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Viewing 192931 to 192960 of 193734
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220008
ROBERT E WILSON, DANIEL P BARNARD
The authors state that the coefficient of friction between two rubbing surfaces is influenced by a very large number of variables, the most important being, in the case of an oiled journal, the nature and the shape of the surfaces, their smoothness, the clearance between the journal and the bearing, the viscosity of the oil, the “film-forming” tendency or “oiliness” of the oil, the speed of rubbing, the pressure on the bearing, the method of supplying the lubricant and the temperature. The primary object of the paper is to present the best available data regarding the fundamental mechanism of lubrication so as to afford a basis for predicting the precise effect of these different variables under any specified conditions. Definitions of the terms used are given and the laws of fluid-film lubrication are discussed, theoretical curves for “ideal” bearings being treated at length.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220007
AUGUSTUS TROWBRIDGE
Believing that it is one of the functions of the purely scientific man to direct engineering attention to practical possibilities that will be of use in solving important problems, the author outlines the history of the photographic recording apparatus he describes later in detail and comments upon its general features that are of advantage in engineering practice, with illustrations, inclusive of the use that is made of the string galvanometer. The subject of indicators for high-speed engines is discussed in general terms introductory to a full and detailed description of how this automatic photographic recording apparatus can be used to overcome difficulties that pertain to ordinary indicator-diagrams taken on the internal-combustion engine by former methods. A further use of this apparatus is in anti-knock research and its recent usage for this purpose is described and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220006
O C BERRY, C S KEGERREIS
Stating that present internal-combustion engine fuel is too low in volatility for economical use and that this is the cause of engine-maintenance troubles, the authors believe that, since it is not possible to obtain the more volatile grades in sufficient quantity, the only hope of remedying this condition is to learn how to use the heavy fuel, and that the most promising method of doing this lies in the effective use of heat. As the experimental data regarding the best temperature at which to maintain the metal in a hot-spot manifold and the range of temperatures available in the exhaust gases are meager, the authors experimented in the Purdue University laboratory to secure additional data. They present a summary of the results.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220013
CHARLES L LAWRANCE
The development of air-cooled engines for aircraft never made much progress until the war, when the British attempted to improve the performance of existing engines by a series of experiments leading eventually to the development of aluminum cylinders with steel liners and aluminum cylinder-heads with a steel cylinder screwed into the head. The advantages of these constructions and the disadvantages of other types are discussed. Results are reported of tests at McCook Field on a modern cylinder-design of this type showing good results, that lead to the belief that large air-cooled engines will be produced in the near future, equal in performance to water-cooled engines of the same power.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220012
S D HERON
The paper reviews some of the salient points arising in the design and development of the modern high-output air-cooled cylinder. It is based to a very large extent upon the work of Dr. A. H. Gibson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, which in turn was principally a development of the pioneer efforts of Renault, supplemented by some post-war work of the author for British companies and tests made by the engineering division of the Air Service. While the paper may, therefore, lack somewhat in originality, many of the results presented, it is stated, have not been published previously. The problems of an aircraft cylinder of approximately 40 b.hp. are dealt with primarily, but some aspects of automobile-engine cylinder design are considered. The first point treated is the heat to be dissipated, this being followed by a consideration of how to secure an even temperature-distribution in the various parts of the cylinder.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220011
NEIL MACCOULL
That all of the variable factors of automobile friction-losses such as the quantity and viscosity of lubricants, the efficiency of worm-gearing and part-load Modifications are not appreciated, is indicated by an examination of the literature on this subject which reveals a lack of necessary data. Experiments to determine the mechanical losses, including all friction losses between the working gases in the engine and the driving-wheels of the vehicle, are described and supplementary data are included from Professor Lockwood's experiments at Yale. Three distinct possibilities for increasing the fuel economy of a motor vehicle are specified and enlarged upon, gearset experiments to secure and develop data for a four-speed gearset being then described and commented upon at length; photographs and charts illustrative of the equipment used and the resultant data are included.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220010
Winslow H. Herschel
ABSTRACT
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220030
C Fayette Taylor
After indicating the line of development since November, 1918, toward making the internal-combustion engine better adapted to aircraft service, the successful application of the supercharger to improve engine performance at great altitude is described and the over-dimensioned and over-compressioned engine also is discussed as a means toward that end. The use of anti-knock compounds to permit the use of high compression-ratios at small altitudes without knocking is commented upon and engine size is considered for both airplane and dirigible service. Further review includes air-cooling experiments in reference to the air-cooled radial engine, refinement of aviation-engine details, and improvements in aircraft powerplant parts and fuel-supply systems. For commercial aviation, powerplant reliability and low cost are stated as essentials. Illustrations are presented of the supercharger and of the engines and sylphon fuel-pump mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220031
J G VINCENT
Grouping the influences that are retarding the development of aviation into five specified divisions, the author, who took a prominent part in the development of the Liberty engine and other wartime aviation activities of the Government, discusses each one, in the order of its importance, in an effort to point out the limitations that exist as differentiated from misconceived non-existent limitations and to indicate remedial measures stimulative to a provident trend and vigorous growth of aviation. The subjects of adequate landing-fields, the real and imaginary dangers of flying, single and multi-engine airplanes, passenger comfort and commercial considerations are treated at some length, prefatory to an outline of the trend of airplane design and an enumeration of powerplant requirements.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220032
H C DICKINSON
Dr. Dickinson outlines the history of the Research Department since its organization, indicates why the universities are the principal bases of operation for pure research, describes how the department functions as a clearing-house with regard to research data and comments upon the bright prospects for the future. He enumerates also the facilities the Research Department has for the coordination of research problems. The practical achievements of the Department have resulted from its recent concentration upon the three major projects of study with regard to the tractive resistance of roads, with reference to fuel and to testing programs, and of an effort to render financial assistance to the Bureau of Standards and the Bureau of Mines that would enable these Bureaus to continue their elaborate research programs, details of all of this work being included.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220033
THOMAS MIDGLEY, T A BOYD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220034
F C MOCK, M E CHANDLER
The development of intake-manifolds in the past has been confined mainly to modifications of constructional details. Believing that the increased use of automotive equipment will lead to a demand for fuel that will result in the higher cost and lower quality of the fuel, and being convinced that the sole requirement of satisfactory operation with kerosene and mixtures of the heavier oils with alcohol and benzol is the proper preparation of the fuel in the manifold, the authors have investigated the various methods of heat application in the endeavor to produce the minimum temperature necessary for a dry mixture. Finding that this minimum temperature varied with the method of application of the heat, an analysis was made of the available methods on a functional rather than a structural basis.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220035
O C BERRY
Economy tests carried out in France indicate that it is possible to obtain a larger number of miles per gallon from cars made there than from cars made in this Country. The author states that it would be well to make a careful study of the factors influencing car economy and to assure that our future car models take full advantage of all possible means of increasing their economy. Figures are presented showing the extent to which economy can be increased by changing such factors as the carbureter adjustment, time of the spark, rear-axle ratio and speed of driving. A car that normally will go 21 miles per gal. under favorable test conditions at 20 m.p.h. was increased to 43 miles per gal. at 20 m.p.h. The study is not complete but has gone far enough to demonstrate its value. This progress report is presented to stimulate thought.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220036
P S TICE
The author gives a brief and purely qualitative treatment of what a vapor is, where it comes from and how it appears; the necessity of vaporizing a liquid fuel before attempting to burn it; the separate effects of the conditions that control vaporization; and the heat-balance of vaporization. This is done to summarize the conditions surrounding and controlling fuel vaporization in the cycle of operation of a throttle-controlled internal-combustion engine, fitted with an intake-manifold and a carbureter. Charts and photographs are included and commented upon, descriptions being given of actual demonstrations that were made at the time the paper was presented. The conclusion is reached that it is well to depend as little as possible upon the cylinder heat and temperature to complete the vaporization of the fuel.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220037
C T COLEMAN
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220022
C N. DAWE
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220023
L Valentine Pulsifer
Dividing the ability of an automobile finish to remain new into the elements of proper quality of the materials, engineering of application systems, methods of application and care of the finish, the author states that the responsibility for them rests jointly upon the manufacturer of the varnishes and paints, the builder of the automobile and the owner of the finished product. Five basic materials that are necessary in automobile painting are specified and discussed. Engineering systems of application and the actual methods of application are treated in some detail, inclusive of drying, and of surfacing or rubbing. The care of the finish is important and the precautions necessary in this regard are outlined. The paper deals with the application and not the manufacture of the different varnishes and paints that are mentioned.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220024
B M IKERT
After generalizing on the need for greater consideration in automobile design for service and maintenance requirements, the author discusses the accessibility of car parts at some length with the idea of pointing out difficulties encountered by service-station mechanics when parts are inaccessible, this having a bearing also on the length of time required for repair work and the consequent increased cost to the car owner. Specific instances are given and illustrated in which improvements in design could be made to obviate trouble. These are inclusive of cylinders, cylinder blocks, pistons, bolts, cap-screws, nuts, valves, dashboard instruments and general take-up adjustment. Special emphasis is placed upon certain inaccessible parts that necessitate excessive dismantling.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220025
H C BUFFINGTON
The Chicago Service Meeting paper relates specifically to the type of garage equipment that is used to handle the motor vehicle in preparation for its repair. The devices illustrated and described are those designed to bring in disabled cars, and include wrecking cranes and supplementary axle trucks; portable cranes and jacks on casters for handling cars in a garage; presses, tire-changing equipment and wheel alignment devices; engine and axle stands; and miscellaneous minor apparatus. The different factors mentioned emphasize the great need of standardization. The thought is not to do away with a car's individuality, but to construct all parts so that cars may have efficient service to the highest degree through the agency of every serviceman.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220026
C M MANLY, C B VEAL
Specifying the four general plans that have been followed by chassis builders in securing body equipment as being the building of bodies in their own shops; on contract by the body maker to plans and specifications of the chassis builder; by a local body maker to the order of the dealer or the owner; and the assembling from stock of standard sectional units recommended by the dealer or selected by the owner, the authors discuss each of these plans in detail. With regard to the plan of using standardized sectional bodies, the different sizes of chassis used for commercial purposes are separated into four specified groups and the production of a complete standard line including a number of styles of body for each chassis is commented upon and illustrated, inclusive of detailed considerations of the all-metal body.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220027
A C GODWARD
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220028
Merrill C Horine
The author states that motor transport today is threatened with arrested progress due to the lack of economic coordination between motor-vehicle operation, highway construction and legislative regulation. Highways constructed at considerable cost to the public have gone to pieces in many places, sometimes years before their bond issues have matured. Efforts to preserve these roads have been confined principally to heavy taxation and restriction of motor transport; they have not been made upon a sound economic basis, largely because principles of highway-transport economics are not only imperfectly understood, but have hardly been studied sufficiently to provide any definite basis of understanding.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220029
E W TEMPLIN
Stating that the means and methods of transporting freight over the highways are governed by six factors, the author enumerates them as being the number of ton-miles of goods to be shipped, the shipping points and destinations, the kinds of highway available, the types of vehicle most suitable, the cost of operation per ton-mile and the rates that should be charged for the service. The purpose of the paper is not to answer these questions but to determine whether present practice is headed in the right direction. The conditions the highway must meet, in addition to the gross load of the vehicles, are the maximum tire load, the pressure per square inch exerted by the tire upon the pavement and the value of any impact blow upon the pavement. The impact blows of pneumatic tires are practically negligible, while solid tires build up the impact to many times the weight of the wheel load; this is proved by impact tests of tires which are described in some detail and illustrated.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220047
H M Crane
The author indicates what the history of spring-suspension has been but discusses only the conventional type of four-wheeled design in which the front wheels are used for steering and the rear wheels for driving and braking. The problem of front-axle spring-suspension is mentioned, but that of proper rear-axle spring-suspension, especially for passenger cars, is discussed in detail because it is a much more difficult one. The advantages of the Hotchkiss drive for shaft-driven cars and some of its distinct disadvantages are stated, shaft-driven, rear-axle mountings being commented upon in explaining the factors that influenced the design of the spring-suspension device developed by the author. The advantageous features of this device are enumerated, inclusive of the effects of tire reactions.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220049
G A Green
In the paper an attempt is made to answer the broader phases of the questions: What constitutes a bus? and In what respects does a bus differ from other classes of automotive equipment? by establishing the principles on which the design and operation of motorbuses should be based. The treatment of the subject is in the main impersonal, although specific references to the practice of the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. and illustrations of its equipment are made to emphasize the points brought out. The questions of the unwisdom of overloading, rates of fare and the service requirements are discussed briefly as a preface to the paper proper. The factors controlling bus design are stated to be (a) safety, (b) comfort and convenience of the public and (c) minimum operating cost. The various subdivisions of each are commented on in some detail, and numerous illustrations and tabular data supplement the text.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220046
E H LOCKWOOD
Metropolitan-New England Sections Paper - The loss of power due to the friction of the various parts of the chassis has been carefully and elaborately investigated by a dynamometer, the dual purpose being the determination of the amount of internal frictional resistance of the front or rear wheels and the measurement of the power that can be delivered at the rear wheels with the concomitant rate of fuel consumption. The rolling-friction due to the resistance of the wheels as a whole is taken up first and afterward the separate resistances of the tires, bearings and transmission are studied under varying conditions of inflation-pressure and load. The five frictional resistances that were chosen as giving the most useful information are those of the front tires, the rear tires, the front bearings, the rear bearings and the engine.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220048
F O ELLENWOOD
After pointing out that the operating temperature is a vital factor in the life of a pneumatic truck-tire, the author outlines an investigation that was conducted at the plant of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. This sought to determine (a) the best means of measing tire temperatures; (b) the temperature effect of inflation-pressure, load, long runs, frequency of stops, and the sizes of the rim and the tire; (c) the temperature of various designs of tire; and (d) some suitable means of reducing large-tire temperatures. The main reason for the rise in the temperature of a tire is stated to be the generation of heat resulting from rapid flexing; and the various factors having to do with this generation of heat and its dissipation to the atmosphere are listed. The laboratory testing-machine and the methods and apparatus employed to measure the temperatures are described.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220051
CORNELIUS T MYERS
After pointing out that the publication of articles in the trade and technical journals, to the effect that very considerable weight-reductions in motor-truck construction with consequent savings in gasoline and tires are possible, works an injustice to the motor-truck industry and is misleading, the author outlines some of the reasons why such weight-reductions are very difficult to effect, as well as the possibilities of standardizing axle details. The use of aluminum to effect weight-reduction is commented upon and the various advantages claimed for metal wheels are mentioned. In the latter connection the author points out that, while these claims may be true, they are unsupported by reliable data. The greater part of the paper is devoted to an account of a series of tests conducted by a large coal company to determine the relative merits of wood and metal wheels on its trucks.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220050
R E PLIMPTON
The author enumerates the distinctive features of buses designed for city, for inter-city and for country service and comments upon them, presenting illustrations of these types of bus. Steam and electric motive power are discussed and the chassis components for bus service are considered in some detail. The general types of bus body are treated, together with the influences of climatic conditions and local preferences. Comfort and convenience factors are discussed at some length and the problems of heating, lighting and ventilation are given constructive attention. Fare-collection devices and methods are commented upon, and the State and local legal regulations are referred to in connection with their effect upon bus operation. Illustrations are included and a table showing condensed specifications for city buses is presented.
1922-01-01
Technical Paper
220052
W L BEAN
The rail motor-cars now used by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad are illustrated and commented upon, and statistical data regarding their operation are presented. The features mentioned include engine type and size, transmission system, gear-ratio, double end-control, engine cooling, heating by utilizing exhaust gases and exclusion of exhaust-gas fumes from the car interior. A table gives revenue data.

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