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Viewing 188461 to 188490 of 190464
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360134
George J. Mercer
EVOLUTION of body engineering is recalled with the traditional practices of the profession and the difficulty of obtaining information and instruction. Relations and locations of side-sweep, turnunder sweep, and belt line are discussed; definite suggestions are made and design procedure outlined. How the first visual impression or “eye appeal” of a new design affects public acceptance is emphasized, and the special influence of this factor upon women is pointed out. Responses from three authorities in body design to a twelve-point questionnaire on debatable policies and principles give an indication of modern body-design trends and practice.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360139
H. M. Jacklin
PRESENTING the analysis of several thousand observations of the reactions of humans to vibration when sitting on a controlled vibrating seat or platform and in moving vehicles. Physical reactions are defined carefully as a result of many experiments under controlled conditions. The perfection of a three-directional wave-recording accelerometer is described. Its use in determining vibration conditions when the defined physical reactions occur is displayed. The relative effects of vibration in three directions on hard and upholstered seats are disclosed together with suggested instrumentation with the accelerometer. The rating of vehicles of transportation by a comfort scale is easily accomplished by the use of the accelerometer.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360140
R. L. Hershey, J. E. Eberhardt, H. C. Hottel
THE thermodynamic analysis of an internal-combustion engine, even in the idealized case, is in general more complex than a similar analysis of an engine cycle in which the fluid undergoes no chemical change. It is the purpose of this paper to show that, despite the inherent complexity of the problem, an exact solution by graphical methods is possible, and the method is very similar in nature to those used in connection with the Mollier diagram for steam. Two types of charts are presented, one descriptive of the thermodynamic properties of the airfuel mixture (and residual products of combustion) before combustion, the other descriptive of the properties of the equilibrium mixture after combustion. Full allowance is made for the variation of specific heats with temperature and for the complex dissociation at the high temperatures attained after combustion. All calculations are based on the most recent basic thermodynamic data available in the literature.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360137
George R. Cunnington
THE noise problem in the automobile body is complex and encompassing due to the fact that no single angle of attack is either complete or by itself sufficient to produce the desired results. Such results must be in the final analysis appreciable to the passenger's ear. For practical purposes and to meet the requirements of the industry, the problem has been divided into two parts: (a) To secure better results or greater improvements, for the same cost or less, by finding the best materials suitable in the general body-insulation practices of today. (b) To secure a complete and well-balanced job, involving a broader application of materials found to be most practical and economical, or to develop unusual products possessing unusual properties and larger capacities to function properly under given conditions. The instruments and very thorough method used are just means to an end, as in other fields of research or experimentations in which so many here have played a part.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360138
Fred W. Herman
THE introduction to this paper includes definitions of the major items under discussion, and is followed by a discussion of the materials most widely used in metal-aircraft construction and their important physical properties. In the remainder of the paper are described some of the problems encountered in metal construction and the processes that have been developed to facilitate manufacture. The following specific items are discussed: (1) Design, (2) Tooling, including lofting, (3) Fabrication, (4) Assembly, (5) Inspection, and (6) Protective coating. Special equipment and tools are illustrated.
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360141
Austin M. Wolf
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360003
Austin M. Wolf
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360002
O. T. Kreusser
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360001
A. E. White
1936-01-01
Magazine
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360005
Amos E. Northup
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360052
Maxwell Halsey
1936-01-01
Technical Paper
360117
Morris P. Taylor
THE effect of gas pressure on piston friction was investigated, in the laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by driving with an electrical dynamometer a six-cylinder engine with the valves removed and the valve-stem bushings plugged. Air under pressure was admitted to the closed space made up of the cylinders, valve passages, and manifolds, and a constant air pressure was maintained on the pistons. Under these conditions, it was found that the friction increased approximately as a linear function of the pressure and the running speed. The effect of jacket-water temperature on piston friction was marked, but it could not be directly connected with the absolute viscosity of the oil at the temperature of the jacket water. Tests run with gas pressure relieved from behind the piston rings indicated that about a fourth of the rate of increase in friction with pressure is due to gas pressure behind the rings.
1935-12-01
Magazine
1935-11-01
Magazine
1935-10-01
Magazine
1935-09-01
Magazine
1935-08-01
Magazine
1935-07-01
Magazine
1935-06-01
Magazine
1935-05-01
Magazine
1935-04-01
Magazine
CURRENT
1935-03-19
Standard
AGS935-5
No scope available.
CURRENT
1935-03-19
Standard
AGS921-3
No scope available.
1935-03-01
Magazine
1935-02-01
Magazine
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350099
E. S. Dennison
THE paper describes a procedure for analyzing the performance of an internal-combustion engine. It is first shown that the characteristics of ideal cycles can be conveniently represented with the help of a fictitious “fuel mean pressure” which is proportional to the useful heat input. The diagram so obtained is used to represent certain ideal Otto and Diesel cycles. It is pointed out that actual performance can be similarly expressed. A simple correction for the variation of atmospheric conditions is then introduced. Examples from tests are used to show that this correction is in accordance with actual experience. The final form of the proposed diagram embodies the correction. It is then shown that the performance of a cylinder as it appears in this diagram is a measure of the success of the designer in dealing with factors lying within his control, as distinguished from those arising from the conditions of operation.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350097
S. D. Heron
OIL cooling of aircraft powerplants is increasingly difficult. The weight and drag of the oil coolers necessary with the present maximum “Oil-in” temperature of 185 deg. fahr. (85 deg. cent.) are both decidedly objectionable. It appears possible to increase the “oil-in” temperature to about 220 deg. fahr. (104 deg. cent.) with oils which can be produced by the newer refining methods. The use of an “oil-in” temperature of 220 deg. fahr. would render possible a material reduction in weight, size and drag of oil coolers in comparison with present practice. Oils suitable for use at 220 deg. fahr. “oil-in” temperature would not be likely to cause a material increase of engine-starting difficulty, as they would only be used in summer when the shearing resistance of the oil has slight influence on engine starting. The approximate temperature cycle encountered by the oil in its passage through a modern aircraft-engine is discussed.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350100
J. H. Kindelberger, J. L. Atwood
ONE of the most essential points in the development of any airplane is the necessity for complete cooperation between the operator and the contractor in regard to necessary and desirable features to be incorporated, and this is particularly important for a commercial-transport airplane. This coordination was carried through to a remarkably efficient culmination in the development of the Douglas transport for T.W.A. Points discussed include arrangement of cabin and cockpit, seating facilities, upholstery, elimination of vibration, heating and ventilating, soundproofing, toilet facilities, lighting, vision and maintenance. The care with which all these practical considerations were worked out is discussed, and special emphasis is laid on the important points of soundproofing and maintenance in which a remarkable degree of perfection has been attained.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350098
T. B. Rendel
Summary THE tendency toward increasing the speeds of Diesel engines has caused them to become more sensitive to fuels and research on the latter has brought out the importance of ignition quality; however, some coordination has been needed for this research in order to develop a standard ignition-quality test. In order to escape the difficulties that were hampering the activities of a joint research committee of the S.A.E. and A.S.M.E., a Volunteer Group for C.I. Fuel Research took up the study of fuels in their own laboratories. Two test methods had been proposed before the formation of this Volunteer Group, the critical-compression-ratio test and the ignition-delay test. The former gave considerable variation; however, the converted C.F.R. engine could not be used for the latter method because of unsteady operation, so a new cylinder was designed. Experiments with the new cylinder, using the delay-measuring method, are in progress.

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