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Viewing 188731 to 188760 of 190399
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330068
Frederick C. Horner
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330067
J. Kuttner, J. B. Rippere
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330054
ARTHUR NUTT
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330055
Georges Broulhiet
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330001
E. J. W. RAGSDALE
Railroads are facing a crisis in operating costs, the urge toward reduction of unnecessary weight has become widespread and the crusade for noise abatement is no longer to be denied, according to the author. The pneumatic-tired railroad-coach not only answers these requirements, he says, but anticipates a demand for a new traveling comfort. The desire to rubberize railroad equipment is old but much fruitless research has resulted from directing it chiefly toward solid-rubber or cushion tires. Road and rail surfaces present entirely different problems so far as the tire is concerned. No uniformity of conditions obtains on highways but rails are even and smooth. A badly aligned joint such as would wreck a metal wheel makes no impression on a pneumatic tire. As simple as the tire problem may seem, its solution represents years of courageous and skillful research on the part of the Michelin company in France.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330006
Herbert Chase
“IN making these comments,” Mr. Chase says, “I am well aware that engineers are rarely given an opportunity to design a car incorporating even a large proportion of the improvements they would like to see included. “Unless some more or less ‘ideal’ types of construction are visualized, however, there may be no well-considered objective.” Visualizing these “more or less ideal types of construction,” Mr. Chase, in the following paper, throws a blanket indictment at the car designers, says what he thinks about current automobiles in no uncertain terms, and states specifically what he thinks ought to be done about it. Bodies, frames, springs, headlights, seats, engines-no unit of the modern car escapes Mr. Chase's stimulating criticism.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330007
F. F. Kishline
MEASURED gains in performance obtained by using aluminum instead of iron for cylinder head material come from the increased compression ratios possible, Mr. Kishline says, and recommends higher ratios “as a logical means for the engineer to use in creating better transportation.” He gives actual figures taken from observed dynamometer performance showing comparable results on similar engines with aluminum and iron cylinder heads. Desirable features of aluminum heads are presented, after which are discussed design improvements necessary if such heads are to be used successfully. Differences in combustion phenomena resulting from use of iron and aluminum heads also are outlined.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330004
F. M. Thomas, H. W. Fairchild
THIS paper tells how to obtain and evaluate maximum speed of airplanes in level flight. Relationship between available thrust horsepower and powers required to overcome both induced and non-induced resistances is given, in order to provide a clearer understanding of the items affecting maximum speed and the various ways of evaluating changes in that speed. Maintenance of a constant density altitude in combination with a constant engine power or airplane speed is most satisfactory, the authors show. Charts enabling a pilot to attain these conditions in flight are given, together with a method of manifold-pressure calibration of the engine and the use of such calibration in determining the engine power in flight.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330005
F. W. Caldwell, F. M. Thomas
Summary THE primary purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the most pressing problems involved in choosing the propeller that is most suitable for use on a particular airplane. Propeller design is not dealt with, the discussion being limited to the selection of metal propellers of established design. Questions of noise, efficiency and diameter limitation are merely mentioned, and the emphasis is placed upon the choosing of propellers which will transmit the most engine power for the most needed condition of airplane performance; maximum and cruising speeds at altitude, or take-off and climb. Airplane performance enters only inasmuch as it is used to illustrate a case of power absorption. The proper choice of a propeller is becoming increasingly difficult to determine because of the current design trends of both airplanes and engines.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330011
E. E. Wemp
Summary FIRST consideration is given by the author to basic improvements in clutches of the lever-release single-plate and to those of the two-plate types. He emphasizes that the severity of clutch service has increased very materially in the last few years and that the increased clutch duty of today is further augmented by the car manufacturer in providing cars having greater acceleration and higher torque, particularly at the higher speeds and usually without a proportionate increase in clutch size. Developments along logical lines which have resulted in improvements in design are cited as being (a) the design of the driven disc and the selection of facings, to produce improved engagement and greater life; (b) design of the cover-plate assembly to permit higher spring pressure with less retracting movement of the pressure plate; and better selection of facing and pressure-plate materials to reduce facing wear and pressure-plate distortion or scoring.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330012
