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Viewing 1 to 30 of 277
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2104
Ulf Aronsson, Clément Chartier, Öivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Johan Sjöholm, Rikard Wellander, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Paul C. Miles
The soot distribution as function of ambient O₂ mole fraction in a heavy-duty diesel engine was investigated at low load (6 bar IMEP) with laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity. A Multi-YAG laser system was utilized to create time-resolved LII using 8 laser pulses with a spacing of one CAD with detection on an 8-chip framing camera. It is well known that the engine-out smoke level increases with decreasing oxygen fraction up to a certain level where it starts to decrease again. For the studied case the peak occurred at an O₂ fraction of 11.4%. When the oxygen fraction was decreased successively from 21% to 9%, the initial soot formation moved downstream in the jet. At the lower oxygen fractions, below 12%, no soot was formed until after the wall interaction. At oxygen fractions below 11% the first evidence of soot is in the recirculation zone between two adjacent jets.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2106
Lyle M. Pickett, Caroline L. Genzale, Gilles Bruneaux, Louis-Marie Malbec, Laurent Hermant, Caspar Christiansen, Jesper Schramm
Diesel spray experimentation at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions is intended to provide a more fundamental understanding of diesel combustion than can be achieved in engine experiments. This level of understanding is needed to develop the high-fidelity multi-scale CFD models that will be used to optimize future engine designs. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but because of the uniqueness of each facility, there are uncertainties about their operation. For this paper, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2236
Randy P. Hessel, Richard Steeper, Russell Fitzgerald, Salvador Aceves, Daniel Flowers
Recently experiments were conducted on an automotive homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) research engine with a negative-valve-overlap (NVO) cam. In the study two sets of experiments were run. One set injected a small quantity of fuel (HPLC-grade iso-octane) during NVO in varying amounts and timings followed by a larger injection during the intake stroke. The other set of experiments was similar, but did not include an NVO injection. By comparing both sets of results researchers were able to investigate the use of NVO fuel injection to control main combustion phasing under light-load conditions. For this paper a subset of these experiments are modeled with the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code KIVA3V [ 6 ] using a multi-zone combustion model. The computational domain includes the combustion chamber, and intake and exhaust valves, ports, and runners. Multiple cycles are run to minimize the influence of initial conditions on final simulated results.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2254
Russell P. Fitzgerald, Richard R. Steeper
An infrared laser absorption technique has been developed to measure in-cylinder concentrations of CO in an optical, automotive HCCI engine. The diagnostic employs a distributed-feedback, tunable diode laser selected to emit light at the R15 line of the first overtone of CO near 2.3 μm. The collimated laser beam makes multiple passes through the cylinder to increase its path length and its sampling volume. High-frequency modulation of the laser output (wavelength modulation spectroscopy) further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and detection limits of CO. The diagnostic has been tested in the motored and fired engine, exhibiting better than 200-ppm sensitivity for 50-cycle ensemble-average values of CO concentration with 1-ms time resolution. Fired results demonstrate the ability of the diagnostic to quantify CO production during negative valve overlap (NVO) for a range of fueling conditions.
2010-10-25
Journal Article
2010-01-2164
Yi Yang, John E. Dec, Nicolas Dronniou, Blake Simmons
Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C 4 -C 5 alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C 5 alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0579
Victor M. Salazar, Sebastian A. Kaiser
This paper examines the interaction of bulk flow and jet-induced fuel convection in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine with direct injection. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of gaseous acetone as a fuel tracer was performed to obtain quantitative images of the hydrogen mole-fraction in the operating engine. With the engine motored, fuel was injected into inert bulk gas from a centrally located injector during the compression stroke. The injector had a single-hole nozzle with the jet angled at 50 degrees with respect to the vertical injector axis. Two parameters were varied in the experiments, injector orientation and tumble intensity, and for each of these, the injection timing was varied. Image series of the mean fuel mole-fraction between injection and near-TDC crank angles capture the mixture-formation process for each configuration and injection timing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0673
Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0675
Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Nicholas Matthias, Victor Salazar, Sebastian Kaiser
This paper performs a parametric analysis of the influence of numerical grid resolution and turbulence model on jet penetration and mixture formation in a DI-H2 ICE. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located single-hole injector nozzle. The simulation includes the intake and exhaust port geometry, in order to account for the actual flow field within the cylinder when injection of hydrogen starts. A reduced geometry is then used to focus on the mixture formation process. The numerically predicted hydrogen mole-fraction fields are compared to experimental data from quantitative laser-based imaging in a corresponding optically accessible engine. In general, the results show that with proper mesh and turbulence settings, remarkable agreement between numerical and experimental data in terms of fuel jet evolution and mixture formation can be achieved.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0659
Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett, Alexandra A. Hoops, Jeffrey M. Headrick
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1133
Bing Hu, Mark Musculus, Joseph Oefelein
Recent experiments of diesel injection processes have demonstrated that mixing accelerates after the end of injection (EOI). This finding has significant implications for low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel engines. Previous simulations using a one-dimensional model of a single-pulsed air jet, which is analogous in many aspects to diesel jets, suggest that the rapid mixing after EOI in diesel jets is due to a temporary increase in the entrainment rate as the jet decelerates. In the present study, we performed a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) of an unsteady air jet identical to that used for the one-dimensional model. The LES calculation agrees well with available experimental data and provides both spatially and temporally resolved details of the three-dimensional transient mixing field. Results show that entrainment increases during deceleration.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0610
Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett, Sanghoon Kook
The liquid and vapor-phase spray penetrations of #2 diesel and neat (100%) soybean-derived biodiesel have been studied at late expansion-cycle conditions in a constant-volume optical chamber. In modern diesel engines, late-cycle staged injections may be used to assist in the operation of exhaust stream aftertreatment devices. These late-cycle injections occur well after top-dead-center (TDC), when post-combustion temperatures are relatively high and densities are low. The behavior of diesel sprays under these conditions has not been well-established in the literature. In the current work, high-speed Mie-scatter and schlieren imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber to characterize the transient and quasi-steady liquid penetration behavior of diesel sprays under conditions relevant for late-cycle post injections, with very low densities (1.2 - 3 kg/m 3 ) and moderately high temperatures (800 - 1400 K).
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0612
Mohan Bobba, Mark Musculus, Wiley Neel
Multiple fuel-injections during a single engine cycle can reduce combustion noise and improve pollutant emissions tradeoffs. Various hypotheses have been proposed in the literature regarding the in-cylinder processes responsible for the pollutant emissions improvements. This paper provides a brief overview of these hypotheses along with an investigation exploring which of these mechanisms are important for post injections under low-temperature combustion (LTC) conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. In-cylinder soot and exhaust smoke are measured by 2-color soot thermometry and filter paper blackening, respectively. The evolution and interaction of soot regions from each of the injections is visualized using high-speed imaging of soot luminosity, both in the piston bowl and in the squish regions.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0625
Yuxin Zhang, Jaal Ghandhi, Benjamin Petersen, Christopher Rutland
A novel algebraic similarity model for subgrid scalar dissipation rate has been developed as part of the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) package KIVA3V-LES for diesel engine study. The model is proposed from an a priori study using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of forced isotropic turbulence. In the a posteriori test, fully resolved turbulent passive scalar field measurements are used to validate the model in actual engine flows. For reason of the length limit by SAE and the specific interest in engine applications, only a prior test and a posteriori test in engine flows are included in this paper. A posteriori tests in isotropic cube flow, turbulent round jet and flame cases will be presented in separate papers. An engine LES simulation of multi consecutive cycles was performed in this study.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0238
Vicente Romero
This paper1 explores some of the important considerations in devising a practical and consistent framework and methodology for working with experiments and experimental data in connection with modeling and prediction. The paper outlines a pragmatic and versatile “real-space” approach within which experimental and modeling uncertainties (correlated and uncorrelated, systematic and random, aleatory and epistemic) are treated to mitigate risk in modeling and prediction. The elements of data conditioning, model conditioning, model validation, hierarchical modeling, and extrapolative prediction under uncertainty are examined. An appreciation can be gained for the constraints and difficulties at play in devising a viable end-to-end methodology. The considerations and options are many, and a large variety of viewpoints and precedents exist in the literature, as surveyed here. Rationale is given for the various choices taken in assembling the novel real-space end-to-end framework.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0862
Ben R. Petersen, Isaac W. Ekoto, Paul C. Miles
The influence of soy- and palm-based biofuels on the in-cylinder sources of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in an optically accessible research engine operating in a partially premixed, low-temperature combustion regime. The biofuels were blended with an emissions certification grade diesel fuel and the soy-based biofuel was also tested neat. Cylinder pressure and emissions of UHC, CO, soot, and NOx were obtained to characterize global fuel effects on combustion and emissions. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to capture the spatial distribution of fuel and partial oxidation products within the clearance and bowl volumes of the combustion chamber. In addition, late-cycle (30° and 50° aTDC) semi-quantitative CO distributions were measured above the piston within the clearance volume using a deep-UV LIF technique.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0557
