Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 109
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0512
Y.A. Irving Brown, S. Windsor, A.P. Gaylard
Two methods of passive flow control were investigated to determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag on large Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs). Passive means of flow control were selected since all active methods require the input of additional energy (e.g., pressurized fluids or electrical energy). The selected methods were base bleed and the use of a rear cavity, and various combinations of these were experimentally tested in full-scale wind tunnels with and without a moving belt/rotating wheel assembly. Aerodynamic drag reduction was accomplished by restructuring the low-pressure wake directly behind the vehicle. External cavity depths ranging from d/h=0.17 to 0.83 were used, while body cavity depths ranged from d/h=0 to 0.83, where the depth of the cavity d is non-dimensionalized by the height h of the base area.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0159
Nicholas R. Oettle, David Sims-Williams, Robert Dominy, Charles Darlington, Claire Freeman
The in-cabin sound pressure level response of a vehicle in yawed wind conditions can differ significantly between the smooth flow conditions of the aeroacoustic wind tunnel and the higher turbulence, transient flow conditions experienced on the road. Previous research has shown that under low turbulence conditions there is close agreement between the variation with yaw of in-cabin sound pressure level on the road and in the wind tunnel. However, under transient conditions, sound pressure levels on the road were found to show a smaller increase due to yaw than predicted by the wind tunnel, specifically near the leeward sideglass region. The research presented here investigates the links between transient flow and aeroacoustics. The effect of small geometry changes upon the aeroacoustic response of the vehicle has been investigated.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0702
Richard K. Stobart, Xi Guo, Gavin Bartley, Stephen Stacey
The notion of open source systems has been well established in systems software and typified by the development of the Linux operating system. An open source community is a community of interest that makes use of software tools in research and development. Their ongoing development is part of the free flow of ideas on which the community. The motivation for the work reported in this paper is to provide the research community in engine controls with a ready access to a complete engine management solution and the component parts. The work described in this paper extends open source principles to engine control with a portable spark ignition (SI) control strategy assembled using Simulink. The underlying low level drivers are written in C and designed for portability. A calibration tool is written in C and works over a controller area network (CAN) link to the engine control unit (ECU). The ECU hardware is based on the Infineon Tricore microcontroller.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1309
Petros Efthymiou, Martin H. Davy, Colin P. Garner, Graham K. Hargrave, John E.T. Rimmer, Dave Richardson
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions reduction is an imminent challenge for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine designers due to the introduction of Particulate Number (PN) standards in the proposed Euro 6 emissions legislation aimed at delivering the next phase of air quality improvements. An understanding of how the formation of combustion-derived nanoparticulates in engines is affected by the engine operating temperature is important for air quality improvement and will influence future engine design and control strategies. This investigation has examined the effect on combustion and PM formation when reducing the engine operating temperature to -7°C. A DISI single-cylinder optical research engine was modified to simulate a range of operating temperatures down to the proposed -7°C.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1228
Graciela Becci, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Alexandros Mouzakitis, James Marco, Andrew David Moore
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1705
Chadwyck Musser, Jerome Manning, George Chaoying Peng
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is the standard analytical tool for predicting vehicle acoustic and vibration responses at high frequencies. SEA is commonly used to obtain the interior Sound Pressure Level (SPL) due to each individual noise or vibration source and to determine the contribution to the interior noise through each dominant transfer path. This supports cascading vehicle noise and vibration targets and early evaluation of the vehicle design to effectively meet NVH targets with optimized cost and weight. A common misconception is that SEA is only capable of predicting a general average interior SPL for the entire vehicle cabin and that the differences between different locations such as driver's ear, rear passenger's ear, lower interior points, etc., in the vehicle cannot be analytically determined by an SEA model.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1707
George Chaoying Peng
Vehicle manufacturers demand early design assessment of vehicle wind noise attribute so as to eliminate engineering waste induced by late design changes. Vehicle wind noise attribute can be simulated with a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model using exterior surface turbulence pressure on the vehicle greenhouse panel as the wind noise load. One important application of SEA wind noise model is the wind noise assessment for vehicle form design. Vehicle form optimization for wind noise plays an important role in lightweight vehicle architecture, since that reduction in the wind noise load will compensate the loss of vehicle body acoustic attenuation caused by down-gauge glazing and body panels. In this paper, two SEA wind noise load cases currently used in vehicle SEA wind noise modeling have been analyzed and evaluated against vehicle measurements.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1727
