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Viewing 188731 to 188760 of 190665
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350120
Norman Leeds
THIS paper sets forth some of the many problems connected with the design and maintenance of heavy-duty brakes that urgently require solution. Satisfactory brakes, on the heavier vehicles at least, should include the following features: (1) Brakes should be on all wheels, utilizing the entire weight of the vehicle. (2) They should be of internal construction with hinged shoes of some type. (3) Power of some sort should be used to obtain the pressures necessary to stop the vehicle with comfortable effort on the part of the operator. (4) Cast-iron drums, which give the best results so far as known at present. (5) The friction element should be some kind of so-called “fabricated” material, not so hard as the drum and in an easily replaceable form. Detailed consideration of each of the foregoing five points is then presented, and a summary covering 10 desirable features for heavy-duty brakes is appended.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350118
Kenneth Campbell
TO convert cooling results observed under one set of conditions to equivalent values for other conditions, a better understanding of some of the many variables involved is needed. The progress of experiments being conducted along several lines with this objective in view is reported. Published data on heat-transfer research have been examined and, from these, a working approximation relating air temperature and mass flow has been set up. Single-cylinder engine and full-scale testing have been conducted to evaluate this equation as applied to modern baffling conditions. Tests to observe directly the effect of cooling-air temperature-variation on cylinder-wall temperatures under specified conditions have been made. The effect of carburetor-air temperature on cylinder-wall temperatures at constant manifold pressure has been experimentally determined.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350119
C. Fayette Taylor
ABSTRACT
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350117
Austin M. Wolf
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350116
O. D. Treiber
THREE sizes of six-cylinder Diesel-engines for automotive service have been developed by this company and are now in production, these being interchangeable in mounting dimensions with its six-cylinder series of gasoline engines. These modern Diesels develop power which equals, or exceeds, that of a gasoline engine of corresponding displacement. Subjects treated include noise, smoke, installation, performance, power output and maintenance, together with fuel and lubricating-oil costs. A feature of these Diesels is a spherical combustion chamber located at the side of the cylinder with a spray of fuel entering at the side, below the center of the sphere but injecting across its center. Comparisons between Diesel and gasoline-engine performance in similar service are made.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350115
D. D. Robertson
THIS paper points out how the problems of decreasing oil-consumption and blow-by and preventing piston-slap are affected by different piston and piston-ring characteristics, and some of the things that can be done toward solving them. Improvements made in pistons-as to design, materials and construction-are cited. Problems concerning oil-control are stated, and means for solving them are set forth. Interesting figures on piston-ring-wear tests are presented and the conclusion regarding them is that the wear of pistons, piston-rings and cylinders, is due almost entirely to factors which, though usually present, are outside influences. These include abrasive material entering with the intake air, crankcase sludge, excessive choking, cold starting, and blow-by. Wear inside the cylinders cannot be eliminated without the use of improved air-filters and oil-filters, and by improved cold-starting conditions.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350113
J. M. Shoemaker, T. B. Rhines, H. H. Sargent
DURING the last year studies by subsidiaries of United Aircraft Corp. on cowls for radial air-cooled engines have been continued in the wind tunnel and in flight. Model tests comparing the performance of fixed cowls under various conditions are reported, and further research on flapped cowls for controlled cooling is described. Tests were made over a wide range of flap angles to show the possibilities of this type of cooling regulation, and a new form of cowl with flaps located well behind the engine at the fuselage firewall was studied. Flight tests with such a cowl showed that the qualitative variations indicated in the wind tunnel adequately represent full-scale conditions. The results of these flight tests are described in some detail. An attempt is made to reduce the various wind-tunnel results to a form suitable for estimation of cowl characteristics for design purposes, and the results of this work are correlated with information obtained in flight.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350114
Hugh W. Field, Merrill J. Fowle
ABSTRACT
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350125
F. P. Spruance
EXTENDING the life of those parts most quickly destroyed by corrosion, an important problem in the automotive industry, for practical purposes resolves itself into preventing the failure of paint on metal surfaces. The porosity of the paint films permits moisture to get through to the metal, and thus to induce electrolytic rusting. Chemically cleaning before painting retards paint failure. Coating the metal with phosphates gives better protection still, by permitting thicker coats of paint. This phosphate surface is not ductile, though, and breaks when the metal is bent, causing paint failure. Best protection is obtained by first plating the steel with zinc and then converting this plated surface into a zinc phosphate, so that the paint will adhere to it. The next best method is plating steel with a continuous coating of zinc phosphate by means of alternating-current electrolysis.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350124
John Sneed
THE author gives results of several years' experience in the development of automatic transmissions. Early designs are shown and explained and reasons for changes to present designs are given. Driver reaction to different types of automatic shifting is discussed and conclusions are drawn. Graphs are presented showing the acceleration characteristics of different jobs. A detailed description of the author's latest development in fully automatic transmissions is given.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350123
Donald H. Wood, Carlton Kemper
THE development of an N. A. C. A. cowling giving a low drag and satisfactory engine cooling for a particular airplane and engine installation requires the construction and flight testing of numerous experimental cowlings. An investigation has been undertaken by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine a rational basis for the design of the N. A. C. A. cowling. The effect of front and of rear openings and of inner and outer lines of the cowling on the quantity of air flowing through the cowling, the pressure drop, and the drag have been determined from tests of models in a wind tunnel. The quantity of air and the pressure drop required for satisfactory cooling of a given design of air-cooled cylinder have been determined from tests of a single-cylinder engine. The results obtained from the tests of the models and the single-cylinder engine are being checked in a large wind-tunnel using a 550-hp. radial-engine fitted with a propeller.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350122
Maurice Platt
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350121
E. L. Bailey
INDUCTION heating is a process or method by which metal parts are heated by simply placing them in an alternating magnetic field. The action is that of the transformer, whereby electrical energy is transferred or passed over to another isolated electric or secondary circuit by means of the magnetic field; thus, no physical attachments or electrical contacts are necessary to have electrical currents, which are dissipated as heat, flow in the parts to be processed. The strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field can be selected to produce any desired rate of heating and ultimate temperature. A circuit can be set up to dry lacquer at 160 deg. fahr. on thin sheet-metal parts or to melt in record time immense steel ingots. Induction heating is now commercially applied in automotive production to many processes, and these are specified.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350103
Chris Bockius, J. Harold Hunt
IN this paper, the authors have made no mention of the various types of brakes used in any of the tests, and have endeavored to avoid partiality to any particular type of brake drum or lining, as each fills a particular need which can only be determined by the individual requirements of each car manufacturer. Brake drums and brake lining must be considered together in present-day brake engineering. The manufacturers of both products have found it necessary to carry on extensive development programs in order to improve the performance of their respective products. Test results should not be a matter of opinion, or subject to a wide variation in the personal equation. Therefore, this paper is devoted to a general description of the latest inertia-type brake-drum-and-lining testing-dynamometers, giving illustrations of both machines and descriptions of the functions of the various attachments, followed by an outline of the general methods at present in vogue for their use.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350104
Robert Jardine, R. S. Jardine
THIS paper calls attention to some of the shortcomings of parts that are and have been in a continual state of change for many years, possibly more so than most other parts in an internal combustion engine. Little is said of inlet valves in comparison with exhaust valves because they generally are fairly satisfactory so far as tight seating is concerned, but they are open to the same improvements as to spring-locking devices as exhaust valves are. The principal essentials for exhaust valves are stated and commented upon, the shape a valve head on the exhaust side should have is discussed, and cylinder and valve-guide design are considered. The use of no-lash hydraulic-type tappets is advocated because they keep quiet the numerous wearing joints in an overhead-valve operating-mechanism. In conclusion, the authors state eight specific points that an ideal engine should have with respect to its valves and their related parts.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350101
Neil MacCoull, E. M. Barber
THIS paper defines vapor lock as any interruption to the normal metering characteristics of a carburetor, due to vaporization of the fuel before passing through the carburetor jet. Vapor lock may take the form of an excessively lean mixture supplied to the engine, if the gasoline boils in the carburetor jet; or it may take the form of an excessively rich mixture, if gasoline vapors in the float chamber build up sufficient pressure to drive fuel through the jet, a characteristic frequently described as “percolation.” The two important classes of car operation which may produce vapor lock, that is, “running vapor lock” and “idling vapor lock,” are discussed, an analysis of vapor lock in fuel systems is made, and gasoline vapor-locking characteristics are treated. Fuel-system temperature-tests are described and data thereon presented. Other features are the measurement of the vapor-handling capacity of fuel systems and fuel-system-loss measurements.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350102
I. I. Sikorsky
AFTER citing the improvements achieved in the S-42 as compared with the S-40 type, the author states that many future improvements will be made in flying boats as a result of improved engines, propellers and airplane design. Some of the general problems of flying-boat design are compared with those of land air-transports. Although in the basic phases the problems are similar, the flying-boat designer diverges from the land air-transport-designer's viewpoint in several important features such as cruising range, speed, comfort, space per passenger, and size. Many advantages, particularly in seaworthiness, are found in connection with the construction of larger-sized ships, as the inherently easier take-off of the larger flying boat permits better shapes for seaworthiness. Sharper and more refined V-bottom hulls will be used.
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350017
P. R. Croll, L. E. DuBey
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350016
Sherman W. Bushnell
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350019
Howard W. Dunbar
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350018
T. B. Rendel
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350021
G. M. Maverick
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350020
J. S. Parkinson
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350023
W. F. Wise
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350022
Arthur Nutt
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350025
Edgard C. De Smet
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350026
Roy H. Camp
1935-01-01
Technical Paper
350029
A. W. Burwell, J. A. Camelford.

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