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Viewing 190291 to 190320 of 190665
1916-11-01
Magazine
1916-10-01
Magazine
1916-09-01
Magazine
1916-08-01
Magazine
1916-07-01
Magazine
1916-06-01
Magazine
1916-05-01
Magazine
1916-04-01
Magazine
1916-03-01
Magazine
1916-02-01
Magazine
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160016
E. S. FOLJAMBE
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160015
LATHROP COLLINS
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160014
R. H. CUNNINGHAM
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160013
F. L. MORSE
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160043
FINLEY R. PORTER
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160044
WILLIAM B. STOUT
The automobile of to-day has been developed mechanically to such a high point that the art of building them, according to the author, is gradually becoming a studio task. The paper outlines the rules of appeal in body design and shows how former types of bodies have lost their appeal because they were not based on correct principles. The author gives the ways in which power, body width, mass, comfort and other car qualities can be suggested by proportions of the body or by its color. He states that the automobile of the future will take every advantage of art knowledge to build up an appeal consistent with its mechanical performance.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160041
J. B. ENTZ
This paper contains a brief description of the Entz electric transmission. Wiring connections are given of the several speeds, for electric braking, for starting the engine and for charging the battery. The statement is made that the electric transmission eliminates and does the work of the friction clutch, the clutch pedal, the transmission gears, the flywheel and separate starting and lighting systems.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160042
Frank E. Watts
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160039
J. G. VINCENT
After a brief consideration of airplane-engine practice in France, England and Germany, the author outlines the problems encountered in designing a twelve-cylinder aviation engine. He explains at some length the difficulties in determining the connection between propeller and engine and shows why valve-in-head location was chosen. Such features of engine design as the mounting of carbureter and exhaust pipes, methods of fuel and lubricant supply and details involved in selecting the lighting, starting and ignition equipment are considered.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160040
C. E. SARGENT
The efficiency of the automobile engine, as operated on the Otto cycle, is thought by the author to be too low, and he therefore suggests a method of improving it. He considers the various losses by which heat is dissipated in internal-combustion engines and finds that the best opportunity for increasing thermal efficiency is by an increased expansion of the charge. The author suggests that this expansion be carried 50 per cent further than is ordinarily done. In order to obtain higher efficiency at part load, the suggestion is made that instead of throttling the mixture, the admission valves be closed earlier. In case the expansion is 50 per cent longer than the induction stroke and the cut-off takes place earlier as the load becomes lighter, it will be necessary to vary the fuel opening inversely with the air induced. It is suggested that the fuel valve and cut-off lever be connected together and operated by the accelerator pedal or hand lever on the steering wheel.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160037
J. G. PERRIN
The author limits his consideration of rear axles to that of the bevel-gear type and takes up the subject under the heads of load-carrying member, gearing, driving-shaft, brakes and materials. Several different forms of cast and pressed axle housings are briefly described. Mention is then made of the axle gearing and data given showing the end thrust for straight-tooth bevel pinions. The methods of supporting pinions and of attaching bevel gears to the differential are discussed. Forms of differentials are considered, several different conventional types being illustrated. The subject of driving shafts is briefly reviewed, as is also that of brakes and brake materials. The author concludes his paper by figures showing the tensile strength, elastic limit and elongation of the metals used in the various parts of the rear axle and also explains some oil-retaining and dust-protecting features of design.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160038
H. M. JEWETT
The question as to whether a part should be made or bought is one that must be settled by the individual maker according to the value of his product, the nature of the part, his capital available for manufacturing purposes and the price at which his product is sold. The author describes the practice followed by some of the large companies, showing that in spite of their being quantity producers, they have found it desirable to buy a number of important parts. Certain parts are rarely made by automobile manufacturers, either because they can be bought more cheaply or because the machinery to produce them is intricate. The author sums up the problem by stating that a manufacturer makes the unit on account of not getting deliveries or because he does not get a fair price from the parts maker or an article good enough to satisfy his conditions. In order to give individuality to the product, the car maker often produces certain parts, such as the engine, himself.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160035
FRANK H. BALL, FREDERICK O. BALL
The results are given of laboratory investigations made of a number of different types of carbureters, showing the relation between their gasoline and air consumptions over a wide range. This relation is plotted on so-called quality diagrams, on which is indicated the range between which high power and high efficiency can be expected. A description is given of a carbureter arranged in two stages, the first being used at light load and the second coming into action when the throttle is nearly open, thereby more than doubling the carbureter capacity. Engine performance curves are presented showing the result when only one or both stages of this carbureter are used.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160036
