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Viewing 190681 to 190710 of 191219
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190066
WALTER T FISHLEIGH
The nineteen months preceding Nov. 11, 1918, constituted the most far-reaching educational period in the history of the United States. The war being over, both opportunity and danger are ahead. Automotive manufacturers, engineers and educators have large responsibilities in post-war industrial rehabilitation. A frank discussion of several prime demands is presented. After outlining the achievements of the war period, the lessons thereof are enumerated, special emphasis being placed upon cooperation and teamwork, and the automotive manufacturers urged to give consideration to the permanent and stable establishment of their business and product. Attention is called to the part universities can and should take in practical service, in conducting automotive engineering courses, giving public instruction and furthering good roads development and highways transport.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190067
H L HORNING
Whatever may be the conclusion of business men and engineers as to the fuel problem, dealing with it from the point of view of the engineer as a service man nothing further is needed than that the problem is before us. The paper deals with engine troubles that have been found to demand the greatest amount of attention from farmers. Tractors are not built for or operated by engineers. No quantity production is likely to be attained for some time to come with anything but the commonest forms of cylinder and other features. This judgment is based entirely on the limitations in upkeep knowledge of the average user. The four-cylinder tractor engine seems to be rapidly becoming standard, due to its simplicity and the familiarity of most farmers with this type. Consideration is given, topic by topic, to important parts of the tractor engine and the relation of fuel to difficulties discussed.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190064
D W DOUGLAS
The factors included in the commercial airplane problem are the practical use that can be made of airplanes, the volume of business that can be expected, the necessary changes from present military types to make an efficient commercial airplane and what the future holds for this new means of transportation. The requirements for passenger transportation, airmail and general express service, are first discussed in detail, consideration then being given to other possibilities such as aerial photography and map-making, the aerial transportation of mineral ores, sport and miscellaneous usage. Changes in the present equipment of engines and airplanes to make them suitable for commercial use are outlined, and special features of aerial navigation, landing fields and legal questions are mentioned.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190065
R H UPSON
Airships were not generally considered important before the war. Many thought they would never become practical as a means of transportation. The proper conception of what an airship is having first been explained, the three principal ways in which progress has been made are specified as weight-saving, improvement of overall propulsion efficiency and decreasing resistance and increase in size. The last mentioned feature is discussed in some detail, the conclusion being that practically anything is possible, given an airship of sufficient size. The future needs of airship development are then considered, such as more suitable engines, multiple powerplants, dependability, the development of better fabric and better landing and hangar facilities.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190062
N L LIEBERMAN
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190063
R W CUNNINGHAM
A short account of the discovery and early development of the oils in the Appalachian Field is followed by a description of several oil-testing instruments and of modern refinery practice with diagrams and drawings. The utilization of oil-shale rock and its probable value in supplementing the diminishing supply of crude petroleum are commented on. The conservation of all petroleum products is urged.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190060
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190061
F W DAVIS
The cost of motor-truck operation is divided into fixed charges and operating expenses per mile. Assuming that a carefully trained driver has been obtained, the problem becomes one of securing better results. As a means toward accomplishing this, bonus systems are discussed and the development of a bonus system is analyzed mathematically and illustrated by charts. A typical application of the bonus scale is then made in detail, followed by full consideration of charge rates and combined time and mileage charges. The features involved are illustrated in the charts presented, an exposition of these being given in the text.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190058
C A NORMAN
A new type of automotive engine should be the quest of all designing engineers. Investigation has revealed the fact that 68 per cent of all tractor engine troubles occur in magnetos, spark-plugs and carbureters, the accessories of the present-day automotive engine. Four-fifths of the fuel energy supplied is regularly wasted, yet the fuel is a liquid meeting severe requirements of volatility, etc., and is already becoming scarce and costly. In an airplane, fuel is carried by engine power. In ocean-going cargo vessels it increases available revenue space. It is at once clear that for purely practical reasons the question of fuel economy, no less than the question of the nature of the fuel, becomes momentous. What fuel will do is entirely a question of what process it is put through in the engine; in what way combustion is turned into power.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190059
