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Viewing 1 to 30 of 102
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0177
Pascal Theissen, Johannes Wojciak, Kirstin Heuler, Rainer Demuth, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0164
Johannes Wojciak, Pascal Theissen, Kirstin Heuler, Thomas Indinger, Nikolaus Adams, Rainer Demuth
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1997
Jan Rejlek, Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugene Nijman, Arnaud Bocquillet
Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
2013-11-20
Journal Article
2013-01-9121
Kristian Haehndel, Torsten Frank, Frieder Christel, Sylvester Abanteriba
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1488
M. Bollig, J. Liebl, R. Zimmer, M. Kraum, O. Seel, S. Siemund, R. Brück, J. Diringer, W. Maus
Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0065
Hans Hohenner, Frank Kessler, Friedrich Munk
The dramatic increase in data and information exchange has lead to increased communication network complexity within the subsystems of the powertrain itself as well as in all other subsystems of the vehicle. It is essential to manage this complexity during the development process. Applying new processes and methods such as vehicle functions and systems orientation in a top-down structural approach creates a powerful support in development of innovative powertrains. Several technical integration examples of powertrain functions are illustrated for the purpose of demonstrating customer-related advantages. Vehicle functions and systems orientation also has significant impact on organisational structures and cooperation methods to achieve maximum synergies as well as efficient vehicle communication architectures.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0043
Mihiar Ayoubi, Thilo Demmeler, Heinz Leffler, Philip Köhn
The key-enabler for tomorrow's X-by-wire systems is the mastery of today's advanced active chassis control systems that are highly safety critical, distributed and complex. The only feasible way is to compose future X-by- wire systems with established and field approved functional management, components and infrastructure technologies, which are addressed in this paper.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0025
Günter Reichart, Michael Haneberg
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1408
Thomas Blotevogel, Jan Egermann, Jürgen Goldlücke, Alfred Leipertz, Matthias Hartmann, Martin Schenk, Martin Berckmüller
Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) has been successfully used for the investigation of the mixture formation process in hydrogen engines. Detailed information has been obtained about the process development (qualitative measurements) and on the fuel/air-ratio (quantitative measurements) in the combustion chamber. These results can be used for further optimization of the mixture formation and the combustion process concerning emissions and fuel consumption. The measurement technique used here is not limited to hydrogen and can also be applied to other fuel gases like natural gas. The main topic of this paper is the experimental verification of the PLIF data by simultaneous Raman scattering measurements. By Raman scattering the fuel/air-ratio can directly be determined from the direct concentration measurements of the different gas species.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1374
Manuel Fischnaller, Joachim Melbert, Sebastian Scharner, Tanja Eichner
A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0006
Thomas Helmer, Adrian Ebner, Randa Radwan Samaha, Paul Scullion, Ronald Kates
Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential task during design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed, into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0729
R. Freymann, R. Stryczek
It is shown in how far modal correction techniques can contribute to reduce the CPU effort in the scope of numerical structural-acoustic investigations. Due to this technique a quasi-online interactive acoustic optimization of a basic system configuration can be achieved. In this context special focus is pointed on structural optimization aspects. Finally, the limits of validity as to the accuracy of the results obtained by the modal correction approach in the case of larger modifications are determined.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-0374
Joachim Tachtler, Thomas Dietsch, Georg Götz
The first application in which the fuel cell will find a market in the passenger car is as an “electrochemical battery” serving the purpose the fuel cell can do best: To generate electricity for the electrical power bus with a high degree of efficiency. Such a fuel cell referred to as an APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) exceeds the power output and endurance of a battery and is able not only to supply power to all conventional electrical power-consuming items in the car, but also to provide new functions such as air conditioning when the car is at a standstill. In the long run, indeed, the fuel cell may even be able to replace the electrical alternator.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0947
Jose L. Ortiz, Daniel Heiserer
Nowadays there is an increasing need to streamline CAE processes. One such process consists of translating a Multibody Dynamics System (MBS) model into an equivalent Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. Typically, users start with the creation of a MBS model which is set at a desired operating point by means of running simulations in the MBS domain (e.g. dynamics, statics.) The MBS model is then further translated into an equivalent FEA model which is used to perform simulations in the FEA domain (e.g. passive safety/crash, noise vibration harshness/NVH.) Currently, the translation of the MBS model into a FEA model is done either manually or by means of using a user-written script. This paper shows that a user-written script that translates a MBS model into a FEA model can not provide a high fidelity translation. In general, it is found that eigenvalues computed by the FEA code would not match eigenvalues computed by the MBS code.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0729
Pierre Labelle, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Éric Baril
In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1763
Anneloes Dalenoort, Gabriella Griotto, Herman Mooi, Hans Baldauf, Gerd Weissenbach
Virtual testing has grown to be an efficient tool in vehicle passive safety design. Most simulations currently are deterministic. Since the responses observed in real-life and standardized tests are greatly affected by scatter, a stochastic approach should be adopted in order to improve the predictability of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental data. In addition, an objective judgement of the performance of numerical models with respect to experimental data is necessary in order to improve the reliability of virtual testing. In the European VITES & ADVANCE project the software tool Adviser was developed in order to fulfil these two requirements. With Adviser, stochastic simulations can be performed and the quality of the numerical responses with respect to the experimental can be objectively rated using pre-defined and user-defined objective correlation criteria. The software Adviser was used to develop a stochastic HybridIII 50th% Madymo numerical model.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0201
Markus Schratter, Michael Karner, Peter Wimmer, Daniel Watzenig, Christian Gruber
With the huge improvements made during the last years in the area of integrated safety systems, they are one of the main contributors to the massively rising complexity within automotive systems. However, this enormous complexity stimulates the demand for methodologies supporting the efficient development of such systems, both in terms of cost and development time. Within this work, we propose a co-simulation-based approach for the validation of integrated safety systems. Based on data measurements gained from a test bed, models for the sensors and the distributed safety system are established. They are integrated into a co-simulation environment containing models of the ambience, driving dynamics, and the crash-behavior of the vehicle. Hence, the complete heterogeneous system including all relevant effects and dependencies is modeled within the co-simulation.
2012-06-13
Journal Article
2012-01-1522
Alfred Zeitler
According to upcoming legislative regulations in certain countries, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will have to be equipped with devices to compensate for the lack of engine noise needed to warn pedestrians against the vehicles. This leads to the question of appropriate sound design which has to meet specific psychoacoustic requirements. The present paper focuses on auditory features of warning sounds to enhance pedestrians' safety with a major focus on the detectability of the exterior noise of the vehicle in an ambient noise. For the evaluation of detectability, the psychoacoustic model developed by Kerber and Fastl will be introduced allowing for the prediction of masked thresholds of the approaching vehicle. The instrumental assessment yields estimates of the distance of an approaching vehicle at the point it becomes audible to the pedestrians.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1105
Philip Koehn, Michael Eckrich
For the first time, the BMW Active Steering system allows driver-independent steering intervention at the front axle with the mechanical link between the steering wheel and the front axle still in place. The system is primarily comprised of a rack-and-pinion steering system, a double planetary gear and an electric actuator motor. This new level of freedom enables continuous and situation-dependent variation of the steering ratio and therefore adaptation of the transmission behaviour between the steering wheel and the vehicle's reaction to the relevant driving situation. Comfort, steering effort, handling and directional stability have been extensively optimised as a result of this. In addition, driver-independent steering intervention also guarantees vehicle stabilisation in critical driving situations. As a world exclusive, the new Active Steering system will be available for the first time as an option in the new BMW 5 Series.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1932
Robert Powell, Philippe Moron, Ganapathy Balasubramanian, Barbara Neuhierl, Sivapalan Senthooran, Bernd Crouse, David Freed, Cornelia Kain, Frank Ullrich
Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
2016-06-15
Technical Paper
2016-01-1839
Emar Vegt
Abstract The quiet nature of hybrid and electric vehicles has triggered developments in research, vehicle manufacturing and legal requirements. Currently, three countries require fitting an Approaching Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) to every new car capable of driving without a combustion engine. Various other geographical areas and groups are in the process of specifying new legal requirements. In this paper, the design challenges in the on-going process of designing the sound for quiet cars are discussed. A proposal is issued on how to achieve the optimum combination of safety, environmental noise, subjective sound character and technical realisation in an iterative sound design process. The proposed sound consists of two layers: the first layer contains tonal components with their pitch rising along with vehicle speed in order to ensure recognisability and an indication of speed.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2092
Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugène Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Arnaud Bocquillet
Abstract In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0200
Francis Dance, Damon Gawley, Robert Hein, Ronald Kates
As the popularity of vehicle navigation systems rises, incorporating Real Time Traffic Information (RTTI) has been shown to enhance the systems' value by helping drivers avoid traffic delays. As an innovative premium automaker, BMW has developed a testing process to acquire and analyze RTTI data in order to ensure delivery of a high quality service and to enhance the customer experience compared to audible broadcast services. With a methodology to obtain valid and repeatable RTTI data quality measurements, BMW and its service partner, Clear Channel's Total Traffic Network (TTN), can improve its offered service over time, implement corrective measures when appropriate, and confidently ensure the service meets its premium objectives. BMW has partnered with TTN and SoftSolutions GmbH to implement a traffic data quality process and software tools.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2184
Philipp Scheibner, Andreas Wendemuth
A widely common principle of sound quality engineering is the development of objective measures determining human perception. Beside stationary sound parts, auditory events that are based on time-variant attributes have a traceable influence on human perception, particularly in the field of product sound quality. In this paper the significance and identification of the relevant sound quality parameters for power seat adjusters are investigated with a specific design of experiments (DoE). This methodology was used to advance the efficiency of subjective tests. The necessity of an efficient design is given through a relatively high number of variable parameters and, furthermore, through the demands of a qualitative experiment with limited effort for each subject in the listening tests. Instead of investigating randomly picked sounds this approach concentrates on a systematic scanning of the parameter space.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2203
Philippe Moron, Robert Powell, Dave Freed, Franck Perot, Bernd Crouse, Barbara Neuhierl, Frank Ullrich, Michael Höll, Artur Waibl, Cornelia Fertl
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (> 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. The goal of this paper is to present a computational approach developed to predict the greenhouse windnoise contribution to the interior noise heard by the vehicle passengers. This method is based on coupling an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for the windnoise excitation to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver for the structural acoustic behavior.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0709
Stefano Toninel, Hendrik Forkel, Thomas Frank, Bodo Durst, Christian Hasse, Dirk Linse
The G-equation model was implemented in the commercial code ANSYS CFX and validated against experimental data in order to successfully simulate turbulent premixed combustion in internal combustion engines. The model is based on the level-set approach. Two transport equations are solved respectively for the G-scalar mean value, representing the local distance function from the time-averaged mean flame front, and its variance, correlated to the turbulent flame brush thickness. The model closure for tracking the flame front is based on an algebraic expression for the turbulent burning velocity. The composition of the reacted mixture is evaluated by coupling the code with flamelet libraries generated with the ANSYS CFX-RIF package by means of a reaction progress variable computed as a function of the G-related quantities.
2008-10-20
Technical Paper
2008-21-0019
Gerulf Kinkelin, Alain Gilberg, Bertrand Delord, Harald Heinecke, Simon Fürst, Juergen Moessinger, Andreas Lapp, Ulrich Virnich, Stefan Bunzel, Thomas Weber, Noë Spinner, Lennart Lundh, Daniel Svensson, Peter Heitkämper, Fredrik Mattsson, Kenji Nishikawa, Hiroyuki Hirano, Klaus Lange, Bernd Kunkel
The AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) Development Partnership has published early 2008 the specifications Release 3.0 [1], with a prime focus on the overall architecture, basic software, run time environment, communication stacks and methodology. Heavy developments have taken place in the OEM and supplier community to deliver AUTOSAR loaded cars on the streets starting 2008 [2]. The 2008 achievements have been: Improving the specifications in order to secure the exploitation for body, chassis and powertrain applications Adding major features: safety related functionalities, OBD II and Telematics application interfaces.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0346
Raphael Zenk, Christian Mergl, Jürgen Hartung, Heiner Bubb
For car manufacturers, seating comfort is becoming more and more important in distinguishing themselves from their competitors. There is a simultaneous demand for shorter development times and more comfortable seats. Comfort in automobile seats is a multi-dimensional and complex problem. Many current sophisticated measuring tools were consulted, but it is unclear on which factors one should concentrate attention when measuring comfort. The goal of this paper is to find a model in order to predict the overall seating discomfort based on body area ratings. Besides micro climate, the pressure distribution appears to be the most objective measure comprising with the clearest association with the subjective ratings. Therefore an analysis with three different test series was designed, allowing the variation of pressure on the seat surface. In parallel the subjects were asked to judge the local and the overall sensation.
2006-12-05
Technical Paper
2006-01-3623
Amir A. Hashmi, Ioannis Dimitriou
Knowing the wheel forces on a vehicle under various circumstances and configurations is essential for its aerodynamic development. This becomes crucial when dealing with a racing car. This was the driving force for the initial research conducted in the BMW Aerodynamics Department [1] concerning the aerodynamic forces of an isolated 1:2 racing wheel. The latter were determined for various arrangements with the use of a system equipped with pressure transducers distributed on the wheel surface. While the pressure wheel is adequate for revealing flow structures surrounding it as well as highlighting its physics, it is nevertheless insufficient for the prediction of the wheel forces with high accuracy. As will be shown, this is mainly the consequence of the absent contribution of skin friction, the mathematical method engaged in post–processing and the restricted number of pressure transducers.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0446
Reinhard Stolle, Alexandre Saad, Daniel Weyl, Markus Wagner
Being able to integrate consumer electronics (CE) devices into the automobile is an increasingly important goal. In this paper, we focus on the HMI (human machine interaction) aspects of consumer electronics in the car. We describe the requirements concerning HMI integration of consumer electronics and offer several possible solutions. One of the requirements is minimal driver distraction. A desired property in this context concerns the mental model that the user builds of the service that is to be operated: ideally, this model (i.e., appearance and interaction logic) need not change when integrating the service into the automobile, even though the operating elements differ considerably (e.g., touch screen vs. iDrive commander). A further requirement is posed by the dynamic nature of CE services: often, they are not known at design/deploy time of the HMI software of the automobile.
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