C. H. Kindl
MANY improvements in shock-absorbing apparatus have been made during the last two years, the most notable being in dash control and devices for temperature compensation. Two types of hydraulic absorbers, the piston and the vane types, have been in use during this period. Both constructions function around the hydraulic principle of forcing a fluid through an orifice of some type. So-called automatic shock-absorbers were much heard of during 1932. The various kinds of control used are examined herewith to determine whether or not some particular type of velocity-load diagram is most desirable. After describing the inertia-controlled shock-absorber, Mr. Kindl enlarges upon its various features. The equipment used for testing purposes is illustrated. In conclusion, he states that future experimental work undoubtedly will increase the perfection of this type of shock absorber.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330008
DEFINITE change is occurring in the attitude of car engineers toward low pressure tires, Mr. Denham states. Asked whether even larger cross sections than those now proposed might improve riding qualities, “44 per cent of the engineers questioned said ‘No’; 22 per cent said ‘Perhaps’; and 34 per cent voted ‘Yes’. A year ago the vote would have been virtually 100 per cent in the negative.” Analyzing the reasons for this change in sentiment, Mr. Denham discusses the factors of appearance, riding qualities, traction, mileage steering, blow outs, and costs as related to the low pressure tire problem. He cites specific experiences recorded by individual companies and engineers during the past year and summarizes current engineering opinion on each phase of the problem.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330016
S. A. McKee, E. A. Harrington, T. R. McKee
THE choice of a suitable lubricant for a given mechanism involves a study of the relation between the various factors of design, operation and lubricant characteristics. One of the most important phases of the extreme-pressure-lubricant problem is the development of laboratory apparatus and test methods for the determination of the characteristics of a lubricant that are significant measures of its service performance. During the last year the U. S. Bureau of Standards has undertaken a comprehensive study of the problem of extreme-pressure lubricants in cooperation with the S.A.E. Lubricants Research Subcommittee. Since the primary requisite for an extreme-pressure lubricant is that “it lubricate under high load,” it was decided that a start on this program be made with an investigation of the load-carrying capacity. The preliminary tests are described, the effect of speed and temperature is considered, and the apparatus and procedure are explained.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330015
C. B. Veal, H. W. Best, J. M. Campbell, W. M. Holaday
ALTHOUGH the C.F.R. Engine-Test Method of knock evaluation, now designated as the Research Method, is accurate and reproducible to a remarkable degree, investigation developed that it was not adequately simulating service conditions as judged by the most critical technician or the less critical lay user. To bring the laboratory method in line with road evaluation of a fuel, a definite technique of road test was evolved that, while not to be considered in commercially determining octane numbers, was regarded by the Committee as sufficiently accurate and reproducible to serve as the first step in the development of a satisfactory laboratory method. With a satisfactory road-test method available, the next step was to test a representative group of fuels and then develop a laboratory method which closely approximates the road results.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330014
O. C. Bridgeman, H. S. White, F. B. Gary
THIS report covers information obtained on vapor lock, fuel-line temperatures and vapor-handling capacity as the result of road tests with 46 cars. The investigation was conducted under the auspices of the Cooperative Fuel Research Steering Committee in cooperation with the Natural Gasoline Association of America. The general procedure consisted in operating the car with samples of gasoline of increasing vapor pressure until vapor lock occurred. The development of a method for the evaluation of the vapor-handling capacity of fuel systems under various operating conditions has been of material assistance in analyzing the vapor-lock problem. The present work indicates that changes both in fuel-line temperatures and in vapor-handling capacity affect the permissible vapor pressures. It is still believed that lowering of fuel-line temperatures by changes in design of the fuel system is the most effective method of insuring freedom from vapor lock.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330013
J. E. PADGETT
After predicting that the demand for changes in automotive products and the substitution of new devices will increase in the next few years and stating major factors with which managements are concerned at present, the author mentions that, after direct-labor costs, the next largest items of expense in a machine shop are generally depreciation and obsolescence of machines, fixtures and tools, especially when a plant is tooled for high production. He believes that the machine-tool industry might aid by reducing its prices and that this can be done, but that in such case the industry must eliminate its present cast-iron type of designing and many of its present manufacturing methods. General machine-shop practice is analyzed and the illustrations show three classes of fixtures: (a) holding, (b) self-contained tools with holding means and (c) complete mechanisms.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330020
