. This step is impeded by the complexity of the car structure and equation solution, the extensive calculations, and inadequacies in basic data. Test data indicate that no major technical advances are required. An economical analysis capability could be developed in less than 6 months.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670982
B. B. Turner
The Environmental Control System of the SST must keep the passengers safe and comfortable under all operating conditions. This requires not only an excellent system design, but a system that can be maintained and operated by typical airline personnel under all airline conditions of time and place. The airlines are working toward these objectives with the airframe manufacturer through SST specialist teams composed of engineering personnel from the airlines purchasing the 2707 or the Concorde. This paper discusses the objectives and considerations of the Environmental Control System specialist team in working toward minimizing the airlines problems on the SST.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670968
Thomas R. Wheaton
The free turbine type of gas turbine engine, because of its light weight, compactness, and inherent torque characteristics, permits the design of a new type of passenger train with light weight, high performance, and good economy. Conversely, the inherent advantages of the turbine can be realized only in a vehicle designed as a system. The United Aircraft TurboTrain is such a system design. In addition to turbine powerplants, it incorporates high strength lightweight structure, a lightweight banking suspension system, aerodynamic streamlining, and modern conveniences.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670963
W. A. Cox, J. K. Lock
In Western Europe, there is a large and growing number of diesel engines used in commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors, and industrial and marine applications. The paper reviews these engines and their lubricant requirements. Consideration is given to the relevance of internationally ac -cepted lubricant specifications in fulfilling these requirements and the inadequacies of these specifications are discussed. An attempt is made to forecast future trends in lubricant quality.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670966
George C. Best
Development of a 600 hp twin-shaft gas turbine with plate-fin recuperators has been proceeding successfully through the component and engine factory test phases. Since there has been no prior field experience with this type of engine, the need for prototype engine operation in representative installations is greater than usual. Experience to date with the design, assembly, and initial operation of the turbine in Army experimental tracked vehicles, a minesweeper, and a highway tractor are described.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670984
R. Trebosc
Discussed are the followed components of the Concorde's air conditioning system: dual pressure reduction/shutoff valve, mass flow control valve, primary heat exchanger bypass temperature control loop, cold air unit, temperature control valve, water extractor, and water extractor actuator controller. Functional and mechanical descriptions are given for each. The system is basically a bootstrap air cycle in which fuel and ram air cooling are provided in the intercooler loop.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670922
Richard G. Snyder, Joseph W. Young, Clyde C. Snow
Both the inverted-Y yoke torso harness with inertia reel and the air bag restraint system have had extensive independent development for some time by several engineering and research organizations for both aviation and ground vehicle occupant protection. The research reported in this paper consists of the first biomechanical primate evaluation of these concepts as experimentally adapted for possible automotive use. These tests are a continuation of a study involving the relative impact protection and effectiveness of major restraint systems utilized in general aviation aircraft and in limited automotive use. The objective of this test series was to determine how much protection those advanced restraint concepts provided; to obtain preliminary biomechanical and physiological data; to identify problems of technique and applications in occupant protection; and to provide an initial basis for direction of future test requirements.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670923
V. R. Hodgson, E. S. Gurdjian, L. M. Thomas
Experiments have revealed that the brain of the experimental animal behaves elastically in response to dynamic forces in situ. The response of the skull of the human cadaver has been investigated by means of static load-deflection tests and impact and mechanical impedance tests. This information has been used to construct a two-dimensional head model consisting of a polyester resin shell reinforced with fiberglas with plexiglass sides; a clear silicone gel brain; and spinal cord simulated by a plexiglass tube containing silicone gel supported by a piston-spring assembly. Several frames taken from motion pictures recorded at 7,000 frames/sec. show how pressure gradients in the model are displayed by observing the growth and location of bubbles during impact.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670933
Wesley R. Master
This paper discusses hydrostatic drives for heavy duty trucks. These have been employed on auxiliaries such as cranes, transit mixers, and winches on a production basis for several years, and they are now moving into the drive area. Typical among these would be front wheels, rear wheels, utilizing both powered axles and powered wheels. This paper discusses these drives, both fixed and steerable, and makes some comparison between the powered wheel and the powered axle. Some typical components and circuits are discussed and the future of this drive is outlined.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670936
Walter Cornelius, Donald L. Stivender, Robert E. Sullivan