Ashley Gillibrand, Iain Suffield, Xavier Vinamata, Roger Williams, Andreas Brückmann
Many electric (EV) and hybrid-electric (HEV) vehicles are designed to operate using only electric propulsion at low road speeds. This has resulted in significantly reduced vehicle noise levels in urban situations. Although this may be viewed by many as a benefit, a risk to safety exists for those who rely on the engine noise to help detect the presence, location and behaviour of a vehicle in their vicinity. In recognition of this, legislation is being introduced globally which will require automotive manufacturers to implement external warning sound systems. A key challenge for premium vehicle manufacturers is the development of a suitable warning sound signature which also conveys the appropriate brand aspirations for the product. A further major difficulty exists when trying to robustly evaluate potential exterior sounds by running large-scale trials in the real world.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0952
Josko Deur, Matthew Hancock, Francis Assadian
The vehicle dynamics control systems are traditionally based upon utilizing wheel brakes as actuators. However, there has been recently strong interest in the automotive industry for introduction of other vehicle dynamics actuators, in order to improve the overall vehicle stability, responsiveness, and agility features. This paper considers various actuators such as active rear and central differentials and active front and rear steering, and proposes design of related yaw rate control systems. Different control subsystems such as reference model, feedback and feedforward control, allocation algorithm, and time-varying controller limit are discussed. The designed control systems are verified and compared by computer simulation for double lane change and slalom maneuvers.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1618
George Chaoying Peng
Automotive manufactures demand early assessment of vehicle form design against wind noise attribute to eliminate any engineering waste induced by late design changes. To achieve such an assessment, it is necessary to determine a measurable quantity which is able to represent vehicle form changes, and to understand the relationship between the quantity and vehicle interior cabin noise. This paper reports experimental measurements of vehicle exterior surface pressure and the interior cabin noise level in response to the change of exterior rear view mirror shape. Measurements show that exterior surface pressure on vehicle greenhouse panel is a primary factor of wind noise load to the interior cabin noise; they can be used in preliminary wind noise ranking. Care should be taken when using them in ranking vehicle form wind noise performance. It has been observed that a change in surface pressure on the front side window does not necessarily lead to a change in the interior cabin noise.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0966
Li Han, Martin Thornton, Dezhi Li, Mike Shergold
The increased application of lightweight materials, such as aluminium has initiated many investigations into new joining techniques for aluminium alloys. As a result, Self-piercing riveting (SPR) was introduced into the automotive industry as the major production process to join aluminium sheet body structures. Although both hydraulic and servo types of SPR equipment are used by the industry, the servo type is most commonly used in a volume production environment. This type uses stored rotational inertia to set the rivet. The initial rotational velocity of the mass dictates the setting force and hence the tool is described as velocity-controlled. A study was therefore conducted to examine the effect of setting velocity on the process including tooling and joint performance. It was found that the setting velocity would have a significant effect on tooling life. Over 80kN force could be introduced into the tooling depending on selection of the setting velocity.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-1011
Adrian Philip Gaylard, Martin Beckett, Joaquin Gargoloff, Bradley Duncan
This paper presents a methodology for simulating Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) for a typical vehicle bonnet (hood) under a range of onset flow conditions. The hood was chosen for this study, as it is one of the panels most prone to vibration; particularly given the trend to make vehicle panels lighter. Among the worst-case scenarios for inducing vibration is a panel being subjected to turbulent flow from vehicle wakes, and the sudden peak loads caused by emerging from a vehicle wake. This last case is typical of a passing manoeuvre, with the vehicle suddenly transitioning from being immersed in the wake of the leading vehicle, to being fully exposed to the free-stream flow. The transient flowfield was simulated for a range of onset flow conditions that could potentially be experienced on the open road, which may cause substantial vibration of susceptible vehicle panels.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1164
Alexandros Mouzakitis, Jianlin Wei, Jihong Wang