Pierre Schon
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330019
Fred W. Cederleaf
LIMITATIONS of present processes for cutting and finishing transmission gears are covered in a general way by Mr. Cederleaf. He shows also that future demands for more quiet transmissions can be met only by an equal improvement in gear-cutting-and-finishing equipment; or by the development of new processes; or by the realization, on the part of engineers, that the most economical method of obtaining better results is, by redesign, to eliminate from the transmission the necessity for greater dimensional accuracy.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330018
B. B. Bachman
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330017
Brainerd Taylor
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330024
L. H. Pomeroy
WHILE recognizing that American interest in the 10-hp. type of car is academic at present, Mr. Pomeroy shows reasons why its design warrants close study. He describes an English passenger car that has adequate body capacity and an engine less than half the size of the smallest American engine, one only about one-third the size of the typical six-cylinder engine as fitted to American cars of the $500 to $600 class. Specific data relating to the English 10-hp. type of car are presented, together with running comment thereon. The statement is made that the case for the 10-hp. type of car rests upon the undoubted and even enthusiastic satisfaction it is giving to a very large number of highly experienced and sophisticated motorists with just as high ideals of what an automobile should be as those in any other country.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330023
William B. Stout
“DON'T let any industry kid itself that it is not in the midst of an absolute change, and particularly if it be a transportation industry. “This will not be a mere slight improvement or an addition of attachments and gadgets, but an absolute fundamental metamorphosis. “Industry, after its bristling period in the market, went into a coma and disappeared entirely into the chrysalis of the experimental laboratory where it has been for four years. Now, under the impetus of the new day, it is emerging from this cocoon of experimentation no longer a narrow short-sighted, crawling creature, but a butterfly with wings, preening itself in the sun and ready to take off almost any time for far more distant flights of progress than ever before in the history of mankind.” Mr.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330022
Neil MacCoull
REPETITION of the 1923 and 1924 Cooperative Fuel Research Steering Committee's motor-car tests, using modern cars and gasolines ranging in end points from 312 to 432 deg. fahr., provided the data on which this paper is based. Supplementary runs were made also on a variable-compression engine to learn the optimum performances of these gasolines if an engine were designed around them. The experimental work covered is divided into three groups. Experiments conducted under Group 3 are particularly interesting because the single-cylinder C.F.R. engine used made operation possible with optimum compression ratios and mixture temperatures, which result in maximum thermal and volumetric efficiencies, respectively. This group comprised four major steps, and data for each one are presented. Design of engines must follow the gasoline which the oil companies find they can market most economically, Mr. MacCoull thinks.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330021
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330028
Ralph R. Teetor
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330027
O. D. Treiber
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330026
F. A. Moss
(ABSTRACT) Dependability, economy, durability, speed, safety, appearance and riding comfort, are the factors considered by Dr. Moss in his resume of progress made in automobile development. Passing then to the problem of the effect of automobile riding on the health of passengers and drivers, he discusses air conditioning, eye strain and body posture while riding. Carbon monoxide probably is the most important of the extraneous harmful substances in relation to air conditioning and an inexpensive investigation, using a carbon-monoxide indicator, is recommended to secure its elimination. Other harmful factors are temperature, relative humidity and motion of the air. A novel suggestion is made that rats be used experimentally in studying the effects of drafts on passengers. Studies to lessen eye strain and improve body posture are also desirable.
1933-01-01
Technical Paper
330025
N. H. Manning
HAVING pointed out that one of the industry's most serious errors is overestimating its requirements, Mr. Manning shows how body tool budgets can be set up in relation to the quantities expected to be produced. While shunning the argument regarding relative merits from a design standpoint of the all-steel and the composition body, he does approach the question from a purely manufacturing standpoint when he says: “It will be found that certain designs lend themselves more readily to steel construction and, from a cost standpoint only, wood may be eliminated to advantage. It will become apparent, therefore, that at some point in the estimated production quantities you will find from a purely economical standpoint wood being replaced by formed steel sections in whole or in part.”
1933-01-01
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