John E. Dec, Magnus Sjöberg
An investigation has been conducted to determine the relative magnitude of the various factors that cause changes in combustion phasing (or required intake temperature) with changes in fueling rate in HCCI engines. These factors include: fuel autoignition chemistry and thermodynamic properties (referred to as fuel chemistry), combustion duration, wall temperatures, residuals, and heat/cooling during induction. Based on the insight gained from these results, the potential of fuel stratification to control combustion phasing was also investigated. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine at 1200 rpm using a GDI-type fuel injector. Engine operation was altered in a series of steps to suppress each of the factors affecting combustion phasing with changes in fueling rate, leaving only the effect of fuel chemistry.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1399
Lyle M. Pickett, Dennis L. Siebers
Methods of producing non-sooting, low flame temperature diesel combustion were investigated in an optically-accessible, quiescent constant-volume combustion vessel. Combustion and soot formation processes of single, isolated fuel jets were studied after autoignition and transient premixed combustion and while the injector needle was fully open (i.e., during the quasi-steady mixing-controlled phase of heat-release for diesel combustion).The investigation showed that fuel jets that do not undergo soot formation in any region of the reacting jet and that also have a low flame temperature could be produced in at least three different ways during mixing-controlled combustion: First, using a #2 diesel fuel and an injector tip with a 50 micron orifice, a fuel jet was non-sooting in ambient oxygen concentrations as low as 10% (simulating the use of EGR) for typical diesel ambient temperatures (1000 K) and densities.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1400
Ansis Upatnieks, Charles J. Mueller
The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1678
Paul C. Miles, Dae Choi, Marcus Megerle, Bret RempelEwert, Rolf D. Reitz, Ming-Chia Lai, Volker Sick
Simultaneous two-component measurements of gas velocity and multi-dimensional numerical simulation are employed to characterize the evolution of the in-cylinder turbulent flow structure in a re-entrant bowl-in-piston engine under motored operation. The evolution of the mean flow field, turbulence energy, turbulent length scales, and the various terms contributing to the production of the turbulence energy are correlated and compared, with the objectives of clarifying the physical mechanisms and flow structures that dominate the turbulence production and of identifying the source of discrepancies between the measured and simulated turbulence fields. Additionally, the applicability of the linear turbulent stress modeling hypothesis employed in the k-ε model is assessed using the experimental mean flow gradients, turbulence energy, and length scales.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1900
Magnus Sjöberg, John E. Dec
Combustion phasing is one important issue that must be addressed for HCCI operation. The intake temperature can be adjusted to achieve ignition at the desired crank angle. However, heat-transfer during induction will make the effective intake temperature different from the temperature measured in the runner. Also, depending on the engine speed and port configuration, dynamic flow effects cause various degrees of charge heating. Additionally, residuals from the previous cycle can have significant influence on the charge temperature at the beginning of the compression stroke. Finally, direct injection of fuel will influence the charge temperature since heat is needed for vaporization. This study investigates these effects in a systematic manner with a combination of experiment and cycle simulation using WAVE from Ricardo.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1843
Charles J. Mueller, Glen C. Martin, Thomas E. Briggs, Kevin P. Duffy
Fuel-injection schedules that use two injection events per cycle (“dual-injection” approaches) have the potential to simultaneously attenuate engine-out soot and NOx emissions. The extent to which these benefits are due to enhanced mixing, low-temperature combustion modes, altered combustion phasing, or other factors is not fully understood. A traditional single-injection, an early-injection-only, and two dual-injection cases are studied using a suite of imaging diagnostics including spray visualization, natural luminosity imaging, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of nitric oxide (NO). These data, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are used to enhance understanding of the in-cylinder processes that lead to the observed emissions reductions.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0001
Lyle M. Pickett, Julien Manin, Raul Payri, Michele Bardi, Jaime Gimeno
Transients in the rate of injection (ROI) with respect to time are ever-present in direct-injection engines, even with common-rail fueling. The shape of the injection ramp-up and ramp-down affects spray penetration and mixing, particularly with multiple-injection schedules currently in practice. Ultimately, the accuracy of CFD model predictions used to optimize the combustion process depends upon the accuracy of the ROI utilized as fuel input boundary conditions. But experimental difficulties in the measurement of ROI, as well as real-world affects that change the ROI from the bench to the engine, add uncertainty that may be mistaken for weaknesses in spray modeling instead of errors in boundary conditions. In this work we use detailed, time-resolved measurements of penetration at the Spray A conditions of the Engine Combustion Network to rigorously guide the necessary ROI shape required to match penetration in jet models that allow variable rate of injection.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0061
Dipankar Sahoo, Paul C. Miles, Johannes Trost, Alfred Leipertz
Fuel tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to investigate the vaporization and mixing behavior of pilot injections for variations in pilot mass of 1-4 mg, and for two injection pressures, two near-TDC ambient temperatures, and two swirl ratios. The fluorescent tracer employed, 1-methylnaphthalene, permits a mixture of the diesel primary reference fuels, n-hexadecane and heptamethylnonane, to be used as the base fuel. With a near-TDC injection timing of −15°CA, pilot injection fuel is found to penetrate to the bowl rim wall for even the smallest injection quantity, where it rapidly forms fuel-lean mixture. With increased pilot mass, there is greater penetration and fuel-rich mixtures persist well beyond the expected pilot ignition delay period. Significant jet-to-jet variations in fuel distribution due to differences in the individual jet trajectories (included angle) are also observed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0829
Bao-Lin Wang, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han, Benjamin Petersen
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0897
John E. Dec, Yi Yang, Nicolas Dronniou
This study investigates the potential of partial fuel stratification for reducing the knocking propensity of intake-boosted HCCI engines operating on conventional gasoline. Although intake boosting can substantially increase the high-load capability of HCCI, these engines would be more production-viable if the knock/stability load limit could be extended to allow higher loads at a given boost and/or to provide even higher thermal efficiencies. A technique termed partial fuel stratification (PFS) has recently been shown to greatly reduce the combustion-induced pressure-rise rate (PRR), and therefore the knocking propensity of naturally aspirated HCCI, when the engine is fueled with a φ-sensitive, two-stage-ignition fuel. The current work explores the potential of applying PFS to boosted HCCI operation using conventional gasoline, which does not typically show two-stage ignition. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) at 1200 rpm.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1285
Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to investigate the structure and evolution of the mean velocity field in the swirl (r-θ) plane of a motored, optically accessible diesel engine with a typical production combustion chamber geometry under motoring conditions (no fuel injection). Instantaneous velocities were measured were made at three swirl-plane heights (3 mm, 10 mm and 18 mm below the firedeck) and three swirl ratios (2.2, 3.5 and 4.5) over a range of crank angles in the compression and expansion strokes. The data allow for a direct analysis of the structures within the ensemble mean flow field, the in-cylinder swirl ratio, and the radial profile of the tangential velocity. At all three swirl ratios, the ensemble mean velocity field contains a single dominant swirl flow structure that is tilted with respect to the cylinder axis. The axis of this structure precesses about the cylinder axis in a manner that is largely insensitive to swirl ratio.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1291
Jordan Snyder, Nicolas Dronniou, John E. Dec, Ronald Hanson
Tracer-based PLIF temperature diagnostics have been used to study the distribution and evolution of naturally occurring thermal stratification (TS) in an HCCI engine under fired and motored operation. PLIF measurements, performed with two excitation wavelengths (277, 308 nm) and 3-pentanone as a tracer, allowed investigation of TS development under relevant fired conditions. Two-line PLIF measurements of temperature and composition were first performed to track the mixing of the fresh charge and hot residuals during intake and early compression strokes. Results showed that mixing occurs rapidly with no measureable mixture stratification remaining by early compression (220°CA aTDC), confirming that the residual mixing is not a leading cause of thermal stratification for low-residual (4-6%) engines with conventional valve timing.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1359
Yi Yang, John E. Dec, Nicolas Dronniou, Magnus Sjöberg, William Cannella
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock. This study focuses on three factors, engine speed, intake temperature, and fuel composition, that can affect the pre-ignition processes of two-stage fuels and consequently affect their performance with partial fuel stratification. A model fuel consisting of 73 vol.% isooctane and 27 vol.% of n-heptane (PRF73), which was previously compared against neat isooctane to demonstrate the superior performance of two-stage fuels over single-stage fuels with partial fuel stratification, was first used to study the effects of engine speed and intake temperature.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1383
Clément Chartier, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Mark Musculus, Mohan Bobba
Post-injection strategies aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) were investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine operating at a low-load, low-temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high dilution (12.7% intake oxygen) where UHC emissions are problematic. Exhaust gas measurements showed that a carefully selected post injection reduced engine-out load-specific UHC emissions by 20% compared to operation with a single injection in the same load range. High-speed in-cylinder chemiluminescence imaging revealed that without a post injection, most of the chemiluminescence emission occurs close to the bowl wall, with no significant chemiluminescence signal within 27 mm of the injector. Previous studies have shown that over-leaning in this near-injector region after the end of injection causes the local equivalence ratio to fall below the ignitability limit.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1421
Yashodeep Lonari, Christopher Polonowski, Jeffrey Naber, Bo Chen
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
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