A. LUDLOW CLAYDEN
The author considers the effects of velocity variation on the operation of a car and states that this variation is absorbed mainly by the flywheel. A formula is given for calculating the pressure on universal bearings. Various methods of protecting and lubricating joints are described. A number of European types of joints are illustrated. A much larger number of types of joints are used abroad in-asmuch as each maker usually makes his own design instead of purchasing it from a specialist as is the usual practice in this country. In conclusion the paper describes types of joints using flexible material, such as leather or spring steel.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160033
Arthur J. Slade
The paper opens with a number of quotations from publications issued by the Army War College and showing the bearing of motor transport on a proper military policy for the United States. The author then describes two experimental trips recently made by motor-truck owners near New York in an effort to determine proper motor-transport operating conditions. A statistical summary is given for these two experimental trips. The Army War College has issued in compliance with instructions of the Secretary of War a “Statement of a Proper Military Policy for the United States,” supplemented by a number of pamphlets dealing with particular features of this military policy in considerable detail. In many of these supplementary pamphlets there appears a considerable amount of material bearing upon the subject of motor transport and from them the brief quotations in the following paragraphs are taken.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160034
C. M. EASON
Inasmuch as horses cannot meet the demand for increased farm power, the tractor must come at once. So far the supply of tractors has been entirely inadequate to meet the demand. The author specifiies some of the problems that confront designers of farm tractors. To make the tractor immediately available for farm work, it must be adaptable to practically all of the existing types of horse-drawn implements, besides furnishing belt power for a wide variety of present power-driven farm machinery. In designing tractors it must be remembered that the horse is a very flexible unit, capable of a wide variation in power output. Designing a tractor to furnish the necessary power for the majority of farm conditions, requires an intimate knowledge of crops, soils and farm management. These must be analyzed carefully so as to make the machine have as wide a range of usefulness as possible.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160031
H. D. Church
The author describes a number of detailed developments that took place during the working out of a line of worm-driven trucks. The details of front axle and steering parts are dealt with at length, the reasons for the final constructions being clearly explained and the constructions themselves well illustrated. Details concerning difficulty with the Hotchkiss type of drive on heavy trucks, troubles with drive-shafts and lubrication of the worm wheel are all covered thoroughly; spring-shackle construction and lubrication, radiator and hood mounting come in for detailed attention and the question of governors is interestingly covered. Brief reference is made to the influence of unsprung weight, the differences between truck and pleasure car practice in this respect being pointed out.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160032
W. F. BRADLEY
The author outlines the constructions that have performed cially that four-cylinder engines carried under a hood are the most satisfactory. The defects revealed by war service are given in considerable detail, the author finding that all of the trucks used had developed some weak point. Radiators and springs are specified as a general source of trouble. The author outlines a number of operating troubles developed under the existing conditions of operation and gives examples of the way these have been remedied. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of operating trucks away from made roads. The methods of fitting chains to the wheels, and the use of caterpillar attachments are described. Dimensions are given for bodies and a number of suggestions made as to their proper construction.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160029
J. E. HALE
The author starts with the development of the pneumatic tire since its invention by Dunlop in 1888, and proceeds to show why several different types of tire construction are now in use. The merits of the three types of tires, namely, the clincher, straight-side and quick detachable, are discussed as regards energy consumption, traction, total mileage, cost-per-tire-mile, cushioning effect, reliability, ease of applying and service. The conclusions brought out show principally the advantages of the straight-side tire. Statistics are offered to show the trend of the rim situation, and it is pointed out that it is just a question of time when the quick detachable clincher will cease to survive. It had a legitimate place during the development stage, but with the developed straight-side tires giving entire satisfaction, the author holds that there is no excuse for continuing the quick detachable clincher type.
1916-01-01
Technical Paper
160030
W. H. ALLEN
This paper is mainly an argument in favor of the use of large, single rear wheel truck tires instead of smaller dual tires. Although the practice of using large singles is comparatively new, the author gives the results of experience and research to show the advantages of the newer method of rear tire equipment. In developing his arguments in favor of single tires, the author goes into the history of dual tire application to show why it was necessary to use two tires in the earlier days of truck operation. As the necessity for increased carrying-capacity grew, tire manufacturers found the then existing single tire equipment inadequate, and they set about to develop suitable equipment to meet the new condition, the result being dual practice. The method of attaching the earlier dual tires is shown to have been poor, resulting in circumferential creeping of the whole tire to a much greater extent as the width of the dual equipment increased.

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