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Standard
1994-04-01
This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sheet.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Jacques LAVY, Christian ANGELBERGER, Philippe GUIBERT, Smaϊl MOKHTARI
Owing to its inherent high internal residual gas rate in partial load operation, the 2-stroke engine has been the first application to take benefit of the unconventional CAI™ (Controlled Auto-Ignition) combustion process. For a long time, the objective of the different research works on 2-stroke engines optimization was to eliminate its two main drawbacks leading to high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and a poor fuel efficiency. The first one is the unstable running operation combined with incomplete combustion, especially at light load, The second one is fuel short circuit at medium and full load. From the end of seventies, an approach developed by Onishi from Nippon Clean Engine was to take benefit of an high amount of hot internal residual gases to help auto-ignition of the fresh charge. This solution has been further developed up to the industrialization on 2-stroke engines. More recently, within the framework of the European 4-SPACE program driven by IFP, the CAI™ combustion process has been successfully applied to a 4-stroke engine, demonstrating its potential for near zero NOx emission levels combined with a significant fuel saving and thus reduction of CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Masaya Ogawa, Hisatoshi Sasaki, Koji Yoshida, Hideo Shoji, Hidenori Tanaka
A new concept of combustion which is using the characteristic of plasma jet ignition, that is the plasma jet diffusive combustion is proposed. The constant volume vessel is used for the experiment, and methanol is charged in the cavity of plasma jet injector and the air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is charged in the combustion chamber. The combustion characteristic is analyzed by measuring the combustion pressure and visualization of the combustion process. The plasma jet injector configuration and the ratio of methanol volume to cavity volume influence not only the plasma jet diffusive combustion process but also the maximum combustion pressure. In cases of small orifice diameter, the plasma jet diffusive combustion is not recognized, and the maximum combustion pressure increases as the orifice area becomes large. In the case of a little fuel is provided in the cavity, the enough methanol to initiate and to continue the diffusive combustion is not included in the methanol-air mixture jet and diffusive combustion does not occur.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Masatake Yoshida, Takashi Suzuki, Yasufumi Oguri, Wu Bin, Zhou Dasen, Song Shuying, Li Xinghu
The electronic controlled carburetor and ignition system has been developed. In accordance with various working conditions of the engine, the system adjusted corresponding control parameters; air fuel ratio and ignition timing, therefore it could keep the engine working on the optimal conditions. Through analyzing overall performance of the engine based on the experimental data, we had concluded that the specific fuel consumption was improved about 8-10%, and the exhaust emission performance was improved correspondingly after electronic control, the improved ratio was about 10% for HC emission and 97% for CO emission.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
P. Dell'Orto, G. Berlusconi, P. Colombo
A smart way to control A/F mixture ratio in small utility engines is needed to meet future emission standards and to improve fuel economy. Dell'Orto proposes a novel carburation technology, that join an effective way to vary A/F mixture with a closed-loop electronic control strategy. The electronic carburetor is able to control A/F mixture ratio in the lean combustion range, improving both emission and fuel economy. The mixture formation control is achieved by meaning of a solenoid valve on a main air bleed circuit. An electronic controller is used to drive the solenoid valve, according to the engine operating conditions. The test engine used is a four stroke, air cooled, single cylinder OHV engine with CDI ignition and mechanical speed governor. The control strategy is based on engine speed monitoring. The system normally forces the mixture on the lean side. An incipient lean misfire event is detected by cycle periods processing. When cycle by cycle deviation threshold is detected, then electronic controller forces the mixture to go back to the rich side, for the better combustion.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
G. Chiatti, O. Chiavola
Abstract A complete two stroke engine predictive tool has been developed in order to evaluate how geometric parameters affect both performances and exhaust emissions. The method is based on a two-step procedure. In the former one, the coupling between 0D and 1D simulation schemes, used to model engine volumes and ducts respectively, provides the boundary conditions necessary for the latter procedure, in which a 3D approach is applied to a variable geometry in order to obtain detailed information of cylinder flow and concentration fields during the scavenging period. The first step retains the advantages of being a simple and rapid facility as it doesn't demand carefulness in the preliminary activity devoted to define the calculation geometry; moreover it is able to compute global parameters (torque, fuel and air consumption). For these reasons it can be considered a suitable tool to be extensively adopted together with the experimental process. The second step is devoted to the comprehension of the phenomena and to the evaluation of the different pathways, which the subsequent optimisation process should be directed to.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
R. U. K. Gustafsson, G. P. Blair, B. I. R. Jonsson
At the 1999 SETC meeting, a paper presented a simple, tuned and silenced exhaust system for a two-stroke engine which theoretically reduced both noise and exhaust emissions and increased engine power and fuel efficiency. In this paper that design concept is applied to a small 56 cc industrial engine and experimentally shown to deliver the projected behaviour which was predicted in that earlier publication. Experimental test results are presented for power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust emissions to illustrate these statements. An accurate engine simulation software package (VIRTUAL 2-STROKE) is employed to model the entire two-stroke engine and to demonstrate not only its effectiveness as a design tool in this area but also that it can accurately predict the above-mentioned performance and emission characteristics. By examining the output of the engine simulation it becomes possible to determine the gas dynamic and thermodynamic origins of the improvement in these performance characteristics and to inexpensively use that tool for further optimisation and enhancement of the engine performance and exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
R. Gentili, S. Frigo, F. Cozzolino, S. Zanforlin
In two-stroke S.I. engines, direct fuel injection allows avoiding fuel loss from the exhaust port, since the cylinder is scavenged only with air. However, only if injection produces charge stratification, also combustion difficulties at light loads, due to the excessive presence of residual in the cylinder, can be removed. An alternative solution for this problem is ATAC (Active Thermo Atmosphere Combustion), which turns the effect of residual gas from negative to positive, since its thermal energy is used to prime the combustion of fresh gas. ATAC leads to very good combustion stability with small cycle-to-cycle variation and to good fuel economy and low exhaust emissions of unburned hydrocarbons. This paper deals with ATAC combined with direct fuel injection, both of the air-assisted medium-pressure type and of the liquid high-pressure type. In the case of liquid injection, also ATAC dependence on relevant parameters, such as injection timing, injection pressure and exhaust timing has been investigated, with the intent of expanding ATAC existence field towards the lowest speeds and loads, as it is required for an appropriate application of this unconventional combustion to production engines.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Carmen Barrios Sánchez, Jesús Casanova Kindelan
Nowdays in the field of internal combustion engines research there is an important interest on a new combustion process that promise great advances in the reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. This paper describes the successful application of The Temperature Controlled Autoignition Combustion on a small (50 cm3) two-stroke engine tested under laboratory conditions. The engine is a commercial model, used to power scooters, chainsaws and lawn mowers. The paper also details the experimental setup, the particular problems associated to the small size of the engine, the operational conditions and the engine modifications required to make possible a stable and uniform Temperature Controlled Autoignition Combustion at light loads. Also the characteristics of new data acquisition software specially designed and tailored for this study are described. One of he weak points of this kind of engines is the strong irregularity from cycle to cycle that appears when operated at partial loads, which produce high unburned hydrocarbons emissions and a considerably increase in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
J. Suwa, K. Hokari, M. Oda, T. Kaneda, S. Kataoka
Motorcycle engines are operated at an extremely broad range of revolutions, from 1000 min-1 to 10000 min-1 or more. Ideally, the natural frequency of each part should never match the engine excitation frequency at any point over that entire range of revolution speeds, but practically, there are times when resonance cannot be avoided because the range is so broad, and therefore the vibration amplitude at resonance must be kept low. For this reason, it is important to grasp not only the resonance frequency but also the vibration amplitude at that point. This may be achieved by two methods, measurement and analysis. The direct measurement of vibration is generally difficult because the motorcycle muffler system has a complex shape and in addition it gets very high temperature when the engine is operating. For this reason, with the aim of being able to predict muffler vibration at the design stage, we carried out a vibration test and FEM (finite element method) analysis. First, we carried out an experimental modal analysis of the muffler attached to the motorcycle and obtained the natural frequency and the vibration mode.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
N Jayaram, RB Anand
Abstract: Proving of an exhaust system design against structural failures has always been a great challenge in a new 4-stroke scooter development. Also the development time of exhaust system is dependent on how quickly we solve the failure problems. The design has to take care of both static & dynamic failures. However, the experience of previous failures clearly indicates the chief cause as resonance taking place in the speed range of the vehicle. Finite element (FE) model of the first proposal is made using the Solid models available. The natural frequencies are extracted from the FE model consisting of shell, beam & mass elements. The design of exhaust mounting bracket is found to be crucial in manipulating the frequencies. The physical prototype is made and the natural frequencies are found experimentally. These are compared with the FE predicted Eigen values. The FE model is fine tuned to match the predicted natural frequencies with the measured ones. The validated FE model is used to try various design options for mounting bracket, tube thickness etc. to achieve the desired frequency pattern.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Paolo Emilio Bagnoli, Emilio Franchi, Stefano Di Pascoli
This paper deals with the experimental characterization of the thermal properties of a power hybrid electronic circuit used for motorbike electrical power regulation. The main power devices were MOS transistors mounted in “naked chip” configuration. These devices suffered for an abnormal over-heating, causing the system failure, due to unsuitable heat dissipation capabilities of the assembling structure. The thermal characterization was carried out by means of the TRAIT (Thermal Resistance Analysis by Induced Transient) method based on the careful analysis of the device temperature cooling transients. This technique is able to measure the thermal resistance as a sum of several contributions due to the various parts of the system, so that it possible to localize within the assembling structure the sources of heat conduction impediments. Several measurements, carried out on samples mounted on allumina and insulated aluminium substrates, clearly indicated the thin Sn-Pb soldering layer, between the die and the top metal pads, as the main responsible for the thermal resistance high values.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Kazuyuki SHIOMI, Takeshi OKADA, Michiharu OHKAWA, Tetsuro IKENO
In order to reduce the vibration of the 4-stroke 2-cylinder outboard motor, the vibration of the outboard motor was analyzed theoretically. By using a 2 dimensional kinetic model, the equation of motion was obtained. Vibration acceleration at handle and the excitation forces to the hull were described by solving these equations. Through this analysis, the theory of isolating vibration by the pendulum motion mount method is established by finding the design condition which isolates vibration effectively. The method was applied to the design of the outboard motor. The mount location was optimized to minimize vibration, and the mount structure was designed for endurance. The body of the outboard motor was designed to optimize its vibratory characteristics in order to avoid resonance. Experimental verification of the newly developed 4-stroke 2-cylinder small outboard motor revealed that the effectiveness of vibration reduction was equal to, or better than, that of the outboard motor equipped with a 1st order balancer.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
G. L. Berta, P. Casoli, A. Vacca
Abstract It is well known that the combustion development in Diesel engines is strongly dependent on the injected fuel rate versus crank angle. In the last few years new technologies for controlling the injection rate have been developed and tested; many researchers have investigated the effect of split injection on both particulate and NOx emissions. For small diesel engines electronically controlled injection systems have too high incidence on the final costs. In this paper a mechanical injection system is presented that takes advantage of a modified in-line pump order to achieve a two-stage injection. Tests have been carried out by means of an atmospheric test rig the fuel injection system. The experimental results confirm that the two-stage injection occurs when utilizing the modified pump. A computer code, developed by the authors, has been used in order to simulate the modified injection system; the model worked out to be very useful to determine the geometrical features the pump.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Göran Almkvist, Tomas Karlsson, Styrbjörn Gren, Jörgen Bengtsson, Conny Andersson, Peter Oskarsson
Future exhaust emission legislation for small engines, used on motorcycles and leisure products, will make it necessary for small engine manufacturers to follow the same path in engine development as car manufacturers have done. Using the approach of converting an automotive system to a one-cylinder motorcycle engine application will result in severe disadvantages due to the large differences in physical behaviour between the engine types. In the paper here presented, an Engine Management System, SEM Direct, was developed with the demands of extreme applications like motocross, enduro, and off-road in the forefront. A solution to the pressure detection problem has been developed, and has been shown to accurately predict engine load. An adaptive function of the throttle position signal was developed to keep the throttle signal correct at small opening areas. Immediate response control has been achieved by a combination of throttle detection, fast inlet pressure up date, and an advanced fuel injection strategy.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Hajime YAMA, Masanori FUJIWARA, Yasuo FUJII, Toshio NAKAHIRA
The latest frequency-conversion system, as typified by inverter power generator, is capable of providing superb fuel economy and NVH characteristics by means of real-time control of the engine speed according to its load condition. The current mechanical governor, however, can difficultly achieve that demand of performance. In order to meet these requirements, we have developed the electronic governor system having high control flexibility and response for small diesel engines for agricultural and industrial use. In developing this electronic governor system, we have adopted a method that can minimize modification of current engines. We have successfully developed the electronic governor system by means of a post-assembly installation, in which dedicated functional devices are installed to complete engine while keeping intact the current highly reliable PFR type fuel-injection pump and the mechanical governor. This method allows the electronic governor to control engine speed within the limit of fuel-delivery quantity regulated by the mechanical governor.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
K. Morikawa, H. Takimoto, Y. Moriyoshi, K. Kikuchi, T. Naito
In order to improve the drawbacks of current schnürle-type two-stroke gasoline engine, a reverse uniflow-type two-stroke direct injection engine was designed and developed. The scavenging port and piston geometry combined with a direct injection system were designed to realize both stratified charge combustion in light to medium load and higher power output in high load range. In-cylinder gas motion and spray behavior were analyzed and optimized by numerical simulation. The experimental result shows high BMEP in WOT operation achieved by a high delivery ratio, high trapping efficiency and good scavenging. In light to medium load a stable combustion was achieved by good stratified combustion utilizing a spray and wall guided mixture preparation.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Boatto Paolo, Monacchia Stefano, Vieri Giovanbattista, Alessandro Trifiletti
A method to speed up and improve the whole development cycle of Electronic Control Units (ECU) is presented. The proposed procedure can be divided into three steps: development and validation of the controlled system dynamic model; numerical optimisation of the system control strategy; Hardware In the Loop (HIL) simulations to test the electronic control unit. Implementation of the method has led to the creation of a hardware in the loop system aimed at testing the control unit of electronically controlled transmissions. The system includes a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) board where the dynamic model runs and a console allowing the user to operate the throttle and brake pedals and to actuate the gearshifts. The behaviour of the model can be visualised through a real time Graphical User Interface (GUI) on a PC connected with the DSP board by a serial link.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
C.M. Bartolini, F. Caresana, G. Vincenzi
Abstract Several studies are currently dealing with the so-called ‘new generation two-stroke engines’. In nearly all these, charge control by means of fuel injection has been proposed to overcome the well-known problems of fuel and lube-oil consumption, and the probably unacceptable level of pollutant emissions. Direct injection, in particular, seems to guarantee the best results as it allows to avoid the short-circuiting of the fuel to the exhaust. The direct-injection systems proposed in recent times do not seem to be widely applicable especially to small two-stroke engines as they introduce considerably complicated and consequently high-cost systems. A new direct injection system, based on the hydraulic phenomenon commonly known as “water hammer”, has been proposed by the authors as a reliable means of achieving high injection pressures while maintaining the simple manufacturing and low-cost characteristics of two-stroke engines. Though ideal for small two-stroke engines this concept appears suitable also for every other kind of spark-ignited engine.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
M. Gambino, S. Iannaccone
Abstract Two stoke engine for mopeds and motorcycles is reaching an important appointment for its survival. In fact, already with the introduction of EURO 1 emission limits, it was necessary to modify some components of the propulsion apparatus in order to reduce especially the huge amount of HC emissions, due to the mixture losses during the scavenging. It was demonstrated that an effective solution to lessen emissions, including benzene, from current two stroke engines for two wheelers, could be retrofitting circulating vehicles with a catalyst. But this is not enough to comply the future more stringent European limits. A powerful solution has been suggested by an important Italian two wheeler manufactures based on the direct injection of gasoline, during the compression stroke, when the exhaust port is closed. The engine is described in the paper, in terms of performance and emissions, and the main results are reported.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
E Ramakrishnan., B Nagalingam, K.V Gopalakrishnan
Two Stroke Spark Ignition Engines have high exhaust emissions and low brake thermal efficiency due to the short-circuiting losses and incomplete combustion, which occur during idling and at part-load operating conditions. In the present work an attempt was made to eliminate the short-circuiting losses by direct injection. A low-pressure direct fuel injection system was developed with the Bosch electric fuel pump and solenoid injector. The necessary electronic control unit hardware and software were developed in the institute for research purpose. The present work was conducted in three phases. In the first phase the carburetor was replaced by the manifold injection system and the performance of the system was optimized for minimum emissions. In the second phase the extra reed valve concept reference (10) was implemented on the manifold injection system to improve scavenging. In the final phase the direct injection system was developed which eliminates short-circuiting losses completely.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
E. Elonen, S. Laanti, M. Pitkänen
The effect of fuel and catalytic converter on emissions from a small 2-stroke engine was studied in this work. These measurements were made at Agrifood Research Finland, Agricultural Engineering Research (MTT/Vakola) and they are a part of the national Promotor -research program. The Promotor-program (http://www.vtt.fi/virtual/promotor/) is a co-ordinated research effort on the development of fuels; internal combustion engines and exhausts treatment. Other participants of this “Reduction of emissions from small engines” -project are: The Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry at the University of Kuopio, Kemira Metalkat Oy, Fortum Oil and Gas Oy and Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health. Measurements were made in laboratory conditions with a 45 cm3 engine. Three different fuels and one catalytic converter were used. Three different air-fuel ratios were used approximately from λ=0,75 to λ=0,92. Regulated emissions were measured. In addition the effect of the amount of 2-stroke oil was briefly investigated.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Mohan D Umate, C. Subramoniam, Y. Ramachandra Babu, Vinay Harne
It is well understood that the consumption of lube oil should be reduced to minimum due to stringent emission norms and the need to reduce visual smoke. We have used statistical methods for optimising engine performance parameters due to limited time availability for product development. In this paper, techniques that have been used to develop and optimise a small 4-stroke gasoline engine have been described. This work is focussed mainly on oil consumption due to piston assembly and cylinder block. The piston ring assembly has been modeled using simulation software (RINGPAK). Design of Experiments (DoE) tools have been used to optimise the variables / critical factors. The significant factors were identified through ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) table on the above responses. A test procedure has been judiciously finalised to evaluate the optimised parameters. The best combination of factors/levels was arrived at by using the above results and was evaluated through test rig trials. The above methodology of combining ringpak modeling and DoE techniques helped to optimise oil consumption at the design stage with significant reduction in development time.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
H. Suda
Abstract Running performance, output power and styling aside, mechanical noise is also an important factor for determining the merchandise value of a motorcycle. However, the evaluation of mechanical noise has conventionally relied on human judgment and thus posed problems with respect to the uniformity, consistency and reproducibility of evaluation results. We therefore attempted to develop a method of quantitatively expressing the intensity of mechanical noise. Two principal aspects of mechanical noise are discussed in this paper. One was the “rattling noise” that is periodically generated when a motorcycle is idling at a constant engine speed. The other was the “whistling noise” that is generated when the engine speed varies, for example, when the engine is raced. Instead of evaluating the level (i.e., sound pressure) of the motorcycle's overall noise that includes exhaust noise, we used as evaluation values the ratios of rattling and whistling noise levels to the overall noise level.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
G. Chiatti, O. Chiavola
Abstract An integrated numerical procedure has been developed in order to predict the noise radiation of small engine for automotive and general purpose applications. In exhaust system of single or multi-cylinder small engine, complex shape elements are always included (junction, compact chamber), where non-planar higher-order modes exist. Besides, the amplitude of pressure wave, propagating inside such exhaust systems, is generally not bounded by linear acoustic limit. For these reasons, aimed at providing realistic and accurate description of their fluid dynamic and acoustic behaviour, an integrated multi-code methodology, based on 0D, 1D and 3D models, has been set up; the investigation of the flow conditions all throughout the exhaust system, allows to predict the sound emission. The developed approach retains the advantages of all methods: detailed information of flow behaviour as it is able to accurately predict, with the 3D scheme, the propagation of the pressure waves through complex elements, such as junctions, avoiding the significant limitations that a one-dimensional schematization always introduces, as well as fast processing typical of 1D and 0D schemes devoted to the analysis of ducts and volumes.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Hiroyuki Kuwahara, Yoji Fukui, Hideki Kido, P. Mas, B. Vandenplas
While on the one hand the development period to meet the market needs to be as short as possible and cost reduction of products is extremely important for manufacturers, the demands for environmental considerations and riders' comfort have recently been rapidly increasing in the area of motorcycle performance as well. Considering these arguments, this paper discusses how to establish technology to predict riders' vibration comfort of a motorcycle, starting from a computer aided design (CAD). So far, only a few papers on the prediction of motorcycle vibration have already been made public, but with regard to modeling the connection between component models even less literature is available and, as a result, empirical figures are widely used. Therefor this paper focuses on the modeling aspects of these connectors to make accurate virtual models that allow the assessment of motorcycle vibrations in operational conditions. In addition, technology is shown to calculate the operational forces, acting on the engine and to effectively use CAD, which recently have been developed tremendously with the use of digital technology.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Yuji Araki, Kazuhiro Gotou
In development of motorcycles, striking a good balance between aerodynamic performance and aesthetic design and shortening the development period are extremely important subjects for improvement of product value and cost efficiency. There are various demands on aerodynamic performance of motorcycles, for example, the lower aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic stability, protective function against wind pressure on riders (hereinafter referred to as “wind protection”), low aeroacoustic noise and so on, for which various studies are made in every stage of development. This paper presents an outline of the aerodynamic development of motorcycles by using wind tunnels, and shows the effectiveness of using a scale model wind tunnel by giving the following three examples of aerodynamic development. 1 The aerodynamic drag force of a 600 cc Supersports type motorcycle was reduced by 10% compared with the previous model by optimizing the shape of the fairings. 2 The aeroacoustic noise which riders suffer was reduced by 1.1∼3.7 dB for a 250 cc scooter. 3 The wind protection for a 1300 cc Sport/touring type motorcycle was developed by an in-depth survey of flow around riders.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Hiroyuki Nakata, Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Masashi Kajita, C.H.Jerry CHUNG
Concerning low frequency brake-squeal-noises of motorcycles, the noise caused by structural instability of the system was solved with the analysis of the mode-coupling mechanism by the complex eigenvalue analysis. An equation of motion of the brake system was simplified by converting from physical domains to modal domains. Required parameters for the stability analysis were obtained from the normal mode solution of system model. Moreover, the time for a repeat calculation in different friction coefficients and an instability-causes analysis in a mode were enabled to decrease 70% or more by using a numerical-analysis solver. An analysis model with high accuracy was established and was applied to the new approach, and to specify a mode affecting squeal noises and to study countermeasures were performed. From the test result for modified brake system, it was verified that the new method is effective for predictions and countermeasures of noises in the designing stage.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
Takumi Muroki, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Masahide Takagi, Kou Suzuki, Masayuki Imai
A Direct Injection Stratified Charge Rotary Engine ( DISC-RE ) with a pilot flame ignition system has been studied to find the possibility of simultaneous reductions of fuel consumption rate and HC exhaust gas emissions. Firstly, combustion characteristics in a model combustion chamber, which simulates the DISC-RE were examined from the viewpoints of calculation and experiment. The high speed photography and the indicated pressure analysis were experimentally performed while numerical calculations of the mixture formation and combustion processes were also carried out. As a result, it has been found that the combustion using the pilot flame ignition system is much activated and a better ignitability is attained under lean mixtures than using a spark ignition system. Secondly, a single rotor with 650 cc displacement DISC-RE was built as a prototype. Combustion characteristics and its performance were tested using a combustion analyzer. Light oil and kerosene were used for performance tests.
Technical Paper
2001-12-01
A. De Vita, L. Andreassi, L. Di Angelo
The performances increasing of internal combustion engines for race car has driven to develop special systems in order to improve the volumetric efficiency. To this aim, in the last years, a great effort has been done especially in studying geometries for airbox, turbo-compressors, special exhaust systems, etc. In this paper, the project of a “high-performance” airbox for a naturally aspirated internal combustion engine (ICE) of a car racing in prototype sport competitions is described. In order to optimize the airbox geometry under extremely complex operative conditions, the fluid dynamic phenomena inside the airbox have been studied by means of a three dimensional computational code (3D CFD). This approach has allowed to study different airbox geometry and to define the one to be realized and tested on race track. The new airbox geometry, defined in this way, has brought to good results. In fact, the tests on race-track, show that there is great improvement of car performances in comparison to the ones obtained with the unmodified airbox.
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