E A WHITE
The author considers the adaptation of farming implements to the farm tractor the most important engineering problem confronting tractor manufacturers. The problems are intricate in their ramifications, all-inclusive in their scope and fundamental. They can never be solved by theoretical discussion and laboratory tests alone. Extensive field experiments are needed with the machines operated by the farmers themselves. It is the implement which does the work. The mold-board plow and the disk harrow are standard for soil preparation; the oscillating sickle, the reel and the knotter-head for harvesting; the revolving toothed cylinder and the oscillating rack for threshing. Power must be transmitted to these fundamental devices. The automotive tractor fills a place in the farm power field not successfully covered heretofore by any single prime mover.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190056
J C HUNSAKER
Naval aircraft are distinctively American types. Only one foreign seaplane was copied by the United States during the war, and when finally put into production it resembled the British prototype in externals only. While the Navy does a large part of its own designing and building through a corps of naval constructors, its theory of manufacture is to assemble parts procured from separate makers, and private design and construction are encouraged by contracting with builders. Available talent both in and out of the service and the facilities of parts makers, the new materials developed during the war and organized engineering which drove the entire process toward speedy results were appropriated by the Navy. The NC flying boat is typical of U. S. Navy practice. In the same way the dirigible C-5 is a purely American type. The development of really large flying craft before 1917 was held back because no suitable engine had been designed. When the 350-hp.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190057
B F MILLER
The development of the Motor Transport Corps is outlined; the number of motor vehicles for one army at war strength and the number for the proposed peace-strength army with increased motorization are specified and the disposal of surplus motor vehicles is discussed. The problem of keeping uptodate the motor vehicles in service is stated and the cooperation of automotive engineers is requested. The vexatious unsolved problem of spare parts is stressed and solutions are suggested. The question of peace-time training and matters relating to the motor transport reserve are considered in some detail. The motor transport personnel required on a war basis and for a proposed peace army of 509,000 men is enumerated, as well as that of the motor transport reserve corps and the national guard required to bring the proposed peace-time army to war strength.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190054
HAROLD F WOOD
The author discusses the different types of material used in the production of the Liberty engine, the physical properties of the finished parts and the heat-treatments used in making them, applying the information as set forth to the automobile, truck and tractor industries. Under their several heads the different engine pans are discussed with close attention to details. Chemical analyses are given for each part and approved heat-treating temperatures are indicated. Quenching, direct and indirect, water and oil cooling, hard spots, warpage, scaling and hair-line seams are treated. The advantages and disadvantages of the Izod impact test are stated briefly.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190055
F C GOLDSMITH
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190053
L H POMEROY
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190052
HENRY M CRANE
Progress toward a single standard type of car is not being made. Many different styles will continue to be needed to satisfy requirements of taste, ability, power and speed. Open cars, the backbone of production in the early days, are less in demand. Enclosed cars are already to be had in practically every grade. While there is a trend toward lighter weight the demand for increased luxury and greater safety makes it seemingly impossible to reduce weight in either equipment or body. Just what the result of this conflict of ideas is to be is not easy to predict. The author foresees considerable improvement in design and workmanship, a gain in economy of fuel, greater use of oil in lubricating chassis parts besides the engine, increased durability and fewer objectionable noises.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190051
HERBERT C SNOW
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190049
E H BELDEN
Efficiency, appearance and comfort will be the catchwords of the car of the future. Extreme simplicity of chassis will be needed to reduce weight and permit the use of substantial sheet-metal fenders, mud-guards and bodies. The center of gravity should be as low as possible consistent with good appearance. For comfort the width and angle of seats will be studied more carefully and the doors will be wider. A new type of spring suspension is coming to the fore, known as the three-point cantilever. Cars adopting it will have a certain wheelbase and a longer spring base. A car equipped with this new mechanism has been driven at 60 m.p.h. in safety and comfort without the use of shock absorbers or snubbers. It is the opinion of the author that this new spring suspension will revolutionize passenger-car construction.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190048
E H COLPITTS
In a rapid and illuminating sketch of the early work done in electricity and magnetism the subtle and close connection between pure research and so-called industrial research is shown. Building on the work of Faraday, Maxwell and Hertz, Marconi, in our day, had the confidence to do the practical thing. From the Hertz oscillating system he passed to grounded antennas at both sending and receiving stations. From the well-understood tuning of electrical circuits and the coherer of Professor Branly he secured increased efficiency and selectivity. Mr. Edison, following the early work of J. J. Thomson at Cambridge University, England, devised the first practical application of the electron apparatus, the Edison relay. The vacuum tube became in the radio field an amplifier, an oscillator and a modulator, the audion. In addition to these interesting developments are the Poulsen arc, the Alexanderson alternator and other alternators of German design.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190047
EDWARD T BIRDSALL
Iron rust is caused by electrolytic action between the various constituents of iron or steel in the presence of moisture and impurities. It is a continuous process; a coating of rust does not protect the metal underneath. The principal requirements of a rust-prevention process as applied to automobiles, aircraft and other machined and hardened parts are that it (1) Prevent rusting under normal use (2) Prevent the spreading of rust (3) Make no change in dimensions or fits (4) Make no alterations in physical properties (5) Be permanent for the life of the part (6) Be easy and quick of application (7) Be commercially practicable as to cost Of the most familiar rust-proofing processes, the cold, the hot and the high-temperature, the last is eliminated by requirements (3) and (4), while the cold processes and also japanning are eliminated by (2), (3) and (5). There remain three hot processes, the Parker, the Coslett and the Guerini.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190050
William B. Stout
ABSTRACT
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190046
P W KLINGER
In the past the majority of trucks have been equipped with wood wheels. These gave good service, but the results demanded under strenuous modern conditions seem, the author states, to make the substitution of steel wheels on medium and heavy-duty trucks imperative. Truck engineers and builders seem to recognize the fact, but to hesitate to make the change, chiefly because a metal wheel is somewhat higher in first cost and because some designs have not as yet rendered the service expected of them. The service return of metal wheels is given from the records and reports of the London General Omnibus Co. and the Fifth Avenue Coach Co., both of which use steel wheels exclusively. The added mileage is in excess of wood-wheel service and exceptional tire mileage is shown. The author states briefly the arguments for the hollow-spoke, hollow-rim, the hollow full-flaring spoke and the integral-hub metal wheels.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190045
JOSEPH E POGUE
The engine-fuel situation has changed almost overnight. Oil-consuming activities have taken on an accelerated expansion and the situation has shifted from excess supply to a position where demand is assuming the lead and is seeking a supply. A gasoline stringency, accompanied presumably by a marked rise in price, is a prospect to be anticipated. The production of gasoline is increasing more rapidly than the production of its raw material, crude petroleum. The available supply of the latter is very limited in view of the size of the demand. As a direct result of the situation, gasoline is changing in character and becoming progressively less volatile. The low thermal efficiency of the prevailing type of automotive apparatus contributes strongly to the demand for gasoline as engine fuel and has a bearing upon the quantity and the price of this specialized fuel.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190044
LEWIS P KALB
The paper treats the subject of ability from the point of view of its relation to the present trend in motor-truck design, setting forth some of the fundamental considerations involved. An ability formula when applied to automotive vehicles is to determine a “factor of experience” from which engine sizes and gear ratios can be calculated. While passenger-car performance is measured in terms of speed and acceleration, the latter are not the most important considerations in motor trucks, the speed of which is limited by the use of a governor. Wind resistance also is negligible at truck speeds. Practically the only resistances to be overcome by a motor truck are road friction and the force of gravity. Both road and grade resistance are in direct proportion to weight carried and are usually expressed in terms of pounds per pound.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190043
W W WELLS
THE ordinary governor used on trucks and tractors is essentially a one-speed device. It gives good results at one speed, but at higher speeds “hunting” develops and at lower speeds governing is less accurate. This is because the spring must be stiff enough for maximum speed, and hence four times stiffer than it should be for half speed. The paper shows by calculations and curves the best results that can possibly be obtained; also, curves from a test showing what results are actually obtained with one well-known governor. Two new types of governor are described; in which the position of the spring is varied for different speeds. Theoretical curves also are presented and the results of tests, indicating that the new types produce the same character of curve at 800 as at 1600 r.p.m.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190042
F N G KRANICH
THE author believes a more thorough understanding of the functions and use of drawbar implements is necessary. The tractor is incidental to agriculture. The implements used with tractors do the actual work and the tractor is a means to that end. Many tractors are sold on the quality of work done by the implements, and not because of their own work. Many a tractor is condemned because the implement combination is not correct. The amount of draft of plows must be thoroughly understood. Good plowing requires considerably more power than poor plowing, although done at the same depth and width. Turning the same number of square inches of furrow section will in one case require from 20 to 30 per cent more power than in another.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190041
GEORGE W HOYT
IN the cooling system for an automobile engine, the water-jacket must be designed to give ample capacity and free flow of the water. It is essential that water-pump capacities and speeds be figured to equal the radiator capacity so as not to retard the flow of water through the radiator and cause hot water to back up into the cylinder; the radiator must always be kept full and still handle the water as fast as the pump carries it. Fan locations are necessarily considered with relation to the radiator and radiator shroud. Fan diameters, blade path and fan speeds should be given thought, in order that the proper volume of air can be handled to carry heat from the engine. The frontal area of the radiator core in square feet per horsepower developed by the engine and several other details which can be worked out by the fan and radiator manufacturers should receive attention. The best possible fan bearings must be used, giving special attention to radial and thrust loads, fan speeds, etc.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190040
W G CLARK
DURING the war the trend of tractor engine design toward increased efficiency resulted in many improvements and discoveries in accessories, not the least of which is the carbureter air-cleaner. The value of air-cleaners is now fully recognized and they are used as standard equipment on the majority of tractors. Air-cleaners are classified into groups as follows: (a) cleaners having cloths or screens, or both, to catch dust; (b) inertia cleaners; (c) those employing water or some other liquid to trap dirt and (d) centrifugal or gravity cleaners. The first class is practically obsolete; illustrations of two of this type are shown. Inertia cleaners are not widely used, but present possibilities. Liquid cleaners of various designs are in considerable use. The author believes that the slight advantage in efficiency of this type over the better class of dry-type cleaners is not sufficient to compensate for their greater size and difficulty of operation.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190039
W G GERNANDT
THE ever-increasing demand for highly volatile fuels and constantly decreasing volatility, constitute a serious problem. Synthetic fuels have been suggested as a remedy, but these require a change in carburetion methods. It is the author's conviction that, if any redesigning is necessary, this should embody a combustion method by which any of the existing liquid hydrocarbons can be utilized and further change of method obviated, if a new fuel should later be developed. The high-compression engine is presented as a solution. Proof is offered that by its adoption any liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be utilized under any temperature condition and a real saving in fuel accomplished through increased thermal efficiency. Sustained effort should be made along these lines to increase thermal efficiency and provide an engine of adequate power, flexibility, ease of control and ability to operate on any of the fuels obtainable now or later.
1919-01-01
Technical Paper
190038
P J DASEY
THE rapid development of heavy-duty trucks and farm tractors has made it necessary for manufacturers of engines used in such automotive apparatus to face problems regarding which there is no past experience to fall back upon. The necessity in both types of engine for maximum strength in all parts carrying excessive loads constitutes a problem of great importance, but in addition to it are others of the proper utilization of fuels at present available, lubrication under excessive load conditions over long periods of time; and, of nearly as much importance, the relation of fuels to lubricants and the effect of fuels upon lubricants. Moreover, information is to be acquired regarding the value of prospective fuels as power producers, the effects they have upon engines, lubricants, etc., comparisons of cost and the like. The tests recorded in the paper were made in an endeavor to ascertain some of these unknown values.

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