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have long been used to test electronic control units (ECUs) and software in car manufacturers. It provides an effective platform to the rapid development process of the ECU control algorithms and accommodates the added complexity of the plant under control. Accurate Model based HIL simulation (AMHIL) is considered as a most efficient and cost effective way for exploration of new designs and development of new products, particularly in calibration and parameterization of vehicle stability controllers. The work presented in the paper is to develop a mathematical model of a windscreen wiper system for the purpose of conducting HIL vehicle test and eventually to replace the real component with the model for cost cutting and improved test efficiency. The model is developed based on the electro-mechanical engineering principles.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0289
Nicholas Oettle, David Sims-Williams, Robert Dominy, Charles Darlington, Claire Freeman, Peter Tindall
At higher speeds aerodynamic noise tends to dominate the overall noise inside the passenger compartment. Large-scale turbulent conditions experienced on the road can generate different noise characteristics from those under steady-state conditions experienced in an acoustic wind tunnel. The objective of this research is to assess the relationship between on-road flow conditions and the sound pressure level in the cabin. This research, covering links between the unsteady airflow around the vehicle and aeroacoustic effects, is a natural progression from previous aerodynamic studies. On-road testing was undertaken using a current production vehicle equipped with a mobile data logging system. Testing was carried out on major roads at typical highway speeds, where wind noise is very significant. Of particular interest are high-yaw conditions, which can lead to a blustering phenomenon.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1237
Changzhao Jiang, Xiao Ma, Hongming Xu, Steve Richardson
The new fuel, 2, 5-dimenthylfuran, known as DMF, captured worldwide attention since the discovery of its new production method. As a potential bio-fuel, DMF is competitive to gasoline in many areas, such as energy density, combustion efficiency and emissions. However, little work has been performed on its unconventional combustion mode. In this work, high speed imaging and thermal investigation are carried out to study DMF and gasoline dual-injection on a single cylinder, direct injection spark ignition optical engine. This dual-injection strategy combines direct injection (DI) and port fuel injection (PFI) simultaneously which means two different fuels can blend in the cylinder with any ratio. It provides a flexible way to use bio-fuels with gasoline. DMF DI with gasoline PFI and ethanol DI with gasoline PFI are studied under different injection proportions (by volume) and IMEPs.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1235
Xiao Ma, Changzhao Jiang, Hongming Xu, Steve Richardson
The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1903
A.J. Butcher, P.G. Aleiferis, David Richardson
This paper addresses the need for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of fuel spray formation and mixture preparation in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Fuel injection systems for DISI engines undergo rapid developments in their design and performance, therefore, their spray breakup mechanisms in the physical conditions encountered in DISI engines over a range of operating conditions and injection strategies require continuous attention. In this context, there are sparse data in the literature on spray formation differences between conventionally drilled injectors by spark erosion and latest Laser-drilled injector nozzles. A comparison was first carried out between the holes of spark-eroded and Laser-drilled injectors of same nominal type by analysing their in-nozzle geometry and surface roughness under an electron microscope.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1906
Po-Wen Tu, Hongming Xu, Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava, Karl Dean, Daliang Jing, Li Cao, Adam Weall, Jens Krueger Venus
The large eddy simulation (LES) with Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method in Ansys-FLUENT has been used to study the effects of nozzle hole geometrical parameters on gasoline direct injection (GDI) fuel injectors, namely the effect of inner hole length/diameter (L/D) ratio and counter-bore diameters on near field spray characteristics. Using iso-octane as a model fuel at the fuel injection pressure of 200 bar, the results showed that the L/D ratio variation of the inner hole has a more significant influence on the spray characteristics than the counter-bore diameter variation. Reducing the L/D ratio effectively increases the mass flow rate, velocity, spray angle and reduces the droplet size and breakup length. The increased spray angle results in wall impingements inside the counter-bore cavity, particularly for L/D=1 which can potentially lead to increased deposit accumulation inside fuel injectors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0713
Helena Simmonds, Sophie Cox, Steve Nicholls, Geraint Williams
Abstract To meet corporate CO2 emission targets polymer composites are being explored for light-weighting vehicle applications. Operational requirements may demand that such materials function above glass transition temperatures or heat deflection points. Intumescent coatings are traditionally used in construction to protect steelwork during fire. This paper presents a novel experimental investigation of two intumescent technologies to thermally protect a reinforced polyamide, for use as a semi-structural vehicle component. Coatings were assessed against the thermal requirement to withstand 500°C for 10 minutes. The differences in performance observed between water and epoxy based coatings as well as when an insulation layer was introduced are reported. Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) and modulus values were obtained at −40°C, ambient, and 85°C for uncoated specimens before and after thermal cycling.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1933
Sivapalan Senthooran, L.A.Raghu Mutnuri, Joe Amodeo, Robert Powell, Claire Freeman
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0188
Prashant Khapane, Uday Ganeshwade, Kevin Carvalho
Abstract Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modeling.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2192
Garry Dunne
Over the past decade there have been significant advances made in the technology used to engineer Powertrain Sound Quality into automobiles. These have included exhaust system technologies incorporating active and semi-active valves, intake system technologies involving passive and direct feedback devices, and technologies aimed at tuning the structure-borne content of vehicle interior sound. All of these technologies have been deployed to complement the traditional control of NVH issues through the enhancement of Powertrain Sound Quality. The aim of this paper is to provide an historical review of the recent industry-wide advances made in these technologies and to provide the author's perspective on what issues have been addressed and what opportunities have been delivered.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0900
A. P. Gaylard, J. P. Howell, K. P. Garry
This paper presents a series of observations of time-averaged wake asymmetry for a range of “notchback” vehicle geometries. The primary focus is on a reduced scale experiment using full-sized saloon geometry. Substantial flow asymmetry was observed in the vehicle “notch”. Similar asymmetries are reported for a full scale experiment on the same geometry along with others as diverse as production models of a luxury and mid-sized saloon; basic car shapes and a simple body. In one case a physical explanation is proposed, based on the degeneration of an unstable symmetric wake structure.
2007-05-15
Technical Paper
2007-01-2304
G. C. Peng
Vehicle wind noise is becoming increasingly important to customer satisfaction. Early wind noise assessment is critical to get things right during the early design phase. In this paper, SEA modeling technique is used to predict vehicle interior noise caused by the exterior turbulence. Measured surface turbulence pressures over vehicle greenhouse panels are applied as wind noise load. SEA representation of wind noise load case is investigated. It has been found that current SEA wind noise load case over-estimates at frequencies below window glass coincident frequency. A new concept of noise source pole index is introduced and a new wind noise load coupling has been developed. Comparison with vehicle wind tunnel measurements shows that the proposed load case significantly improved prediction accuracy.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0137
A. P. Gaylard
Simulation of local flow structures in the A-pillar/side glass region of bluff SUV geometries, typical of Land Rover vehicles, presents a considerable challenge. Features such as relatively tight A-pillar radii and upright windscreens produce flows that are difficult to simulate. However, the usefulness of aerodynamics simulations in the early assessment of wind noise depends particularly on the local accuracy obtained in this region. This paper extends work previously published by the author(1) with additional data and analysis. An extended review of the relevant published literature is also provided. Then the degree to which a commercial Lattice-Boltzman solver (Exa PowerFLOW™) is currently able to capture both the local flow structure and surface pressure distribution (both time averaged and unsteady) is evaluated. Influential factors in the simulation are shown to be spatial resolution, turbulence and boundary layer modelling.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0898
Thorsten Gerke, Alkiviadis Boulos
Electrical power requirements for vehicles continue to increase. Future vehicle applications require the development of reliable and robust power supply strategies that operate over various ambient temperatures and driving conditions. Insufficient charge balance is one of the major concerns for conventional lead-acid battery systems when operated with limited charging times during short journeys or extreme climate conditions. For vehicle power supply analysis, a detailed understanding of the operational characteristics of the major components and how they interact as a part of the electric power system, including environmental and road conditions, is essential if the analysis is to aid system optimization. This paper presents a model based technique that enhances the process of vehicle electrical power system design. Vehicle system optimization using virtual prototypes has become critically important as more electrical features are added to future vehicles.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2463
Christopher Price, Arash Hamzehloo, Pavlos Aleiferis, David Richardson
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
2012-03-26
Article
Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) and Chery Automobile Company Ltd have agreed to form a joint venture in China. The agreement follows extensive talks between JLR and Chery on establishing an equal-partnership company.
2009-10-27
Article
A U.K. consortium is developing a modular hybrid system that could span micro-hybrid to full plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
2011-06-02
Article
Tata Motors on May 27 celebrated the opening of its first Jaguar Land Rover plant in India. Tata Motors of Mumbai acquired Jaguar Land Rover in 2008. Workers at the plant in Pune will build the Land Rover Freelander 2 in two variants, the TD4 SE automatic and the SD4 HSE automatic, for the India market.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 109

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: