Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 241 to 270 of 190838
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2156
Stefano Frigo, Stefania Zanforlin, Ettore Musu, Riccardo Rossi, Roberto Gentili
The paper describes the CFD analysis, the arrangement and the first experimental results of a single-cylinder engine that employs an innovative low-pressure hydrogen direct-injection system, characterized by low fuel rail pressure (12 bar) and consequent low residual storage pressure. The injection is split in two steps: at first hydrogen is metered and admitted into a small intermediate chamber by an electroinjector (a conventional one usually employed for CNG), next a mechanically actuated poppet valve, that allows high volumetric flow rates, times hydrogen injection from the intermediate chamber to the cylinder within a short time, despite the high hydrogen volume due to the low injection pressure. Injection must be properly timed to maintain pressure below 6 bar (or little more) in the intermediate chamber and thus keep sonic flow through the electroinjector, to maximize volumetric efficiency and to avoid backfire in the intake pipe.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2157
Lyn McWilliam, Anton Zimmermann
Tier 4 Final legislation commences from 2008 - 2015, depending on engine power. At the same time the use of biodiesel is being incentivized or mandated in many countries. This is driving up the proportion of biodiesel available to the diesel engine fleet and so it is important to understand its impact on possible Tier 4 Final engine and aftertreatment systems. One of the solutions being explored to meet Tier 4 Final emissions regulations is selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using urea and an appropriate catalyst. Previous researchers have highlighted the potential for biodiesel to have a much greater impact on percentage increase in tailpipe NOx on engines equipped with Urea SCR aftertreatment than has historically been the case for engine-out NOx increase. Increases of as much as 80% have been presented, but without knowledge of the engine-out or absolute NOx emission data, it has not been possible to draw any conclusions from some of these publications.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2163
Kaname Naganuma, Yasuo Takagi, Atsuhiro Kawamura, Yoshio Sato
Hydrogen engines are required to provide high thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions. There are many possible combinations of injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and EGR rate that can be used in a direct-injection system for achieving such performance. In this study, NOX emissions of natural aspirated 4 cylinders engine with management strategies involving the injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and the EGR rate were evaluated under a Japanese JE05 emissions test cycle. Finally, the paper projects the potential of direct injection hydrogen engine for obtaining high output power and attaining low NOX emissions of 0.7 g/kWh under the emission test cycle.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2164
Yi Yang, John E. Dec, Nicolas Dronniou, Blake Simmons
Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0557
Gregory Austin, Jeffrey Naber, John H. Johnson, Chris Hutton
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0559
Keld Johansen, Gurli Mogensen, Damien Mey, David Pinturaud
Silicon carbide diesel particulate filter (DPF) is now recognized as the most effective and robust way to reduce not only the mass but also the number of emitted particles on diesel passenger cars. Widespread use of expensive catalytic platinum-containing coatings has contributed to increased harmful NO₂ emissions. A novel low-cost palladium-base metal coating, BMC-211, was developed which assists soot regeneration by oxygen transport and which actively removes NO₂ still having comparable passive and active soot regeneration properties. The novel coating was tested against a traditional commercial platinum coating on a modern series-produced car, on chassis dynamometer and on engine test bench.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0560
Ted N. Tadrous, Kevin Brown, Paul Towgood, Campbell McConnell
Active regeneration of diesel particulate filters is becoming essential for performance longevity given the diversity of duty cycles and engines' operating behaviors for existing and newer engines. The Syngas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide from diesel fuel and air produced by the non-catalytic Syngas Generator is potential candidate to actively enhance the regeneration efficiency of diesel particulate filters. The Syngas is utilized to create an exothermic condition over a pre-catalyst to the DPF to bring exhaust gas temperature from as low as 200°C to 650°C to enable a sustained DPF regeneration process. The Syngas is introduced to an inlet assembly which is divided into 4 quadrants so the full Syngas is mixing with a quarter of the exhaust flow and regenerating one DPF quadrant at a time. The Syngas DPF system is designed to operate seamlessly and is transparent to the vehicle operator.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0562