The combustion system developed for the General Motors GT-309 regenerative gas turbine is used to illustrate pertinent structural, performance, and exhaust emission considerations when designing for a vehicular gas turbine application. The development of each major component and the performance of the combustion system as a whole are reviewed. The satisfactory performance and durability potential of the GT-309 engine combustion system have been demonstrated by extensive operation in a component test facility and in several test cell and vehicle installed engines. Exhaust emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are minimal and are of no concern from an air pollution standpoint. No objectionable exhaust smoking and odor are produced.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670926
G. Anthony Ryan
The findings of a study of urban injury-producing traffic accidents in Adelaide, South Australia have been compared with the findings of a study of rural, injury-producing highway accidents in the U.S.A. The rural accidents had more front impacts, higher impact speeds, and more severe damage to the cars involved, than the urban accidents. In the rural accidents car occupants were injured more often and more severely than in the urban accidents. The head and lower limbs were injured most frequently in both groups of accidents. In urban accidents the door was the chief cause of injury to all body areas except the leg, due to the large number of side impacts. In rural accidents the windshield, steering wheel, instrument panel and ejection were the chief causes of injury. It is concluded that the differences between the two broad groups of accidents - urban and rural - must be considered when methods of alleviating injuries are being designed into the automobile.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670930
F. Zacharias
This paper deals with mathematical equations for compressibility factor, enthalpy, and entropy of real combustion gases. These equations are approximated representations of the thermodynamic properties of burned gases, including low and high temperature behavior and hence the effects of molecular forces and dissociation. A suitable system in FORTRAN based on the equations, is programmed to resemble a series of charts for burned mixtures so that the same variety of data can be obtained much faster than by manual calculation.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670955
Peter J. Collet
A 3-shaft cycle turbine with a twin-spool compressor system is compared to a 2-shaft cycle with a variable geometry power turbine. Operating in a heavy commercial vehicle, the following engine parameters are considered: specific output power, fuel consumption, engine response, torque characteristics, and engine braking capability. The 3-shaft cycle showed an average improvement of 5% in sfc, a stall torque ratioof 3.8 versus 2.65 for the 2-shaft cycle, a potential increase in engine braking capability, and engine response consistent with the 2-shaft cycle.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670962
J. G. Brandes
One experimental and twelve commercial diesel crank-case oils of various industry-accepted performance levels were evaluated in highway truck and city coach service. The oil performance parameters evaluated showed that SAE-30, M1L-L-2104B lubricants, as a family of commercial oils, gave better performance than MIL-L-2104A, Supplement 1, Series 3 or multigrade products. Multigrade oils gave very poor performance in both service applications. The results of these two related programs influenced the engine manufacturers’ decision to recommend MIL-L-2104B oils.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670939
Harvey Siegel, W. E. Partridge
Piston ring wear studies using an automotive engine and a radioactive wear measurement technique are presented to show the effects of compression ring face metallurgy and general lubricant composition on corrosive wear control. These results are correlated with those obtained in a single-cylinder laboratory engine. Results show that lubricant com-position is not critical respecting corrosion when chromium plated and molybdenum-filled compression rings are used, but is critical when plain cast iron rings are used. Although wear for the molybdenum rings may be slightly higher than that for chromium rings, no service problems are anticipated.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670945
R. C. Williamson, J. A. Russell
The analysis of exhaust gas is becoming an increasingly important tool in determination of the performance of high temperature combustion systems. Previous methods involving the collection of gas samples in sampling tubes, followed by subsequent laboratory analysis, have been laborious and time consuming. A new on-line gas analysis system has been put into service, which makes a complete analysis every 30 sec directly at the test site. The system involves the use of five process gas chromatographs to measure oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen, plus a hydrocarbon analyzer to determine unburned hydrocarbons. These measurements in conjunction with other operating data permit the calculation of overall combustor performance, as well as identification of local point-by-point conditions at the combustor exit.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670686
L. B. Veno
Abstract The different features and characteristics of seven varieties of VTOL aircraft are defined and discussed. Basically, the future for all VTOL vehicles hinges on the recognition of the need to select the proper type for a specific role. Particular areas discussed are lift efficiency, cruise efficiency, maximum speed and range, and hovering capability. The author notes that both speed and vertical or near-vertical capability are desirable features which bear a price. Compounding the two, he predicts very high cost for a highspeed VTOL. Thus the development of the low-speed helicopter necessarily emerged first. Although the evolution of VTOL vehicles has been slow and difficult, progress continues toward the original goal of a safer more effective vehicle for transportation through the air.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670687
Shoichiro Toyoda, Keitaro Nakajima, Tadahide Toda
Abstract This paper deals with some fundamental research on control of exhaust emissions from automotive engines, with particular reference to the Toyota manifold air injection system developed for the 1968 Toyota vehicle model. The influence of engine variables on exhaust emissions has been investigated under various operating conditions, such as idling, deceleration, and road load. Although some design aids involving engine modification for emission control were devised, the limited time schedule afforded for the necessary development work led to the adoption of a manifold air injection system for the 1968 Toyota model. Its characteristic features and some technical problems experienced during development are described in this paper.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670685
W. E. Adams, R. V. Kerley
Spark-ignition and compression-ignition piston engines are currently undergoing intense examination as energy conversion devices. Much of this attention has been focused on the contribution of these conventional engines to the air pollution problem. Exhaust emissions will be a major consideration in the design and selection of engines for the future. However, it is believed that evolutionary changes in the conventional piston engines will overcome the exhaust emission problem during the next decade. Changes in the types of engines used for the various applications may occur; if other energy conversion devices prove to be superior for a given application and are economically justified, they will break into the market presently held by our conventional engines. This paper discusses alternate powerplants we believe will be important in the next decade.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670669
L. C. Montgomery
Industry and government agencies working on aerospace projects are continually working on more effective safety programs. Because of the advanced “state-of-the-art” nature of this industry and the difficulty of keeping abreast of new materials, experiments, and requirements, safety organizations have difficulty in keeping current on hazard information. In an effort to strengthen this weakness and maintain a flow of vital, current hazard information to safety teams and users, an incident/accident information exchange system has been established as a pilot effort. This safety tool has been a boon to those in the pilot program for keeping an up-to-date record of hazards that are arising throughout the industry. It stimulates better evaluation of all hazards and serves as a quick news bulletin as new hazards arise, and is an important adjunct to any safety program.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670667
Robert W. Newton, John F. Krey
This paper describes the System Safety Engineering Program of the AH-56A. The three most important aspects of setting up a proper program; the safety organization, control of safety effort, and the personnel requirements are discussed. An example of the failure-effects method of analysis, which is the method found most suitable for the AH-56A, is given. This example includes all of the worksheets used in conducting the analysis. Both the original design of the example (the fuel system), and the design as changed as a result of conducting the failure-effects analysis are shown. Finally, the quarterly safety reviews held between Lockheed and the Army are discussed. The procedures for conducting the meetings, personnel attending the reviews, as well as the manner in which the Army reviews and supplies their inputs into the safety program, are discussed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670661
Anthony M. Smith
When viewed on a National scale, data are presented to show that simple spacecraft have achieved a high degree of reliability while the complex spacecraft record leaves considerable room for improvement. Attainment of successful mission performance for complex spacecraft will therefore require a concentrated effort on the part of Management to maintain a constant appraisal of Program Risk. Various risk assessment techniques for the design and fabrication/test phases of a program are presented. Component reliability assessment, via the standard design reliability techniques and the use of Bayesian Statistics, is suggested to be an approach for credible relative measures of equipment risk. A special adaptation of the Monte Carlo technique is suggested as a method for obtaining credible absolute measures of system risk. Reliability trend indicators are also cited as a means of risk appraisal.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670665
H. A. Jennings, E. P. Trott
There are many parameters which influence the maintainability of long duration manned space flights. This study involved a detailed investigation of the sensitivity of some of the major parameters on a typical 1975 near earth orbit spacecraft and mission. A mechanized analytical math model and a mission simulation model were utilized to evaluate the effects of: spacecraft system weight, volume and reliability; mission duration and resupply rate; and maintenance requirements on the total spacecraft requirements to achieve various probabilities of crew survival and mission success. Preliminary information developed in the NAS 2-3705 contract is presented. The results obtained to date are given, but specific conclusions will not be made until the study is completed.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670631
T. E. Smith
This paper contains a discussion of the maintainability technology and controls developed and implemented during early design of the F-111 to ensure the achievement of desirable maintainability goals. The validity of the approach, which entails determination and prediction of maintainability parameters, is verified by actual examples. The major maintainability design decisions applicable to the program are also discussed briefly.
1967-02-01
Technical Paper
670658
W. C. Gersch
The contract and specifications for the Navy's A-7A Corsair II included a maintenance guarantee which was a first in the aerospace industry. This approach to the development of a new weapon system was generated by a sharp increase in systems complexities, particularly avionics and weapons delivery equipments. The penalties associated with failure to comply with the guarantee are included in a new contractive philosophy - a fixed price agreement. As a result, every effort has been made by the Vought Aeronautics Division to design “ease of maintenance” into the A-7A weapon system. The maintenance guarantee would be validated by the Navy during the period of initial squadron formations. An intensive training program was planned to supply trained personnel for the support of initial aircraft deliveries and for participation in the maintenance verification program.

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