Kun chul Park, Soonho Song, Kwang min Chun
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at 550~650°C. Fuel penalty occurs when the exhaust gas temperature is increased. The low temperature oxidation technique is needed to reduce fuel consumption. In this study, we found that hydrogen could be used to decrease the PM oxidation temperature significantly on a catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The oxidation characteristics of PM with hydrogen supplied to CDPF were studied using a partial flow system. The partial flow system was used to control temperature and a flow rate independently. The CDPF was coated with Pt/Al₂O₃ 25g/ft₃, and a multi-channel CDPF (MC CDPF) with a square cross section of 1.65 cm width and length of 10 cm was used.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0563
Svetlana Iretskaya, Steve Golden, Ted Tadrous, Shun Hong Long
Non-PGM catalyst containing base metal mixed oxide (BMMO) supported on rare earth mixed oxide (REMO) had been evaluated by various methods for soot-oxidation activity. Thermo-gravimetric/Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA) experiments and synthetic gas bench activity tests showed that the catalyst was able to oxidize soot at temperatures significantly lower than soot combustion temperature leading to a conclusion that soot was oxidized via direct reaction with active species of the catalyst surface. It had been shown that low-temperature soot oxidation occurred with and without NO present in the reaction gas. Evaluation on engine benches of the BMMO catalyst coated on diesel particulate filters (DPF) confirmed low-temperature soot oxidation in exhaust gas with low NO₂ concentration and a possibility of cost-efficient diesel exhaust aftertreatment system without increasing tailpipe NO₂ content.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0564
Frank Willems, Erik Doosje, Frank Engels, Xander Seykens
This paper presents a cylinder pressure-based control (CPBC) system for conventional diesel combustion with high EGR levels. Besides the commonly applied heat release estimation, the CPBC system is extended with a new virtual NOx and PM sensor. Using available cylinder pressure information, these emissions are estimated using a physically based combustion model. This opens the route to advanced On-Board Diagnostics and to optimized fuel consumption and emissions during all operating conditions. The potential of closed-loop CA50 and IMEP control is demonstrated on a multi-cylinder heavy-duty EGR engine. For uncalibrated injectors and fuel variations, the combustion control system makes the engine performance robust for the applied variations and reduces the need for a time-consuming calibration process. Cylinder balancing is shown to enable auto-calibration of fuel injectors and to enhance fuel flexibility.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0565
Bryan M. Knight, Joshua A. Bittle, Timothy J. Jacobs
The often-observed differences in nitrogen oxides, or NOx, emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels in diesel engines remain intense topics of research. In several instances, biodiesel-fuelled engines have higher NOx emissions than petroleum-fuelled engines; a situation often referred to as the "biodiesel NOx penalty." The literature is rich with investigations that reveal many fundamental mechanisms which contribute to (in varying and often inverse ways) the manifestation of differences in NOx emissions; these mechanisms include, for example, differences in ignition delay, changes to in-cylinder radiation heat transfer, and unequal heating values between the fuels. In addition to fundamental mechanisms, however, are the effects of "system-response" issues.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0566
Kilnam Kim, Sunghwan Cho
The LNT(Lean NOx Trap) system has been developed for NOx reduction to meet Tier2Bin5 by using 2.2ℓ-diesel engine which was recently introduced by Hyundai Kia Motor company. The compression ratio was adjusted to 15.5 and the trim size of the turbine was reduced to increase EGR rates. During the FTP75 mode test, the engine out NOx was reduced by about 30% compared to the standard engine. The rich mode combustion was developed for the wide operating range despite of the low compression ratio. It was accomplished by adjusting air and FIE system, mainly by increasing post2 injection quantity. The A/F (Air-to-Fuel) ratio was controlled by additional post2 injection quantity. The neutral transition between lean mode and rich mode combustion was completed. The noise and torque change could not be recognized by the drivers during the transition of combustion mode (lean-to-rich or rich-to-lean). The transition procedure was finished within about 1sec for the whole operating range.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0567
Naeim A. Henein, Walter Bryzik, Ahmed Abdel-Rehim, Ashish Gupta
Ion current sensors have been considered for the feedback electronic control of gasoline and diesel engines and for onboard vehicles powered by both engines, while operating on their conventional cycles or on the HCCI mode. The characteristics of the ion current signal depend on the progression of the combustion process and the properties of the combustion products in each engine. There are large differences in the properties of the combustible mixture, ignition process and combustion in both engines, when they operate on their conventional cycles. In SI engines, the charge is homogeneous with an equivalence ratio close to unity, ignition is initiated by an electric spark and combustion is through a flame propagating from the spark plug into the rest of the charge.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0568
Riccardo Ceccarelli, Philippe Moulin, Carlos Canudas de Wit
In nowadays diesel engine, the turbocharger system plays a very important role in the engine functioning and any loss of the turbine efficiency can lead to driveability problems and the increment of emissions. In this paper, a VGT turbocharger fault detection system is proposed. The method is based on a physical model of the turbocharger and includes an estimation of the turbine efficiency by a nonlinear adaptive observer. A sensitivity analysis is provided in order to evaluate the impact of different sensors fault, (drift and bias), used to feed the observer, on the estimation of turbine efficiency error. By the means of this analysis a robust variable threshold is provided in order to reduce false detection alarm. Simulation results, based on co-simulation professional platform (AMEsim© and Simulink©), are provided to validate the strategy.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0569
Hanlong Yang, Christian Chimner
Future government emission regulations have lead to the development and implementation of advanced aftertreatment systems to meet stringent emission standards for both on-road and off-road vehicles. These aftertreatment systems require sophisticated control and diagnostic strategies to ensure proper system functionality while minimizing tailpipe NOx and PM emissions across all engine operating conditions. In this paper, an integrated algorithm design approach with controls and diagnostics for an aftertreatment system consisting of a fuel doser, fuel reformer, LNT, DPF, and SCR is discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0573
Jun-Mo Kang
Auto-ignited combustion in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) engines highly depends on temperature and composition of the cylinder charge. In this paper, characteristics of such combustion are investigated using a control-oriented HCCI engine model. First, thermal equilibrium points are obtained from the model and the sensitivity of combustion phasing around those equilibrium points are examined to understand characteristics of auto-ignited combustion. Finally, a method to effectively visualize the sensitivity of auto-ignited combustion is presented to explain how combustion characteristics change as engine operating condition changes.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0572
Andrew John Smallbone, Neal Morgan, Amit Bhave, Markus Kraft, Roger F. Cracknell, Gautam Kalghatgi
This research describes the potential to adopt detailed chemical kinetics for practical and potential future fuels using tri-component surrogate mixtures capable of simulating fuel octane “sensitivity” . Since the combustion characteristics of modern fuels are routinely measured using the RON and MON of the fuel, a methodology to generate detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for these fuels based on these data is presented. Firstly, a novel correlation between various tri-component blends (comprised of i-octane, n-heptane and toluene) and fuel RON and MON was obtained by carrying out standard octane tests. Secondly, a chemical kinetic mechanism for tri-component fuels was validated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) suite, an in-cylinder engine combustion simulator, and a series of engine experiments conducted in HCCI operating mode.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0539
Thomas Wolff, Holger Friedrich, Lars Tinggaard Johannesen, Shahrokh Hajireza
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are now a mandatory part in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems in order to achieve compliance with current emission legislations. However future demands for further NOx and CO₂ reductions combined with a maximum amount of allowed particle numbers per ccm lead to special requirements for the DPF substrate material. On the one hand high filtration efficiency of soot particles in the nanometer scale has to be reached and on the other hand high porosities and large pore sizes have to be realized to support catalytic coating. In order to have a base material composition which can easily be modified to meet current and future demands a new SiC substrate, called XP-SiC, was developed. The technology of the XP-SiC is based on a reaction forming process of coextruded silicon and carbon particles to SiC. This new manufacturing process leads to a unique microstructure with a sponge-like appearance and a high porosity in the range of 50% - 70%.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0538
Xiaogang Zhang, Paul Tennison, William Ruona
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of partial filtration DPF substrates using 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. Detailed 3-D CFD simulations were performed for real world sizes of DPF inlet and outlet channel geometries. Two concepts of partial filters were studied. The baseline geometry was a standard DPF with the front plugs removed. The second concept was to eliminate half of outlet plugs in addition to the inlet plugs to improve the pressure drop performance. The total filter efficiency was defined in current study to quantify the overall filter filtration efficiency which combines the effects from wall flow efficiency and flow through efficiency. For baseline case, 45% of total exhaust gas was found to go through the inlet channels, and the total trap efficiency was as high as 60%. However, only a 10% pressure loss reduction was found due to the removal of the outlet channel plugs from the DPF inlet side.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0541
Chitralkumar V. Naik, Karthik Puduppakkam, Cheng Wang, Jeyapandian Kottalam, Long Liang, Devin Hodgson, Ellen Meeks
Designing advanced, clean and fuel-efficient engines requires detailed understanding of fuel chemistry. While knowledge of fuel combustion chemistry has grown rapidly in recent years, the representation of conventional fossil fuels in full detail is still intractable. A popular approach is to use a model-fuel or surrogate blend that can mimic various characteristics of a conventional fuel. Despite the use of surrogate blends, there remains a gap between detailed chemistry and its utilization in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), due to the prohibitive computational cost of using thousands of chemical species in large numbers of computational cells. This work presents a set of software tools that help to enable the use of detailed chemistry in representing conventional fuels in CFD simulation. The software tools include the Surrogate Blend Optimizer and a suite of automated mechanism reduction strategies.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0540
Pouria Mehrani, Harry C. Watson
Cyclic variability in spark ignition engine combustion, especially at high dilution through lean burn or high EGR rates, places limits on in-cylinder NOx reduction and thermal efficiency. Flame wrinkling, resulting from interactions with turbulence, is a potential source of cyclic variations in turbulence. Previous studies have shown that flame kernels are subject to significant distortions when they are smaller than the integral length scale of turbulence. With the assumption that flame development is not subject to noticeable variations, after it reaches the integral length scale, the authors have shown that turbulent-burning-caused combustion variability can be successfully modeled as a function of laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity. This paper explores the contributions of flame wrinkling to flame kernel growth variation. As the kernel growth problem is complex, this study only explores one of the many aspects of the problem.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0542
Marcel Skarohlid
This paper deals with the influence of CO, CO₂, N₂, H₂, C₂H₆, C₃H₈ and C₄H₁₀ content in fuel on basic engine integral parameters. The focus is on the influence of biogas fuel composition on engine thermodynamic features. The paper describes the iterative regression method evaluating the influence of individual gas mass fraction and engine operation parameters on cumulative heat release curve of SI engines. The parameters for recalculation of heat release patterns depending on individual gas mass fraction in fuel and operation parameters are derived. The modeled cumulative heat release patterns are converted into burned fuel fraction pattern. The particular outputs are generalized using GT-POWER-based model results.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0543
Chen Huang, Valeri Golovitchev, Andrei Lipatnikov
A semi-detailed chemical mechanism for combustion of gasoline-ethanol blends, which is based on sub-mechanisms of gasoline surrogate and for ethanol is developed and validated aiming at CFD engine modeling. The gasoline surrogate is composed of iso-octane, toluene, and n-heptane in volumetric proportions of 55%:35%:10%, respectively. In this way, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio H/C, which is around 1.87 for real gasoline, is accurately reproduced as well as a mixture equivalence ratio that is important for Gasoline Direct Injection engine applications. The integrated mechanism for gasoline-ethanol blends includes 120 species participating in 677 reactions. The mechanism is tested against experimental data on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds, obtained for various n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene/ethanol-air mixtures under various equivalence ratios, initial temperatures, and pressures. Chemical, thermodynamic and transport properties used in the calculations are discussed.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0544
Kentaro Watanabe, Shingo Ito, Tadashi Tsurushima
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0548
Itsuhei Kohri, Yuji Kobayashi, Yukio Matsushima
The technology concerning thermo and fluid dynamics is one of the important fields which have made great progress along with rapid advance in computational resources. Especially, the CFD technology has been proved as successful contribution to the development of the engine cooling system. Therefore, this technology is widely used at early phase of the vehicle development. However, a serious problem has been remained that it does not always give practical precision. Particularly, the cooling fan is one of the primary components in the cooling system to determine the performance, while practical calculation method without depending on large resources has not established.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0546
Roda Bounaceur, Oliver Herbinet, Rene Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude, Frederique Battin-Leclerc, Antonio Pires da Cruz, Mohammed Yahyaoui, Karine Truffin, Gladys Moreac
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0550
Devadatta Mukutmoni, Jaehoon Han, Ales Alejbegovic, Lionel Colibert, Mathieu Helene
Accurate simulation of long term transient thermal convection is critical to automotive related thermal and fluid flow applications. For instance, long term thermal transients are relevant to “key-off” situations in which a moving vehicle brought to a stop leads to a usual initial spike in temperature followed by a drop as the heat sources are turned off. Presented are simulations of a simple tube and plate configuration that captures the contribution of all heat transfer effects and complexities of a vehicle key-off process. The simulations were performed using a coupling between the flow solver and the thermal simulation package that includes conduction and radiation effects. The simulation results were compared with the test data for steady state forced convection cases and transient natural convection cases. Good agreement was observed for both steady and transient simulations.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0549
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Alberto Bianchi D' Espinosa
The fluid dynamic of fully turbulent flows is characterized by several length scales bounded between the flow field dimension (large scales) and the diffusive action of the molecular viscosity (small scale). The large scales of motion are responsible of the main momentum transport while the small scales of motion are responsible of the energy dissipation into heat. In some cases the analysis of the large scales could be enough to explain the behaviour of the fluid dynamic system under investigation but, in other cases, the effect of all the turbulent scales have to be considered. A classic example of the latter working condition is the aerodynamic field where the efficiency is dictated by a fine equilibrium between mean flow conditions (driven by large turbulent scales) and laminar/turbulent boundary layer evolution (driven by small turbulent scales).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0553
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Löfdahl, Peter Nilsson, Steven Adelman
The most common fan model to use in commercial CFD software today is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model. This is at least valid for automotive under hood applications. Within the industry, for this typical application, this model is commonly known to under predict performance. This under prediction has been documented by the authors' of this paper in SAE paper 2009-01-0178 and VTMS paper 2009-01-3067. Furthermore has this been documented by S.Moreau from Valeo in “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Rotor-Stator Interaction in Automotive Engine Cooling Fan Systems”, ETC, 7th European Conference on Turbomachinery, 2007. In preceding papers a specific methodology of use has been documented and it has been shown that the MRF model under predicts performance for the airflow in a cooling system commonly with 14% in volumetric flow rate. This is for a system dominated by inertial effects.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0552
Paul M. Rutkowski
Seat cooling systems are becoming more common as luxury features offered by original equipment manufacturers. Despite the extensive research & application of these systems, a thermal model and comfort requirements of the occupant/seat system have not been established. Without a model or thermal criteria for comfort, the seat temperature & humidity conditions required for optimal comfort can not be defined. A synopsis of the thermal comfort conditions required to achieve an occupant's subjective comfort as well as their comfort transition points are explained. In this context a model is designed specifically from a heat and mass transfer perspective between an occupant and a seat cooling system. Focus is given to the local conduction, convection, and evaporative cooling that takes place at the body to seat surface interface.
Viewing 241 to 270 of 190838

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: